Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County and sixth-largest city in Kansas. It is located in the northeastern sector of the state, astride Interstate 70, between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 87,643. Lawrence is a college town and the home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company, was named for Amos Adams Lawrence, a Republican abolitionist from Massachusetts, who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence was central to the "Bleeding Kansas" period and was the site of the Wakarusa War and the Sack of Lawrence. During the American Civil War, it was the site of the Lawrence massacre. Lawrence began as a center of free-state politics. From here, its economy diversified into many industries, including agriculture and education, beginning with the founding of the University of Kansas in 1865, Haskell Indian Nations University in 1884, as well as several private and public schools.
Prior to Kansas Territory being established in May 1854, most of Douglas County was part of the Shawnee Indian Reservation. During this period, the Oregon Trail ran parallel to the Kansas River through the area where Lawrence would be situated and a hill known as "Hogback Ridge"; this area was used as an outlook by those on the trail. While this territory was technically unopened to settlement prior to 1854, there did exist a few "squatter settlements" in the area just north of the Kansas River. Lawrence was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with the issue of slavery, debated in the United States during the early-to-mid 1800s. Northern Democrats, led by Senators Lewis Cass of Michigan and Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois promoted the idea of "popular sovereignty" as a middle position on the slavery issue. Proponents of this doctrine argued that it was more democratic, as it allowed the citizens of newly-organized territories to have final say in regards to the permissibly of slavery in their own lands.
Douglas made popular sovereignty the backbone of his Kansas–Nebraska Act—legislation that repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska—which passed in Congress in 1854. Around this time, the Christian abolitionist and Protestant minister Richard Cordley noted that "there was a feeling of despondency all over the north" because the bill's passage "opened Kansas to slavery was thought to be equivalent to making Kansas a slave state." This was because nearby Missouri allowed slavery, many rightly assumed that the first settlers in Kansas Territory would come flooding in from this state, bringing their penchant for slavery with them. In time, anger at the Kansas-Nebraska Act united antislavery forces into a movement committed to stopping the expansion of slavery. Many of these individuals decided to "meet the question on the terms of the bill itself" by migrating to Kansas, electing antislavery legislators, banning the practice of slavery altogether.
These settlers soon became known as "Free-Staters". In his book A History of Lawrence, Cordley wrote: The most systematic and extensive movement, was made "The New England Emigrant Aid Company"... The men engaged in it, Eli Thayer, Amos A. Lawrence, others, began their work at once, arousing public interest and making arrangements to facilitate emigration to Kansas; as early as June, 1854, they sent Dr. Charles Robinson, of Fitchburg, Mr. Charles H. Branscomb, of Holyoke, to explore the territory and select a site for a colony... Robinson his party climbed the hill along this spur, looked off over what was afterwards the site of Lawrence, they marked the magnificence of the view. Whether they thought of what might afterwards occur is not known; when he was asked, therefore, to go and explore the country with a view to locating colonies, it was not altogether an unknown land to him. Branscomb was tasked with exploring the Kansas River up to about the location of Fort Riley, whereas Robinson scouted land near Fort Leavenworth and the nearby city of the same name.
The two chose this site because it was the "first desirable location where emigrant Indians had ceded their land rights." The area was attractive because it was close to not only on the Oregon Trail, but the Santa Fe and the 1846 Military Trails. Concurrent with Robinson and Branscomb's exploration, the New England Emigrant Aid Company was soliciting some of its members into settling in Kansas. At first, the New England Emigrant Aid Company had wanted to send a somewhat sizeable group of settlers to claim the land. A cholera outbreak in the Missouri Valley preve
Covenant Christian Academy (West Peabody, Massachusetts)
Covenant Christian Academy is a private Christian school and classical day school located in West Peabody, MA, on the North Shore of Boston in Essex County. Founded in 1991, Covenant Christian Academy is a college preparatory school, with over 290 students in pre-school through grade twelve. CCA draws students from over 45 different cities and towns in Eastern Massachusetts and Southern New Hampshire. CCA's mission is guided by its Classical philosophy of education, it is known regionally for its rigorous academics, its close knit community, its commitment to the historic Christian faith. The schools motto is “Dedicated to Excellence. Anchored in Truth.” Covenant Christian School was founded in 1991 in Hamilton, MA. It began with students in pre-kindergarten through grade six. In 1993, the school moved to the Second Congregational Church in North Beverly with a student body of 35. In 1996, grades 7 and 8 were added to the program. In 2001, a strategic plan was completed that included relocating to a new facility, expanding the lower grades to two sections each, adding grades 9-12.
In 2005, the Board of Directors voted unanimously to move the school to West Peabody, MA. CCA purchased and renovated the West Peabody Office Park the John F. Kennedy Junior High School. Covenant Christian Academy began meeting in the new facility on September 15, 2005. At this time, the name was changed from Covenant Christian School to Covenant Christian Academy. In September 2006, a high school program was added, 20 freshmen began classes. On November 18, 2009, CCA was approved by the NEAS&C commission for accreditation. On December 12, 2009, CCA received approval for accreditation by the Association of Christian Schools International. On June 12, 2010, Covenant Christian Academy celebrated Commencement Exercises for the Class of 2010, the inaugural 12th grade class. By September 2016, enrollment climbed over 270 students, including 10 international students, Covenant Christian Academy entered its 25th year. Covenant Christian Academy holds institutional accreditation by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges.
The school is recognized by the State of Massachusetts. There are four schools within the academy: the Pre-School / Pre-Kindergarten, the Grammar School, the Logic School, the Rhetoric School. Athletic teams compete as a part of the New England Preparatory School Athletic Council, the Massachusetts Bay Independent League, the Independent Girls Conference; the athletic mascot of Covenant Christian Academy is the Cougar. Boys Soccer 2011, 2012, 2013 Boys Basketball 2015, 2016 Girls Basketball 2016 Girls Softball 2015 Covenant is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges and is a member of both the Association of Christian Schools International, the Association of Classical Christian Schools. Athletic teams compete as a part of the New England Preparatory School Athletic Council, the Massachusetts Bay Independent League, the Independent Girls Conference. Covenant Christian Academy is directed by a Board of Directors. Mrs. Andrea L. Bergstrom, M. Ed, is the Head of School
Regents School of Austin
Regents School of Austin is a private, non-denominational Christian school located in Austin, Texas. The Regents curriculum is loosely based on a classical education model called the Trivium; the Trivium is composed of three stages: Grammar and Rhetoric. Each corresponds to a stage in child development. Grammar school comprises kindergarten through 6th grade. School of Logic is grades 7 and 8. School of Rhetoric is grades 9 to 12. In the Grammar stage Regents students are taught the building blocks for future subjects, including phonics, Latin and math facts. In the Logic stage, when a child would become more argumentative, Regents students learn Formal Logic, Informal Logic, Algebra. In the final stage, students learn Classical Rhetoric; the goal is for Regents teachers to model discipleship principles and instill them into the hearts and minds of the students. Regents School of Austin is located in Austin Texas, is a prominent private school. Regents was founded in 1992, it met at Park Hills Baptist Church before moving to Tarrytown Baptist Church.
Regents spent many years meeting in portable buildings in the parking lot at Tarrytown Baptist before moving to a permanent campus in 1998. Regents had its first graduating class in the year 2000. Regents offers the following athletic programs at the high-school level: The school is part of TAPPS Division III; the 6-man football team has won five state championships within a ten-year period, the first TAPPS team to do so: in 2001, 2002, 2003 in divisions 1A and 2A, in 2006 in 4A, again in 2010. The Knights again made the state championship game in 2011, losing to Bullard Brook Hill 26-3. In 2012 Regents moved up to TAPPS Division II and in 2016 again made the state championship game, losing to Grapevine Faith Christian 29-30 in double-overtime. Terrence Rencher, basketball coach: former head coach Joey Wright, basketball player and coach: former basketball coach Official website
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
A Christian school is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization. The nature of Christian schools varies enormously from country to country, according to the religious and political cultures. In some countries, there is a strict separation of church and state, so all religious schools are private. In the United States, religion is not taught by state-funded educational systems, though schools must allow students wanting to study religion to do so as an extracurricular activity, as they would with any other such activity. Over 4 million students, about 1 child in 12, attend most of them Christian. There is great variety in the educational and religious philosophies of these schools, as might be expected from the large number of religious denominations in the United States; the largest system of Christian education in the United States is operated by the Catholic Church. As of 2011, there were 6,841 secondary schools enrolling about 2.2 million students. Most are administered by individual parishes.
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod operates the largest Protestant school system in the United States. As of 2018, the LCMS operated 1,127 early childhood centers and preschools, 778 elementary schools, 87 high schools; these schools are taught by 21,000 teachers. Lutheran schools operated by the LCMS exist in Hong Kong and mainland China; the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod operates 403 early childhood centers, 313 elementary schools, 25 high schools as of 2018. The Episcopal Church in the United States of America maintains 1,200 schools, of which about 50 are secondary schools and which educate about 2% of all students in private schools or 0.22% of the school population in the United States. Although there are few Episcopal schools, such as the Groton School in Massachusetts and St Paul's in New Hampshire, have played a significant role in the development of the American prep school. Episcopal schools are far more to be independent, with little outside control, than their Roman Catholic counterparts.
Many Episcopal high schools have an annual tuition well in excess of $15,000 higher the average for non-sectarian private schools and far higher than the average for non-Roman Catholic religious schools and over twice the average for Roman Catholic high schools. The United Methodist Church and Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection operate parochial schools and colleges throughout the United States. Many conservative Protestants reserve the term "Christian school" for schools affiliated with conservative Protestant denominations, excluding Catholic schools in particular; these conservative Protestant Christian schools are run in conjunction with a church or a denomination. Parents who want their children taught according to the principles of their church, can choose to send their children to such schools, but unless the school is subsidized by their church, or is part of a school choice or education voucher program funded by the government, they must pay tuition; some American Christian schools are large and well-funded, while others are small and rely on volunteers from the community.
Some Christian schools those sponsored by fundamentalist groups, do not accept government funding and subsidies because they would put their school operations under more government scrutiny and legislation, which can lead to the government dictating their school's operation. An example of this would be a requirement to adhere to a state Civil Rights law, in exchange for the subsidy, this would conflict with a Christian school that has mandatory religious requirements for admission, or does not allow its students to opt out of attending religious services. Though a school may accept no government money, it still must adhere to the state education curriculum, student academic performance standards, state-mandated standardized testing scores, it is subject to standard inspection by government regulators for in-classroom teaching quality and teacher qualifications including visiting classes. Not accepting government money avoids government management of a Christian school, but does not remove governmental oversight.
According to the Seventh-day Adventist Church the largest Protestant Christian school system in the world is the Seventh-day Adventist educational system. The Seventh-day Adventist Church has a total of 6,709 educational institutions operating in over 100 countries around the world with over 1.2 million students worldwide. The North American Division Office of Education oversees 1,049 schools with 65,000 students in the United States and Bermuda. Another large association of Protestant Christian schools is the Association of Christian Schools International. ACSI serves 5,300 member schools in 100 countries with an enrollment of nearly 1.2 million students. The American Association of Christian Schools, founded in 1972, brings together many conservative Protestant Christian schools. Members subscribe to a Statement of Faith based on biblical literalism and rejection of ecumenism. AACS member schools enroll over 100,000 students; the AACS has an active lobbying program in Washington. Another association of Pro
Westminster Academy (Tennessee)
Westminster Academy is a private, classical Christian school serving grades K-12 in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. It is a charter member of and accredited by the Association of Classical and Christian Schools, holds accreditation from the Association of Christian Schools International. Westminster Academy's sports teams are known as the "Defenders", they wear gold-colored uniforms. Westminster has no cheerleaders. Westminster sports are basketball, cross country, boys' soccer, water polo, swimming and field, tennis and girls' volleyball; the teams compete in the Memphis Association of Christian Schools league. Westminster Academy Association of Classical & Christian Schools CiRCE Institute
Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state