Aviatico is a comune in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres northeast of Milan and about 12 kilometres northeast of Bergamo. As of 31 December 2007, it had a population of 515 and an area of 8.4 square kilometres. The municipality of Aviatico contains the frazioni Ama and Ganda. Aviatico borders the following municipalities: Albino, Costa di Serina, Selvino
Arzago d'Adda is a comune in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 30 kilometres east of Milan and about 25 kilometres southwest of Bergamo. Arzago d'Adda borders the following municipalities: Agnadello, Casirate d'Adda, Rivolta d'Adda, Vailate. Sights include remains of a Roman villa from the imperial age, the castle of the marquises de Capitani d'Arzago, the manor Ravajola of the noble family de Sessa and the medieval pieve
Pedro Ximénez is the name of a white Spanish wine grape variety grown in several Spanish wine regions but most notably in the Denominación de Origen of Montilla-Moriles. Here it is used to produce a varietal wine, an intensely sweet, dessert sherry, it is made by drying the grapes under the hot sun, concentrating the sweetness, which are used to create a thick, black liquid with a strong taste of raisins and molasses, fortified and aged in solera. Pedro Ximénez is grown in Australia to make fortified wines and sherry type wines known by the Australian term - Apera, it is used for blending and to make botrytised dessert wines and still lends itself in the Swan Valley to the making of dessert wine today. This grape variety has thrived in Western Australia's Swan Valley since its introduction there due to the hot climate growing conditions; the vine requires short pruning. James Busby brought some Pedro Ximénez to Australia in 1832; some were planted at Clarendon. Pedro Giménez is a grown criolla variety in South America whose relationship to Pedro Ximénez is uncertain, as it shows ampelographic differences.
There have been several apocryphal legends about the grape's origins. In 1661, the German ampelographer F. J. Sachs, speculated that Pedro Ximénez originated in either the Canary Islands or Madeira and was brought to the German wine regions of the Rheingau and the Mosel before either a Spanish soldier named Pedro Ximen or a Catholic Cardinal named Ximenès brought the grape to Málaga and Sierras de Málaga; this theory, spread in various incarnations by other German wine writers such as Baron August Wilhelm von Babo and Balthasar Sprenger led to speculation that Pedro Ximénez was somehow related as the German wine grapes Elbling and Riesling but DNA evidence in the late 20th and early 21st century has discounted those theories. Today ampelographers believe that Pedro Ximénez originated somewhere in the Andalusia region of southern Spain where the grape has been growing since at least the early 17th century. In 1618, the Spanish writer Vicente Espinel, described the famous wine of "Pedro Ximénez de Malaga".
In 2007, DNA analysis showed that Pedro Ximénez was the offspring of the Arabic table grape Gibi, once grown in southern France and throughout the Iberian peninsula introduced sometime during the Al-Andalus period of Moorish rule. Gibi was discovered to be one of the parent varieties of the Extremadura wine grape Alarije, making the variety a half-sibling to Pedro Ximénez; the origin of the name Pedro Ximénez is not yet clear with French ampelographer Joseph Roy-Chevrier speculating in 1905 that the grape was named after the village of Jiménez in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. As Ximénez and Jiménez are common surnames in Iberia, another theory is that the grape was named after a notable vintner who helped propagate the variety in the region. Pedro Ximénez is a mid to late ripening grape variety that tends to bud at the midpoint of the budding period of the vine growing season; the vine can be vigorous and productive, producing large clusters of berries of irregular sizes. Despite having thin skinned berries, Pedro Ximénez is susceptible to the viticultural hazard of botrytis bunch rot as well as downy mildew and eutypa dieback.
The vine has some resistance to the fungal disease powdery mildew but is very prone to damage caused by termite infection. DNA evidence has shown that Pedro Ximénez is an offspring variety of the Arabic table grape Gibi and a half sibling to Alarije. In 2007, it was confirmed that the table grape Corinto bianco was a seedless mutation of Pedro Ximénez. At one point it was thought that Pedro Ximénez was related to the German wine grapes Elbling and/or Riesling but in addition to DNA evidence disproving a relationship, viticultural evidence had shown for many decades that Pedro Ximénez requires a much warmer climate that most German wine grapes in order to ripen and was, not to be related to any German wine variety. Other grapes that are sometimes confused with Pedro Ximénez include the Portuguese wine grape Galego Dourado which shares several synonyms with Pedro Ximénez and was confused with the vine in South Africa and the Argentine wine grape Pedro Giménez which shares several synonyms. Pedro Ximénez is most grown in Spain where there were 9,583 hectares of the grape in cultivation as of 2008.
The vast majority of these plantings are found in the Spanish wine region of Montilla-Moriles where the grapes are used to make fortified Sherry-style wines labelled as PX. After harvest the Pedro Ximénez grapes are traditionally laid out on mats to further desiccate and dry in the sun; the high sugar and low acid wine made from these pressings may be fortified or not, depending on winemaker style, but will be sweet and have a strong aroma and flavor of raisins. The wine may be aged in a solera, similar to Sherry, with the age of the solera stated on the wine label. Additionally, some Pedro Ximénez grapes are used as sweetening agents for other wines made in the Montilla-Moriles region; the grape can be found in the Denominación de Origen of Jerez de la Frontera, Málaga and Sierras de Málaga and Valencia. However, as the Pedro Ximénez grape tends to be disease prone and doesn't thrive in the albariza soils of Jerez like Palomino, Sherry producers in Jerez de la Frontera will
Averara is a comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Italy. It is one of least populated comunes in the province of Bergamo, it is surrounded by the following comuni: Bema, Albaredo per San Marco, Olmo al Brembo, Santa Brigida and Gerola Alta. The coat of arms of Averara shows a golden eagle. Business site with information on Averara in English Averara in Italian
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Adrara San Martino
Adrara San Martino is a comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, northern Italy. The main attraction is the parish church of San Martino, in white stone, it houses paintings by Francesco Coghetti and Giacomo Trecourt. The bell tower, with ogival windows, is from the 15th century. Other sights include the sanctuary of Santa Maria Annunciata, the Romanesque religious complex of Sant'Alessandro, with fragments of 14th-century frescoes, ruins of the medieval castle; the coat of arms shows a brick tower on a blue diagonal cross, on a white background. Adrara San Rocco, next to Adrara San Martino Official website
Antegnate is a comune in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about 50 kilometres east of Milan and about 25 kilometres southeast of Bergamo. Antegnate borders the following municipalities: Barbata, Covo, Fontanella