The pylon station is a type of deep underground subway station. The basic distinguishing characteristic of the pylon station is the manner of division of the central hall from the station tunnels The pylon station consists of three separate halls, separated from each other by a row of pylons with passages between them; the independence of the halls allows the architectural form of the central and side halls to be differentiated. This was characteristic for stations built in the 1960s, when as a result of the policy of "total economy," the side halls and tunnel walls were poorer than the central hall. Building stations of the pylon type is preferable in difficult geological situations, as such a station is better able to oppose earth pressure. However, the limited number of narrow passages limits the throughput between the halls; the pylon station was the earliest type of deep underground station. One variation is the so-called "London-style station." In such stations the central hall is reduced to the size of an anteroom, leading to the inclined walkway or elevators.
In some cases the anteroom is the base of the escalators. In the countries of the former USSR there is only one such station: Arsenalna in Kiev. In Moscow there were such stations, but they have since been rebuilt: Lubyanka and Chistiye Prudy are now ordinary pylon stations, Paveletskaya-Radialnaya is now a column station. In the Moscow Metro, typical pylon station are Kievskaya-Koltsevaya, Smolenskaya of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line, Oktyabrskaya-Koltsevaya, others. In the Saint Petersburg Metro, pylon stations include Ploshchad Lenina, Narvskaya, Moskovskie Vorota, others. Shallow column station Deep column station Single-vault station
Chistyye Prudy (Moscow Metro)
Chistyye Prudy is a Moscow Metro station in the Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is between Lubyanka and Krasnye Vorota stations. Chistye Prudy was opened on 15 May 1935 as a part of the first segment of the Metro; the station lies beneath Myasnitskaya Street, close to Turgenevskaya Square and the Clean Ponds, after which the station was named. Though planned to be a three-vaulted station with a full-length central hall, Chistye Prudy was built instead according to a London Underground type design with two passages at either end of the station connecting the platforms; the outer platform vaults were finished to give the impression that a central hall did in fact exist, with what appeared to be a row of dark marble pylons. However, all of the archways except those at either end of the platform were barricaded; the architect of the initial station was Nikolai Kolli who worked with Le Corbusier on the nearby Tsentrosoyuz building. During World War II the station was closed and its platforms were fenced off with plywood for use as the headquarters of the Joint Staff and PVO Air Defence.
All trains bypassed this station. Chistye Prudy's central hall was built in 1971 so that the station could become a transfer point to the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line; the architects for this project were N. Shukhareva, L. Popov, A. Fokina; the new portion of the station was finished to resemble the original sections as as possible, maintaining the its original character. Escalators were built in the centre of the platform to connect to Turgenevskaya. Chistye Prudy is finished with dark grey Ufalei and white Koelga marble, with a dark granite platform. In 1989 the station's outer walls were refinished with marble rather than ceramic tile to approximate the original design more closely; the station was named Kirovskaya from its opening until 1990, there is still a bronze bust of Sergey Kirov at the end of the platform. In 1992 it was called Myasnitskaya, but renamed a few days into its current name; the station retains its original entrance, a glazed art deco pavilion, situated at start of the Chistoprudny boulevard with entrances from both sides: to the ponds on the boulevard and towards the Myasnitskiye Vorota square.
The pavilion links up to the subterranean ticket hall. During the reconstruction in 1971, a subway was built directly linking the underground space with the new network of entrances for the Turgenevskaya station, which makes it possible to walk from one station vestibule to the other without descending into the platform halls; the original 3 N-type escalators were replaced in 1995 by ET-3M models, during which the pavilion and vestibule underwent renovation. The station's transfer to Turgenevskaya of the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line is done via a tunnel that begins underneath Chisye Prudy's platform. Access to, gained by two sets of two 9.4 metre high LT-5 escalators, opened 5 January 1972. Transfer to the Sretensky Bulvar station of the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line, opened on 13 January 2008, is accomplished by 3 E-25T escalators which begin at the northern end of the central hall and descend into the newer station; the name "Chistye Prudy" refers to the neighborhood surrounding the Metro station.
This area is sometimes called Chistye Pokrovka. In the 16th century, Pokrovskye Vorota stood at the current intersection of Pokrovka Street and Chistoprudny Boulevard; the Chistye Prudy neighborhood is famous for the beautiful Chistoprudny Boulevard and the pond after which the area is called—Chisty Prud. In medieval times, several ponds stood on the location of the current single pond, they were fittingly called Griyaznye Prudy. Under Peter the Great's reign, his friend and advisor Menshikov dredged the ponds, unified them into one pond and renamed them Chistye Prudy. There is the only tram line in Moscow Center near there
Okruzhnaya (Lyublinsko–Dmitrovskaya line)
Okruzhnaya is a station on the Lyublinsko–Dmitrovskaya line of the Moscow Metro between Petrovsko-Razumovskaya and Verkhniye Likhobory. The extension of the Lyublinsko–Dmitrovskaya line between Petrovsko-Razumovskaya and Seligerskaya, including Okruzhnaya opened on 22 March 2018; the station is in Timiryazevsky District of Moscow, at the intersection of Lokomotivny Lane and Tretiy Nizhnelikhoborsky Lane. Transfers to the Okruzhnaya station of the Moscow Central Circle and to the Okruzhnaya railway station of Savyolovsky suburban direction of Moscow Railway will be available
Dubrovka (Moscow Central Circle)
Dubrovka is a station on the Moscow Central Circle of the Moscow Metro. Passengers may make free out-of-station transfers to Dubrovka on the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line. Free transfers are permitted to Kozhukhovskaya on that line; the distance to Kozhukhovskaya is more than a kilometer, however. Media related to Dubrovka Moscow Central Circle platform at Wikimedia Commons Дубровка mkzd.ru
Borisovo (Moscow Metro)
Borisovo is a Moscow Metro station in the Brateyevo District, Southern Administrative Okrug in Moscow. It is between Maryino and Shipilovskaya stations. Borisovo was opened on December 2011 along with the stations Maryino and Zyablikovo. At the beginning, until 1989, the station had its project name set as Brateyevo. In 1996, the Government of Moscow enacted a new name Borisovo after a former village located in the West and South-West, not far from the constructed metro station; the resolution set the name Brateyevo to a projected station called Promzona, however during the construction, Promzona was renamed as Alma-Atinskaya. According to RIA Novosti, since January 1, 2011, the city authorities were supposed to rename the station Borisovo as Kazakhnskaya. In return, the Almaty Metro in Kazakhstan should have had a station Moskovskaya. Borisovo's name remained unchanged; the decision about building the station was made in the 1980s. In the feasibility study in 1988, the station was allocated under the stream bed of Gorodnya River, supposed to be included into sewer system.
The first works took place since 1993 until 1996. During this time, the Canadian tunnelling shield Polina extended the main tunnel line towards Maryino in 190m. In September 1998, the works stopped due to the lack of funds. In March 2004, the illegally preserved tunnelling shield was dismantled, raised to the surface, cleaned of the rust and used for building the Kazan Metro. In 2008, the works started from the top in accordance with a modified project; the location of the station was moved 40m to the north, towards Maryino, since the floodplain around the Gorodnya River, from Brateyevskaya Street to the Moskva River, is a protected natural monument. On October 17, 2008, the tunnel boring machine Svetlana started excavating the first and the main line of the tunnel from Maryino towards to the future Borisovo. Subsequently, on November 9 and 10, 2009, the tunnel boring machines Vera and Svetlana were finishing the tunnelling; the station is built with monolithic reinforced concrete. The walls were made in formworks.
The vault covering with the light niches was built in a special horizontally movable formwork with galvanised steel frames. The vault, 162 metres long, was divided into 18 parts during the concreting. On January 4, 2011, the government of Moscow announced its plans about completing the stations Borisovo and Zayablikovo until the 4th quarter of 2011; the station was opened the 2nd of December 2011 as a part of Marino-Zayablikovo section and became the 185th station of Moscow Metro. The platform is shallow single-vault built with monolithic reinforced concrete; the depth is 9 metres and the height is more than 6 metres. The platform is 162m long and 10m wide; the monolithic vault is constructed with underground shafts used for service communication between the vestibules, lamp maintenance. The lamps are fixed on the vault with a special rail, used for maintenance This system was used in Moscow metro for the first time. Vestibules There are two underground vestibules; the northern one goes to the street Borisovsky Ponds, the southern one to the passage Brateyevsky Proyezd.
The ticket halls are located in the underpass. Each lobby is equipped with a group of three escalators E25T with the lifting height 12,2m. Code of the station – 160 The axis of ordinate – PK0203+00 The station opens at 5.45 a.m. on odd-numbered days and 5.50 a.m. on even-numbered days. It closes at 1 a.m. The first arrivals of the train: Construction in numbers: During the construction was used 2,000 tons of steel and 48,000 cubic metres of reinforced concrete. There was dug out 129,000 cubic metres of soil The pit was 296m long and 22m wide 1,300 piles were used for the foundations Official website of Moscow Metro Metro.ru KartaMetro.ru Борисово
Beskudnikovsky District is an administrative district of Northern Administrative Okrug, one of the 125 raions of Moscow, Russia. The district is about 12 km north of Central Moscow, has an area of 3.27 square kilometers. Population: 64,000 Administrative divisions of Moscow
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki. Opened in 1935 with one 11-kilometre line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union; as of 2018, the Moscow Metro excluding the Moscow Central Circle and Moscow Monorail has 224 stations and its route length is 381 km, making it the fifth longest in the world. The system is underground, with the deepest section 84 metres underground at the Park Pobedy station, one of the world's deepest. It's the busiest metro system in Europe, a tourist attraction in itself; the Moscow Metro, a state-owned enterprise, is 381 km long and consists of twelve lines and 223 stations organized in a spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with the majority of rail lines running radially from the centre of Moscow to the outlying areas. The Koltsevaya Line forms a 20-kilometre long circle which enables passenger travel between these diameters, the new Moscow Central Circle forms a 54-kilometre longer circle that serves a similar purpose on middle periphery.
Most stations and lines are underground. The Moscow Metro uses the Russian gauge of 1,520 millimetres, like other Russian railways, an underrunning third rail with a supply of 825 V DC, except line 13 and 14; the average distance between stations is 1.7 kilometres. Long distances between stations have the positive effect of a high cruising speed of 41.7 kilometres per hour. The Moscow Metro opens at 05:25 and closes at 01:00; the precise opening time varies at different stations according to the arrival of the first train, but all stations close their entrances at 01:00 for maintenance, so do transfer corridors. The minimum interval between trains is 90 seconds during the evening rush hours; as of 2017 the system had an average daily ridership of 6.99 million passengers. Peak daily ridership of 9.71 million was recorded on 26 December 2014. Free Wi-Fi has been available on all lines of the Moscow Metro since 1 December 2014; the network was launched by MaximaTelecom. Of the metro's 224 stations, 88 are deep underground, 123 are shallow, 12 are surface and five are elevated.
The deep stations comprise 55 triple-vaulted pylon stations, 19 triple-vaulted column stations, one single-vault station. The shallow stations comprise 79 spanned column stations, 33 single-vaulted stations, three single-spanned stations. In addition, there are 12 ground-level stations, four elevated stations, one station on a bridge. Two stations have three tracks, one has double halls. Seven of the stations have side platforms. In addition, there were two temporary stations within rail yards. One station is reserved for future service; the stations being constructed under Stalin's regime, in the style of socialist classicism, were meant as underground palaces of the people. Stations such as Komsomolskaya, Kiyevskaya or Mayakovskaya and others built after 1935 in the second phase of the evolution of the network are tourist landmarks, their photogenic architecture, large chandeliers and detailed decoration unusual for an urban transport system; each line is identified by an alphanumeric index and a colour.
The colour assigned to each line for display on maps and signs is its colloquial identifier, except for the nondescript greens and blues assigned to the Kakhovskaya, the Zamoskvoretskaya, the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya, Butovskaya lines. The upcoming station is announced by a male voice on inbound trains to the city center and by a female voice on outbound trains; the metro has a connection to the Moscow Monorail, a 4.7-kilometre, six-station monorail line between Timiryazevskaya and VDNKh which opened in January 2008. Prior to the official opening, the monorail had operated in "excursion mode" since 2004. Sokolnicheskaya line was named Kirovsko-Fruzenskaya Zamoskvoretskaya line was named Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya. Filyovskaya line was named Arbatsko-Filyovskaya. Since the beginning, platforms have been at least 155 metres long to accommodate eight-car trains; the only exceptions are on the Filyovskaya Line: Vystavochnaya, Studencheskaya, Fili, Filyovsky Park and Pionerskaya, which only allows six-car trains.
Trains on the Zamoskvoretskaya, Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya, Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya, Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya and Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya lines have eight cars, on the Sokolnicheskaya line seven cars and on the Koltsevaya and Kakhovskaya lines six cars. The Filyovskaya and Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya lines had six- and seven-car trains as well, but now use four- and five-car trains of another type; the V-type trains were from Berlin U-Bahn C-class trains from 1945 to 1969, until its complete demi