The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire, rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône and the Little Rhône; the resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region. The name Rhone continues the name Latin: Rhodanus in Greco-Roman geography; the Gaulish name of the river was *Rodonos or *Rotonos. The Greco-Roman as well as the reconstructed Gaulish name is masculine; this form survives in the Spanish/Portuguese and Italian namesakes, el/o Ródano and il Rodano, respectively. German has adopted the French name but given it the feminine gender; the original German adoption of the Latin name was masculine, der Rotten. In French, the adjective derived from the river is rhodanien, as in le sillon rhodanien, the name of the long, straight Saône and Rhône river valleys, a deep cleft running due south to the Mediterranean and separating the Alps from the Massif Central.
Before railroads and highways were developed, the Rhône was an important inland trade and transportation route, connecting the cities of Arles, Valence and Lyon to the Mediterranean ports of Fos-sur-Mer, Marseille and Sète. Travelling down the Rhône by barge would take three weeks. By motorized vessel, the trip now takes only three days; the Rhône is classified as a Class V waterway for the 325 km long section from the mouth of the Saône at Lyon to the sea at Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. Upstream from Lyon, a 149 km section of the Rhône was made navigable for small ships up to Seyssel; as of 2017, the part between Lyon and Sault-Brénaz is closed for navigation. The Saône, canalized, connects the Rhône ports to the cities of Villefranche-sur-Saône, Mâcon and Chalon-sur-Saône. Smaller vessels can travel further northwest and northeast via the Centre-Loire-Briare and Loing Canals to the Seine, via the Canal de la Marne à la Saône to the Marne, via the Canal des Vosges to the Moselle and via the Canal du Rhône au Rhin to the Rhine.
The Rhône is infamous for its strong current when the river carries large quantities of water: current speeds up to 10 kilometres per hour are sometimes reached in the stretch below the last lock at Vallabrègues and in the narrow first diversion canal south of Lyon. The 12 locks are operated daily from 5:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. All operation is centrally controlled from one control centre at Châteauneuf. Commercial barges may navigate during the night hours by authorisation; the Rhône rises as an effluent of the Rhône Glacier in the Valais, in the Swiss Alps, at an altitude of 2,208 metres. From there it flows south through Gletsch and the Goms, the uppermost, valley region of the Valais before Brig. Shortly before reaching Brig, it receives the waters of the Massa from the Aletsch Glacier, it flows onward through the valley which bears its name and runs in a westerly direction about thirty kilometers to Leuk southwest about fifty kilometers to Martigny. Down as far as Brig, the Rhône is a torrent.
Between Brig and Martigny, it collects waters from the valleys of the Pennine Alps to the south, whose rivers originate from the large glaciers of the massifs of Monte Rosa and Grand Combin. At Martigny, where it receives the waters of the Drance on its left bank, the Rhône makes a strong turn towards the north. Heading toward Lake Geneva, the valley narrows, a feature that has long given the Rhône valley strategic importance for the control of the Alpine passes; the Rhône marks the boundary between the cantons of Valais and Vaud, separating the Valais Chablais and Chablais Vaudois. It enters Lake Geneva near Le Bouveret. On a portion of its extent Lake Geneva marks the border between Switzerland. On the left bank of Lake Geneva the river receives the river Morge; this river marks the border between Switzerland. The Morge enters Lake Geneva at a village on both sides of the border. Between Évian-les-Bains and Thonon-les-Bains the Dranse enters the lakewhere it left a quite large delta. On the right bank of the lake the Rhône receives the Veveyse, the Venoge, the Aubonne and the Morges besides others.
Lake Geneva ends in Geneva. The average discharge from Lake Geneva is 251 cubic metres per second. In Geneva, the Rhône receives the waters of the Arve from the Mont Blanc. After a course of 290 kilometres the Rhône leaves Switzerland and enters the southern Jura Mountains, it turns toward the south past the Bourget Lake which it is connected by the Savières channel. At Lyon, the biggest city along its course, the Rhône meets its biggest tributary, the Saône; the Saône carries 400 cubic metres per the Rhône itself 600 cubic metres per second. From the confluence, the Rhône follows the southbound
The Verdon Gorge, in south-eastern France, is a river canyon, considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful. It is up to 700 meters deep, it was formed by the Verdon River, named for its startling turquoise-green colour, one of the location's distinguishing characteristics. The most impressive part lies between the towns of Castellane and Moustiers-Sainte-Marie, where the river has cut a ravine to a depth of 700 meters through the limestone mass. At the end of the canyon, the Verdon River flows into the artificial lake of Sainte-Croix-du-Verdon; because of its proximity to the French Riviera, the gorge is popular with tourists, who can drive around its rim, rent kayaks to travel on the river, or hike. The limestone walls, which are several hundreds of metres high, attract many rock climbers, it is considered an outstanding destination for multi-pitch climbing. The variety of 1,500 routes encompass cracks and endless walls, range in distance from 20m to over 400m; the climbing is of a technical nature.
During the Triassic period, the French region of Provence subsided and was covered by the sea, leaving thick layers of various limestone deposits. Several million years with the arrival of the Jurassic period, the area was covered by a warm shallow sea, which allowed the growth of various Corals; the Cretaceous period saw what is now Basse Provence being raised and the sea reaching the current location of the Alps, which were themselves erected during the tertiary era. As a result of the large-scale geological activity, many of the Jurassic limestone deposits fractured, forming relief with valleys and other such features; the origins of the Verdon Gorge can be traced to this era. The dawn of the Quaternary period had large-scale glaciation, transforming water pockets and lakes into unstoppable rivers of ice, which remodeled the topography and striating the landscape. At the end of this activity, erosion by rivers continued; the Verdon’s riverbed was scoured for a second time of the accumulated coral and limestone sediments, by a water delivery rate nearing 2000 to 3000 cubic metres per second.
The gorge was described in printed form from 1782 and 1804. By the second half of the 19th century, it was featured in French tourist guides. According to Graham Robb's book The Discovery of France, the gorge did not become known outside France until 1906. On 10 July 2006, the French Conseil d'État annulled the declaration of public use of the EDF's project, relating to a proposed high-voltage line carrying 400,000 volts, which would have had to pass through the Verdon Gorge; this decision ended 23 years of struggle by public groups and associations of environmental defence to preserve a site of exceptional natural interest, of which a part contains protected animal and plant species. The source of the Verdon is close to the col d'Allos hill in the Trois Eveches mountain range, whence it continues, flowing into the Durance river near Vinon-sur-Verdon after traveling 175 kilometres. Between Castellane and the Pont du Galetas, the river passes through the lac de Sainte-Croix, created by the construction of a dam of the same name.
Before the dam was constructed, the village of Les Salles-sur-Verdon occupied the river plain. To create the dam and reservoir, the government forced the village to evacuate and destroying the church and other structures, before flooding the area in 1973. Les Salles-sur-Verdon was reconstructed as a more modern settlement higher up the valley. Today, it is the youngest village in France. For some distance the Verdon Gorge forms the border between the départements of Var to the south and Alpes-de-Haute-Provence to the north in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région; this region between Castellane and the Lac de Sainte-Croix is called the Gorges du Verdon, or Verdon Gorge. It is split into three distinct parts: “Prégorges”, from Castellane to Pont de Soleils, the deepest part of the Gorge, from Pont de Soleils to l'Imbut, the Canyon from l’Imbut to the Pont de Galetas; the Verdon Gorge is narrow and deep, with depths of 250 to 700 metres and widths of 6 to 100 metres at the level of the Verdon river.
It is 200 to 1500 metres wide from one side of the Gorge to the other at the summits. Between 1929 and 1975, five dams were erected on the course of the Verdon, between Castellane and Gréoux-les-Bains; these dams hold back water in the following reservoirs: Lac de Castillon, created by flooding the village of the same name Lac de Sainte-Croix, flooded the village of des Salles-sur-Verdon. Of note are the Roman bridge of pont de Garuby and the “Bishop’s” spring at Bauduen; the lake has changing colours nearly every day and is a tourist destination, as well as the largest reservoir in France. It is coloured green, like the Verdon. Reservoir at Chaudanne Reservoir at Quinson, sometimes improperly called the "lac de Montpezat", the name of the village over which it dominates; the Styx du Verdon, associated with the river Styx of Greek mythology, is an area of ub-canyon within the gorge. The Imbut known as Embut or Embucq, is an area where the Verdon disappears underground, beneath enormous rock structures, before re-emerging above ground.
The Verdon Gorge is renowned as one of the most beautiful canyons in Europe, attracts numerous tourists during the summer period. The river's striking turquoise colour is associated with glacial sources and the minerals of rock flour suspended in the water, it is accessible on its right bank from the north (via
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is a department in Southeastern France, located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Part of the province of Provence, it had a population of 161,916 in 2013, its main cities are Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Barcelonnette and Forcalquier. Inhabitants of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence are called the Bas-Alpins or Bas-Alpines referring to the department of Basses-Alpes, the former name of the department until 1970. Bounded in the east by Italy, the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is surrounded by the departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Vaucluse, Drôme, Hautes-Alpes, it can be divided into three zones depending on the terrain, climate and economy: the plateaux and valleys of Haute-Provence, which comprise one-third of the area but two thirds of the population and the most important cities of the department with all of the economic activity apart from mountain tourism. The valley of the Durance, the artery of the department, cuts the rest of the department into two halves: the Lower Alps: an intermediate mountain area with valleys and remote villages the High Alps: including the valleys of Ubaye and the high Verdon where the economy is built around mountain tourism.
In the Haute-Ubaye, the mountain peaks exceed 3000 m above sea level and all the passes are close to or above 2000 m in altitude. In this part of the department is one of the highest roads in Europe: the main road D64 reaches an altitude of 2802 m near the Col de la Bonette and connects the region of Barcelonnette to the Tinée and Vésubie valleys; the relief of the land compartmentalises the region: the enclosed valleys are difficult to access so dividing the country into as many local areas which communicate little with the outside. In 1877, 55 communes only had access to trails or mule paths; the seismic hazard is moderate to medium with different faults such as the Durance located in the department. The main cities are Manosque, Digne-les-Bains, Sisteron, Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban, Forcalquier, Les Mées, Villeneuve, Sainte-Tulle, Gréoux-les-Bains and Castellane; the main river is the Durance. It is in the Durance valley that the most important traffic routes are found: the A51 autoroute and the railway main line.
All of the department is in the watershed of the Durance except for the extreme south-east which are drained by the Var. The main tributaries of the Durance in the department are the Ubaye, the Bléone, the Asse, the Verdon on the left bank, the Buëch, the Jabron, the Largue on the right bank; the Durance and its tributaries have a torrential character, with a transition between the snow regime of the high valleys and the mediterranean rainfall regime in the lower mountains and below. The summer low water levels are severe and violent floods occur when heavy rains fall, in autumn; the Durance, Verdon, Bléone and Buëch have had the construction of several dams and the diversion of parts of the river for irrigation and power generation in the 20th century. The climate of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department is a Mediterranean climate degrading by altitude and latitude. In fact, while in the lower valleys and flat lands of Haute-Provence an inland Mediterranean climate prevails, by contrast in the hills it is more mixed with the valley of the Ubaye characteristic of the inner Alps, with a marked continentality: winters are harsh with stormy summers.
In between, the two influences mingle in the area of the Lower Alps. The characteristics of both climate trends are found throughout the department to a greater or lesser extent: dry air and little fog infrequent rainfall but heavy frequent thunderstorms in the mountains in summer High sunshine hours in all seasons high thermal amplitudes and annual fresh and bright winters hot summers tempered by altitude. Haute-Provence is therefore interesting for European astronomers looking for a cloudy night sky and untouched by light pollution. Many amateur observatories have been built and the Observatoire de Haute-Provence is one of the largest observatories in continental Europe, it is an active astronomy research centre. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is subdivided into 15 cantons and 198 communes; the population was once evenly distributed in the territory, including in the mountainous areas where mountain agriculture was well developed. From the middle of the 19th century, however, it began to decline due to a strong rural exodus.
There were more than 150,000 inhabitants in 1850 but it fell to less than 100,000 after the First World War. It was not until 1960 that the trend changed upwards quite from less than 90,000 in 1954 to nearly 140,000 in 1999 and 153,000 in 2005. However, if this figure is close to the number of inhabitants the department had 150 years earlier, the distribution and activity of the population are different; the population is now concentrated in the valley of the Durance and the South West of the department, agriculture employs less than before. Services tourism and local services, is now the main industry; the department has never developed: in 1870 there were 27 small mines. According to the general census of the population, 32.8% of available housing in the department are second homes. The department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence is one of the least densely popu
Allos is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of southeastern France. Allos is a high mountain commune in the southern Alps; the commune experienced a significant rural exodus in the 19th century, following the population movement of the department. The town was overwhelmed for eighty years by winter sports: the construction of accommodations and ski-lifts has changed the landscape and the mountain urbanisation; the economy was profoundly altered with all jobs being found in tourism. Traditional agricultural activities persisted only marginally. Allos, located in the valley of the Verdon, has long been linked to the Ubaye Valley: first at the time when Ubaye belonged to the States of Savoy after it became part of France it continued to be administered across the Col d'Allos. After the Revolution, it was attached to the Barcelonnette district, it was not until 1985 that it was turned towards the valley by accepting the connection to the Canton of Colmars.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Allossards or Allossardes Allos is located some 12 km south of Barcelonnette and some 100 km north-west of Nice at an altitude of 1425 m. The Allos valley is traversed by the Verdon which has its source in the Foux d'Allos in the Sestriere valley at 2500 m altitude. Access to the commune is by the D908 road: a tortuous road running off the D902 south of Barcelonette which passes through the heart of the commune and the village before continuing south to Colmars. Located at the edge of the Mercantour National Park, the country of Upper Verdon and the Allos valley offers landscapes of great beauty: from the famous Lac d'Allos, the largest mountain lake in Europe to the waterfall of La Lance, near Colmars-les-Alpes; the flora is rich and varied depending on the altitude: larch, fir as well as Alpine clematis and Martagon. The mountains around Allos are composed of black schist. All around Allos from the Col d'Allos and in a clockwise direction: on a north-south ridge of the Cheiroueche mountain which overlooks the village, the Roche Grande denuded of vegetation.
The peaks to the west of Allos belong to the Massif des Trois-Évêchés while to the east are the secondary mountains of Mount Pelat. The town has 1,869 hectares of woods and forests. None of the 200 communes of the department is in a no-risk seismic area; the Canton of Allos-Colmars is in zone 1b according to the deterministic classification of 1991 and based on historical earthquakes. It is in Zone 4 according to the ECS probability classification of 2011. Allos commune is exposed to four other natural hazards: avalanche forest fire, flooding landslide: the commune is affected by a random medium to high risk in limited areas. Allos commune is exposed to a risk of technological origin - i.e. the risk of dam breakage on the hill reservoir of Tardée above the Foux-d'Allos ski-station. The prevention plan for foreseeable natural risks for the commune was approved in 1998 for flood risk and avalanche; the commune has been the location of several natural disasters: an earthquake in 1984, flooding and mudslides in 1994 and 2003.
In November 2012 a landslide cut off the only access road to the hamlets of Bouchiers and Le Collet - a cut that lasted more than seven months. The locality appears for the first time in texts from 1056 under the name of ad Alodes which means Allods in Occitan. A Pre-Gallic hypothesis has been considered more in line with local phonetic rules such as Fénié; the name Allos derived from Al- designating "rocks". The form Alodes would be in this case a bad romanization; the commune is called Alòs in Occitan Vivaro-Alpine dialect. The name of the station La Foux-d'Allos means "narrow gorges" between the surrounding peaks; the name of the people located in the upper valley of the Verdon is not certain but it may be the Eguiturii. At the end of the Roman Empire the upper valley of the Verdon depended on the civitas and the bishopric of Thorame, it is possible that the first village was built around Notre-Dame-du-Valvert in the High Middle Ages. It would have been perched at Banivol before moving lower in the 12th to 13th centuries.
The village was cited in 1056 and had its own consulat from 1233, by privilege from the Comte de Proven
Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It is located in the southern French Alps, at the crossroads between Provence and the Dauphiné, is the largest town in the Ubaye Valley; the town's inhabitants are known as Barcelonnettes. Barcelonnette was named in 1231, by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence. While the town's name is seen as a diminutive form of Barcelona in Catalonia, Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing point out an earlier attestation of the name Barcilona in Barcelonnette in around 1200, suggest that it is derived instead from two earlier stems signifying a mountain, *bar and *cin. In the Vivaro-Alpine dialect of Occitan, the town is known as Barcilona de Provença or more Barciloneta according to the classical norm. In Valéian, it is called Barcilounéta. Barcino Nova is the town's Latin name meaning "new Barcelona"; the inhabitants of the town are called Vilandroises in Valéian.
The Barcelonnette region was populated by Ligures from the 1st millennium BC onwards, the arrival of the Celts several centuries led to the formation of a mixed Celto-Ligurian people, the Vesubians. Polybius described the Vesubians as belligerent but nonetheless civilised and mercantile, Julius Caesar praised their bravery; the work History of the Gauls places the Vesubians in the Ubaye Valley. Following the Roman conquest of Provence, Barcelonnette was included in a small province with modern Embrun as its capital and governed by Albanus Bassalus; this was integrated soon afterwards into Gallia Narbonensis. In 36 AD, Emperor Nero transferred Barcelonnette to the province of the Cottian Alps; the town was known as Rigomagensium under the Roman Empire and was the capital of a civitas, though no Roman money has yet been found in the canton of Barcelonnette. The town of Barcelonnette was founded in 1231 by Count of Provence. According to Charles Rostaing, this act of formal "foundation", according certain privileges to the town, was a means of regenerating the destroyed town of Barcilona.
The town was afforded a consulat in 1240. Control of the area in the Middle Ages swung of Provence. In 1388, after Count Louis II of Provence had left to conquer Naples, the Count of Savoy Amadeus VIII took control of Barcelonnette. On the death of Louis II in 1417 it reverted to Savoy, although Count René again retook the area for Provence in 1471, it had returned to Savoyard dominance by the start of the 16th century, by which point the County of Provence had become united with the Kingdom of France due to the death of Count Charles V in 1481. During Charles V's invasion of Provence in 1536, Francis I of France sent the Count of Fürstenberg's 6000 Landsknechte to ravage the area in a scorched earth policy. Barcelonnette and the Ubaye Valley remained under French sovereignty until the second Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis on 3 April 1559. In 1588 the troops of François, Duke of Lesdiguières entered the town and set fire to the church and convent during their campaign against the Duke of Savoy. In 1600, after the Treaty of Vervins, conflict returned between Henry IV of France and Savoy, Lesdiguières retook Barcelonnette until the conclusion of the Treaty of Lyon on 17 January the following year.
In 1628, during the War of the Mantuan Succession and the other towns of the Ubaye Valley were pillaged and burned by Jacques du Blé d'Uxelles and his troops, as they passed through towards Italy to the Duke of Mantua's aid. The town was retaken by the Duke of Savoy in 1630. Between 1614 and 1713, Barcelonnette was the seat of one of the four prefectures under the jurisdiction of the Senate of Nice. At this time, the community of Barcelonnette purchased the seigneurie of the town as it was put to auction by the Duke of Savoy. In 1646, a college was founded in Barcelonnette. A "significant" part of the town's inhabitants had, by the 16th century, converted to Protestantism, were repressed during the French Wars of Religion; the viguerie of Barcelonnette was reattached to France in 1713 as part of a territorial exchange with the Duchy of Savoy during the Treaties of Utrecht. The town remained the site of a viguerie until the French Revolution. A decree of the council of state on 25 December 1714 reunited Barcelonnete with the general government of Provence.
Barcelonnette was one of few settlements in Haute-Provence to acquire a Masonic Lodge before the Revolution, in fact having two: the lodge of Saint-Jean-d'Écosse des amis réunis, affiliated with the Saint-Jean-d'Écosse lodge in Marseille. In March 1789, riots took place as a result of a crisis in wheat production. In July, the Great Fear of aristocratic reprisal against the ongoing French Revolution struck France, arriving in the Barcelonnette area on 31 July 1789 (when the news of the storming of the Bas