Paul Van Haver, better known by his stage name Stromae, is a Belgian musician and singer-songwriter. He established himself in both electronic music genres. Stromae came to wide public attention in 2009 with his song "Alors on danse", which became a number one in several European countries. In 2013, his second album Racine carrée was a commercial success selling, 2 million copies in France alone and nearly 600,000 units elsewhere, he has sold over 8.5 million records worldwide. His music is sung in French. Paul Van Haver was born in Brussels and raised in the city's Laeken district, to a Rwandan father, Pierre Rutare, a Belgian mother, Miranda Van Haver. Paul Van Haver and his siblings were raised by their mother, as his father, a successful architect, was killed during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, while visiting his family. Paul Van Haver attended a Roman Catholic Jesuit school after he failed in the public school system at the age of sixteen, he formed a small rap group with his friends in school.
His early influences included Belgian singer-songwriter Jacques Brel, Cuban son, Congolese rumba.. In 2000, he appeared as a rapper called Opmaestro, though he changed his stage name to "Stromae", "Maestro" with the syllables reversed following the French slang practice, verlan. At the age of 18, he founded a rap group called "Suspicion", along with rapper "J. E. D. I." in Eichhof. They produced the song and music video "Faut que t'arrête le Rap..." before J. E. D. I. Decided to leave the rap duo. To finance his private school education, Van Haver worked part-time in the hospitality industry, but his academic performance wasn't up to standard, it was only when he registered at the Institut national de radioélectricité et cinématographie, that he released his first album "Juste un cerveau, un flow, un fond et un mic...". In 2007, during his studies at the film school of Brussels, Stromae decided to concentrate on his musical career; this resulted in his debut-EP "Juste un cerveau, un flow, un fond et un mic…".
In 2008 he signed a 4-year record deal with "Because Music" and'Kilomaître'. In 2008, Stromae worked. Vincent Verbelen, Music Manager, was impressed by the talent he perceived in Stromae's first single "Alors on danse" and decided to air it for the first time on NRJ; the response from listeners was one of extreme enthusiasm and Stromae came to wider public attention. In a few weeks from that point, sales of the song established it as number one in Belgium. Vertigo Records, a label of Mercury Records France, signed him for a worldwide licensing deal soon after this. By May 2010 the track "Alors on danse" had reached number one in Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Turkey, Italy, Denmark and the Czech Republic. On 2 September, Stromae collaborated with Kanye West and Gilbere Forte in a remix of his hit "Alors on danse". In 2010, he was nominated for Best Dutch and Belgian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards. Of his music and influences, he has said: "I was in a little group doing rap music. I thought that rather than copying the French sound, I'd focus on a more American style but give it a European spin.
And I rediscovered the 90s Eurodance. For a long time we were ashamed of that sound but in fact, there's a lot to discover, it has its roots in everything from house to salsa. I really admire Jacques Brel – he has been a huge influence on me – but all sorts of other stuff, Cuban son, the Congolese rumba, that I heard as a child. Stromae insists he wanted to collaborate with up and coming rap group Swag+5 featuring rapper T-Jay. In the end, the collaboration did not take place, but Stromae is a big fan of the America-based group; the critic Molloy Woodcraft: "He combines 90s electro synths and beats with a laidback delivery to the mesmeric effect". He is one of the ten winners of the European Border Breakers Award 2011. On 9 February 2011, his debut album Cheese won the award for Best Dance Album at the Victoires de la musique. On 23 May 2011, during the recording of the French TV show Taratata, Stromae did a mashup of "Alors on danse" and "Don't Stop the Party" with the Black Eyed Peas. Stromae announced he would perform as the opening support act for the first of two concerts by the band in Paris on 24 and 25 June 2011 at Stade De France.
Stromae had met will.i.am at the NRJ Music Awards in January. Will.i.am told him that he said he wanted to collaborate with Stromae. In 2011, he received one nomination for Best Belgian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards; the first single "Papaoutai" from his second album Racine carrée was digitally released on 13 May 2013. It went on to chart number 1 in Belgium and France, number 2 in the Netherlands, as well as number 7 in Germany and Switzerland. On 22 May 2013, amateur-looking videos appeared on YouTube showing Stromae drunk and wandering at the Louiza tram station in Brussels at dawn; the videos went viral. A few days it was revealed that this was linked with the filming of a professional music video; this was confirmed during an appearance by Stromae on the French TV show Ce soir ou jamais in which he discussed and performed his new single "Formidable", about the story of a drunk man just separated from his girlfriend. The clip was made from edited hidden camera footage taken on 22 May, it shows
French singer-songwriter Renaud's second unnamed studio album is known as Laisse béton, although it is sometimes referred to as Place de ma mob after the wall inscription on the album cover. It was released in 1977 by Polydor Records. All songs were written by Renaud Séchan except. "Laisse béton" – 2:30 "Le blues de la Porte d'Orléans" – 3:10 "La chanson du loubard" – 2:35 "Je suis une bande de jeunes" – 3:00 "Adieu Minette" – 3:48 "Les charognards" – 4:22 "Jojo le démago" – 2:26 "Buffalo débile" – 2:19 "La boum" – 3:00 "Germaine" – 3:15 "Mélusine" – 1:37 "La bande à Lucien" – 2:52Tracks 1 and 3 were included on the compilation The Meilleur Of Renaud. Track 1 was included on the CD Ma Compil. Tracks 1, 4 and 5 were covered for the tribute album La Bande à Renaud. Renaud – vocals Alain Ledouarin – guitar Patrice Caratini – double bass Alain Labacci – guitar, banjo Joss Baselli – accordion, bandoneón Christian Lété – percussion Jean-Jacques Milteau – harmonica
Le Petit Larousse Illustré known as Le Petit Larousse, is a French-language encyclopedic dictionary published by Éditions Larousse. It first appeared in 1905 and was edited by Claude Augé, following Augé's Dictionnaire complet illustré; the one-volume work has two main sections: a dictionary featuring common words and an encyclopedia of proper nouns. Le Petit Larousse 2007 includes 5,000 illustrations. A Spanish-version El Pequeño Larousse Ilustrado and an Italian version Il Piccolo Rizzoli Larousse have been published; the motto of Pierre Larousse, the namesake of Les Editions Larousse, perpetuated in Larousse's publications is "Je sème à tout vent". This motto inspires the cover art of Le Petit Larousse which features a female figure blowing dandelion seeds. Upon its 100th anniversary, a history of Le Petit Larousse was published called La dent-de-lion, la semeuse et le Petit Larousse written by Jean Pruvost; the following editions are available: Compact Coffret Noël Grand Format Grand Format Coffret Noël Collection Multimedia CD-ROM Edition Prestige Les Editions Larousse Le Petit Larousse, 5th edition, 1906, at Google Books Le Petit Larousse, 5h editions, 1906, at the Internet Archive
French hip hop
French hip hop is the hip hop music style, developed in French-speaking countries. By 1982 and 1983, a number of hip hop radio shows had appeared on Paris radio, including "Rapper Dapper" and "Funk à Billy". In November 1982 the New York City Rap Tour, traveled around France and to London featuring Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmixer DST, Fab 5 Freddy, Mr Freeze and the Rock Steady Crew; the first major star of French hip hop was MC Solaar, born Claude M'Barali in Senegal. He lived in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, his 1991 album, Qui sème le vent récolte le tempo, was a major hit. The European Music Office's report on Music in Europe said that the French language was well-suited for rapping, he set many records, including being the first French hip hop recording artist to go platinum. Some artists claim that the French language hip hop style was influenced by the music of French singer Renaud. Following MC Solaar's breakthrough, two broad styles emerged within the French hip hop scene. Many such artists found themselves at the heart of controversies over lyrics that were seen as glorifying the murder of police officers and other crimes, similar to outcries over violent thuggish lyrics in American gangsta rap.
The cases include the notorious Ministère AMER's "Sacrifice de poulet", NTM's "Police" and Lunatic's "Le crime paie". French hip-hop, like hip-hop in other countries, is influenced by American hip-hop. Columnist David Brooks wrote that "ghetto life, at least as portrayed in rap videos, now defines for the young and disaffected what it means to be oppressed. Gangsta resistance is the most compelling model for how to rebel against that oppression." He argued that the gangster image of American hip hop appeals to young & impoverished immigrant minorities in France, as a means to oppose the racism and oppression they experience. Jody Rosen counters Brooks' argument, criticizing that Brooks makes use of only a few, old samples of potential French gangsta rap that contain violent or misogynistic lyrics. Brooks fails to assess French hip hop's larger scope, discounts its potential for "rappers of amazing skill and wit."France is the world's second-largest hip-hop market and the fifth largest global music market, with 7 percent of the world's music sales, but with an unusually high quantity of local product, although the domestic share of the French music market dropped from 48 percent to 44 percent in 1998.
Francophone rap was given a boost in the early 21st century by a decision of the French ministry of culture, which insisted that French-language stations play a minimum of 40 percent French-language music during transmission. This makes up one quarter of the radio's top 100, ten percent of local music production and has sold hundreds of thousands of CDs. French hip hop, however, is criticized for imitating American hip hop style. French rapper MC Solaar agrees sarcastically, saying, "French rap is pretty much a U. S. branch office... we copy everything, don't we? We don't take a step back."Parts of American hip-hop culture have left a mark on the culture of French hip-hop as well in terms of fashion, music videos, jewelry and other things. Hip-hop culture was imported from America with the influence of New York rappers and the music that came out of New York. Through the 1990s, the music grew to become one of the most popular genres in France; the group went their separate ways in 2000. In the 2000s, similar to developments in the United States, a gap has begun to emerge in French hip hop between artists seen as having sold out, belonging to the mainstream, more innovative independent artists.
Booba, 113, Kaaris, La Rumeur, Dosseh, LIM, Dicidens, Kamelancien, L'Skadrille, Le 3ème Œil, Black Marché, Carré Rouge, Expression Direkt, are some hardcore rappers known for their rejection of mainstream French rap, while Casey, Rocé, Kery James, Médine, Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime, Keny Arkana, Haroun, La Fouine, Oxmo Puccino, Sefyu, TLF, Sniper, Ärsenik, Dj Azer, Puissance Nord, Mino La Swija, Carpe Diem, represent a mix of hardcore or purist rap and mainstream designs. Other rappers are Soprano, Black M, Maître Gims, Lartiste, L'Algérino; as hip hop moved into a new millennium, French hip hop artists developed seeing commercial success, some international appeal. One of the most influential French hip hop albums of all time, Cinquième As, was released by MC Solaar in 2001. At the same time, new artists like Sinik and Diam's began to see significant success, as well, bringing a new sound and genre of lyrical prowess to the game. Themes in French hip hop include opposition to the social order and puns, as well as ethnic and cultural identity.
Whereas early French hip hop was seen as mimicking American hip hop in terms of aesthetic appeal French rappers added their own cultural and ethnic identities to the mix. With the rise of IAM's pharaoism, or allusions to ancient Egyptian pharaohs, we see them attempting to negotiate and create a space for themselves in a social scene rife with discrimination and racist ideologies. French hip hop can be defined by two major categories or subgenres: hip-hop from the north centered around major cities like Paris and its suburbs, hip-hop from the south which focuses around cities like Marseille; the different
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro. It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties. South Slavic dialects formed a continuum; the turbulent history of the area due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian. Bosniaks and Serbs differ in religion and were often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. During that period, the language was referred to under a variety of names, such as "Slavic" in general or "Serbian", "Croatian", ”Bosnian”, "Slavonian" or "Dalmatian" in particular. In a classicizing manner, it was referred to as "Illyrian"; the process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established.
From the beginning, there were different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same Shtokavian subdialect, Eastern Herzegovinian. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic and political lines. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard. Serbo-Croatian thus goes by the names Serbian, Croatian and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac. Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants, its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns and adjectives.
Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect, with a moderately complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a pro-drop language with flexible word order, subject–verb–object being the default, it can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, the orthography is phonemic in all standards. Throughout the history of the South Slavs, the vernacular and written languages of the various regions and ethnicities developed and diverged independently. Prior to the 19th century, they were collectively called "Illyric", "Slavic", "Slavonian", "Bosnian", "Dalmatian", "Serbian" or "Croatian". Since the XIX century the term Illyric was used quite often. Although the word Illyrian was used on a few occasions before, the widespread usage of the term began after Ljudevit Gaj and several other prominent linguists met at Ljudevit Vukotinović's house to discuss the issue in 1832; the term Serbo-Croatian was first used by Jacob Grimm in 1824, popularized by the Viennese philologist Jernej Kopitar in the following decades, accepted by Croatian Zagreb grammarians in 1854 and 1859.
At that time and Croat lands were still part of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires. The language was called variously Serbo-Croat, Croato-Serbian and Croatian, Croatian and Serbian, Serbian or Croatian, Croatian or Serbian. Unofficially and Croats called the language "Serbian" or "Croatian" without implying a distinction between the two, again in independent Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Bosnian", "Croatian", "Serbian" were considered to be three names of a single official language. Croatian linguist Dalibor Brozović advocated the term Serbo-Croatian as late as 1988, claiming that in an analogy with Indo-European, Serbo-Croatian does not only name the two components of the same language, but charts the limits of the region in which it is spoken and includes everything between the limits. Today, use of the term "Serbo-Croatian" is controversial due to the prejudice that nation and language must match, it is still used for lack of a succinct alternative, though alternative names have emerged, such as Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, seen in political contexts such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
Old Church Slavonic was adopted as the language of the liturgy. This language was adapted to non-liturgical purposes and became known as the Croatian version of Old Slavonic; the two variants of the language and non-liturgical, continued to be a part of the Glagolitic service as late as the middle of the 19th century. The earliest known Croatian Church Slavonic Glagolitic manuscripts are the Glagolita Clozianus and the Vienna Folia from the 11th century; the beginning of written Serbo-Croatian can be traced from the 10th century and on when Serbo-Croatian medieval texts were written in five scripts: Latin, Early Cyrillic, Bosnian Cyrillic, Arebica, the last principally by Bosniak nobility. Serbo-Croatian competed with the more established literary languages of Latin
BBC Online known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service. It is a large network of websites including such high-profile sites as BBC News and Sport, the on-demand video and radio services co-branded BBC iPlayer, the children's sites CBBC and CBeebies, learning services such as Bitesize; the BBC has had an online presence supporting its TV and radio programmes and web-only initiatives since 1994 but did not launch until December 1997, following government approval to fund it by TV licence fee revenue as a service in its own right. Throughout its short history, the online plans of the BBC have been subject to harassment from its commercial rivals, which has resulted in various public consultations and government reviews to investigate their claims that its large presence and public funding distorts the UK market; the website has gone through several branding changes. Named BBC Online, it was rebranded as BBCi before being named bbc.co.uk. It was renamed BBC Online again in 2008, however the service uses the branding "BBC".
The web-based service of the BBC is one of the most visited websites and the world's largest news website. As of 2007, it contained over two million pages. On 26 February 2010 The Times claimed that Mark Thompson Director General of the BBC, proposed that the BBC's web output should be cut by 50%, with online staff numbers and budgets reduced by 25% in a bid to scale back BBC operations and allow commercial rivals more room. On 2 March 2010, the BBC reported that it will cut its website spending by 25% and close BBC 6 Music and Asian Network. On 24 January 2011, the confirmed cuts of 25% were announced leaving a £34 million shortfall; this resulted in the closure of several sites, including BBC Switch, BBC Blast, 6-0-6, the announcement of plans to sell on the Douglas Adams created site h2g2. The service's original home was www.bbcnc.org.uk launched by BBC Education on 11 May 1994 as a non-profit paid subscription service. For a joining fee of £25 and a monthly subscription of £12, members of the club were given access to an early type of social networking site featuring a bulletin board for sharing information and real-time conversation, along with a dialup Internet connection service.
Within 12 months, the BBC offered "auntie" on-line discussion groups. The BBC Director General John Birt sought government approval to direct licence fee revenue into the service, describing planned BBC Internet services as the "third medium" joining the BBC's existing TV and Radio networks, achieving a change in the BBC Charter; this led to the official launch of BBC Online at the www.bbc.co.uk address in December 1997. As well as the licence fee funded www.bbc.co.uk, BBC Worldwide launched the commercially funded beeb.com, featuring entertainment focused content, with sites including Radio Times, Top Gear and Top of the Pops. BBC Online launched licence fee funded web sites for Top of the Pops and Top Gear, resulting in some duplication. Beeb.com was refocussed as an online shopping guide, was closed in 2002. Beeb.com redirected to the BBC Shop website, run by BBC Worldwide. In 1999, the BBC bought the www.bbc.com domain name for $375,000 owned by Boston Business Computing, but the price of this purchase was not revealed until 6 years later.
As of 2005, www.bbcnc.org.uk no longer exists. In 2001, BBC Online was rebranded as BBCi; the BBCi name was conceived as an umbrella brand for all the BBC's digital interactive services across web, digital teletext, interactive TV and on mobile platforms. The use of letter "i" prefixes and suffixes to denote information technology or interactivity was much in vogue at this time; as part of the rebrand, BBC website pages all displayed a standard navigation bar across the top of the screen, offering category-based navigation: Categories, TV, Communicate, Where I Live, A-Z Index and a search function. The navbar was designed to offer a similar navigation system to the i-bar on BBCi interactive television. After three years of consistent use across different platforms, the BBC began to drop the BBCi brand gradually. Interactive TV services continued under the BBCi brand until it was dropped in 2008; the BBC's online video player, the iPlayer has, retained an i-prefix in its branding. On 14 December 2007, a beta version of a new bbc.co.uk homepage was launched, with the ability to customise the page by adding and rearranging different categories, such as'News','Weather' and'Entertainment'.
The widget-based design was inspired by sites such as Facebook and iGoogle, allowed the BBC to add new content to the homepage while still retaining users' customisations. The new homepage incorporated the clock design used in the 1970s on the BBC's television service into the large header and a box containing featured content of the website; the new BBC homepage left beta on Wednesday, 27 February 2008 to serve as the new BBC Homepage under the same URL as the previous version. On 30 January 2010, a new webpage design became available as a beta version, that by May 2010, replaced the old homepage; this homepage expanded on the customisation theme. The website all
My New Partner
My New Partner is a 1984 French comedy film directed by Claude Zidi, starring Philippe Noiret and Thierry Lhermitte. Noiret plays a streetwise Paris policeman who takes kickbacks from the minor criminals on his beat to allow them to continue. At the start of the film, his partner is busted for corruption and he narrowly escapes, he is assigned an idealistic new partner fresh from police academy. He sets out to corrupt his new partner and, after a slow start, succeeds spectacularly; the original French title is Les Ripoux, which can be translated as "the corrupt ones". The term is a type of slang where syllables of words are pronounced in reverse order; the film is known as Le Cop. It won the César Award for Best Film in 1985. Two sequels were made: Ripoux contre Ripoux and Ripoux 3. Philippe Noiret - René Boirond Thierry Lhermitte - François Lesbuche Grace de Capitani - Natasha Julien Guiomar - Kommissar Bloret Régine - Simone Claude Brosset - Vidal Albert Simono - Inspector Leblanc César Awards Won: Best Director Won: Best Editing Won: Best Film Nominated: Best Actor – Leading Role Nominated: Best Writing – Original My New Partner on IMDb