Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
A Fachhochschule, abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas. Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, were adopted in Austria, Switzerland and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule, the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften. Universities of Applied Sciences are designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. Fachhochschulen do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities.
However, they may run doctoral programs. Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom, but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities are equivalent. With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany. With the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst career for civil servants; the Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines. It differs from the traditional university through its more practical orientation.
Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, other professional fields. The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom. Coursework totaled eight semesters of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments; the program concluded after five years, with the final examination and a thesis, an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree; the Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them attractive to employers. Today, Fachhochschulen conduct research.
Research projects sponsored by industry. In Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to Universitäten. In 2016, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad. There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses; the Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies; the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen.
They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale in Italian. The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008; the public UAS are run by one or more cantons. UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes, continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science; the UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are federally accredited. The Federal Department of Eco
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 65 members of the National Council and 5 of the Council of States; the SVP originated in 1971 as a merger of the Party of Farmers and Independents and the Democratic Party, while the BGB in turn had been founded in the context of the emerging local farmers' parties in the late 1910s. The SVP didn't witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s; this changed however during the 1990s, when the party underwent deep structural and ideological changes under the influence of Christoph Blocher. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus on issues such as euroscepticism and opposition to mass immigration; as of 2015 the SVP has 54 seats in the Federal Assembly, its vote share of 28.9% in the 2007 Federal Council election was the highest vote recorded for a single party in Switzerland until 2015, when it surpassed its own record with 29.4%.
When Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, when numerous cantonal farmers' parties were founded in agrarian, German-speaking parts of Switzerland. While the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles; when proportional representation was introduced in 1919, the new farmers' parties won significant electoral support in Zürich and Bern, also gained representation in parliament and government. By 1929, the coalition of farmers' parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger, elected to the Federal Council. In 1936, a representative party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers and Independents. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a right-wing conservative party in the bourgeois bloc.
While the party opposed any kind of socialist ideas such as internationalism and anti-militarism, it sought to represent local Swiss traders and farmers against big business and international capital. The BGB contributed to the establishment of the Swiss national ideology known as the Geistige Landesverteidigung, responsible for the growing Swiss sociocultural and political cohesion from the 1930s. In the party's fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, or failed to distance themselves from the emerging fascist movements. After World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies; the party continued to be a reliable political partner with the Swiss Conservative People's Party and the Free Democratic Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss People's Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus and Graubünden.
The Democratic Party had been supported by workers, the SVP sought to expand its electoral base towards these, as the traditional BGB base in the rural population had started to lose its importance in the post-war era. As the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates; the new party however continued to see its level of support at around 11%, the same as the former BGB throughout the post-war era. Internal debates continued, the 1980s saw growing conflicts between the Bern and Zürich cantonal branches, where the former branch represented the centrist faction, the latter looked to put new issues on the political agenda; when the young entrepreneur Christoph Blocher was elected president of the Zürich SVP in 1977, he declared his intent to oversee significant change in the political line of the Zürich SVP, bringing an end to debates that aimed to open the party up to a wide array of opinions.
Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch. The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977, as well as political training courses; the ideology of the Zürich branch was reinforced, the rhetoric hardened, which resulted in the best election result for the Zürich branch in fifty years in the 1979 federal election, with an increase from 11.3% to 14.5%. This was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s; the struggle between the SVP's largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s. While the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda; the Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates.
They adopted more confrontational methods. The Zürich-wing followingly started to gain ground in the party at the expense of the Bern-wing, the party became increasing
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image. The verb to blazon means to create such a description; the visual depiction of a coat of arms or flag has traditionally had considerable latitude in design, but a verbal blazon specifies the distinctive elements. A coat of arms or flag is therefore defined not by a picture but rather by the wording of its blazon. Blazon refers to the specialized language in which a blazon is written, and, as a verb, to the act of writing such a description; this language has its own vocabulary and syntax, which becomes essential for comprehension when blazoning a complex coat of arms. Other armorial objects and devices – such as badges and seals – may be described in blazon; the noun and verb blazon are not to be confused with the noun emblazonment, or the verb to emblazon, both of which relate to the graphic representation of a coat of arms or heraldic device.
The word blazon is derived from French blason, "shield". It is found in English by the end of the 14th century. Heraldic authorities believed that the word was related to the German verb blasen, "to blow". Present-day lexicographers reject this theory as disproved. Blazon is designed to eliminate ambiguity of interpretation, to be as concise as possible, to avoid repetition and extraneous punctuation. English antiquarian Charles Boutell stated in 1864: Heraldic language is most concise, it is always minutely exact and explicit; the nomenclature is significant, its aim is to combine definitive exactness with a brevity, indeed laconic. However, John Brooke-Little and Ulster King of Arms, wrote in 1985: "Although there are certain conventions as to how arms shall be blazoned... many of the hard and fast rules laid down in heraldic manuals are ignored."A given coat of arms may be drawn in many different ways, all considered equivalent and faithful to the blazon, just as the letter "A" may be printed in many different fonts while still being the same letter.
For example, the shape of the escutcheon is always immaterial, with limited exceptions. The main conventions of blazon are as follows: Every blazon of a coat of arms begins by describing the field, with the first letter capitalised, followed by a comma ",". In a majority of cases this is a single tincture. If the field is complex, the variation is described, followed by the tinctures used. If the shield is divided, the division is described, followed by the tinctures of the subfields, beginning with the dexter side of the chief edge. In the case of a divided shield, it is common for the word "party" or "parted" to be omitted; some authorities prefer to capitalise the names of tinctures and charges, but this convention is far from universal. Where tinctures are not capitalised, an exception may be made for the metal Or, in order to avoid confusion with the English word "or". Where space is at a premium, tincture names may be abbreviated: e.g. ar. for argent, gu. for gules, az. for azure, sa. for sable, purp. for purpure.
Following the description of the field, the principal ordinary or ordinaries and charge are named, with their tincture. The principal ordinary or charge is followed by any other charges placed around it. If a charge is a bird or a beast, its attitude is defined, followed by the creature's tincture, followed by anything that may be differently coloured. An eagle displayed gules armed and wings charged with trefoils or. Counterchanged means that a charge which straddles a line of division is given the same tinctures as the divided field, but reversed. A quartered shield is blazoned one quarter at a time, proceeding by rows from chief to base, within each row from dexter to sinister. Following the description of the shield, any additional components of the achievement – such as crown/coronet, torse, crest, motto and compartment – are described in turn, using the same terminology and syntax. A convention followed was to name a tincture explicitly only once within a given blazon. If the same tincture was found in different places within the arms, this was addressed either by ordering all elements of like tincture together prior to the tincture name.
Postal codes in Switzerland and Liechtenstein
This page is a summary of the postal codes of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The countries use four-digit numeric post codes, sorted by geographical location; the Swiss postal codes are assigned geographically, from west to east. They don't follow political divisions, but they follow a routing allocation, following railways and post car routes; the postal code of big cities finish with 00, it is not allocated if in the region there isn't a big center. Switzerland is divided into nine postal districts, numbered from west to east; each district is subdivided into postal areas. Each area contains a maximum of one hundred units; the postal codes are made up as follows: 3436 Zollbrück 3 = district 34 = area 343 = route 3436 = post office number Today, the third digit has no real meaning anymore. In the past, mail was assigned to fixed railway or truck routes, but modern logistics do not need this practice anymore. Postal codes of Liechtenstein are included in the same structure, using the range from 9480 to 9499.
As special cases: the Italian territory of Campione has the postal code 6911 for mail passing through Swiss post. Also located in Italy, the Swiss Post office in Domodossola has the code CH-3907; the German town of Büsingen am Hochrhein has been attributed the postal code CH-8238 for mail arriving directly from or passing through Switzerland. 1xxx - Region Western Switzerland 10xx - Region Lausanne, Echallens 11xx - Region Morges, Rolle 12xx - Canton of Geneva and Region Nyon 13xx - Region between Lausanne and Yverdon, Jura side 14xx - Yverdon, Estavayer-le-Lac 15xx - Moudon, Avenches 16xx - Romont, Bulle 17xx - Region Fribourg to Lake Murten 18xx - Eastern shore of Lake Geneva, Chablais 19xx - Lower Valais without Region Sierre 2xxx - Region Western Switzerland 20xx - Region Neuchâtel 21xx - Val de Travers NE, Boudry 22xx - Upper Val-de-Ruz, 23xx - La Chaux-de-Fonds, Franches-Montagnes, Val-de-Ruz 24xx - Le Locle, La Sagne 25xx - Region Biel/Bienne, Lake Biel, Courtelary 26xx - Vallon de St. Imier 27xx - Bernese Jura 28xx - Delémont 29xx - Ajoie 3xxx - Region Bern/Upper Valais 30xx - City of Bern and agglomeration 31xx - Southern agglomeration of Bern 32xx - Seeland 33xx - Region between Bern and Solothurn 34xx - Region Burgdorf, Oberaargau 35xx - Emmental 36xx - Region Thun 37xx - Region Spiez, Simmental 38xx - Region Interlaken, Haslital 39xx - Upper Valais with region Sierre, Crans Montana 4xxx - Region Basel 40xx - City of Basel 41xx - Leimental, Riehen, Pratteln 42xx - Laufental, Schwarzbubenland 43xx - Western Fricktal 44xx - Basel-Country 45xx - Region Solothurn 46xx - Region Olten 47xx - Region Oensingen, Balsthal 48xx - Region Zofingen 49xx - Region Langenthal 5xxx - Region Aarau 50xx - City of Aarau and Region, eastern Fricktal 51xx - Region Wildegg, Schinznach 52xx - Region Brugg, Mettauertal 53xx - Region Turgi to Koblenz 54xx - Region Baden, Wettingen 55xx - Region Mellingen 56xx - Region Lenzburg, Bremgarten, Muri 57xx - Region Kulm, Beinwil, Kölliken, Safenwil 6xxx - Region Central Switzerland, Tessin 60xx - Region Lucerne, Obwalden 61xx - Entlebuch, Willisau 62xx - Region Sempach, Hochdorf 63xx - Canton of Zug, Nidwalden 64xx - Canton of Schwyz, Canton of Uri 65xx - Region Bellinzona, Val Calanca 66xx - Locarno, Valle Maggia, Val Verzasca 67xx - Leventina, Val Blenio 68xx - Mendrisotto 69xx - Region Lugano and Campione d'Italia 7xxx - Region Graubünden 70xx - Chur, Domat/Ems, Flims 71xx - Bündner Oberland 72xx - Prättigau, Davos 73xx - Bündner Herrschaft, Sargans 74xx - Hinterrhein, Albula 75xx - Engadin, Val Müstair 76xx - Bergell 77xx - Poschiavo 8xxx - Region Zürich 80xx - City of Zurich 81xx - Region Zürcher Unterland 82xx - Region Schaffhausen, Kreuzlingen, Büsingen am Hochrhein 83xx - Kloten, Zürcher Oberland, Hinterthurgau 84xx - Region Winterthur, Tösstal 85xx - Region Frauenfeld, Amriswil, Romanshorn 86xx - Region Dübendorf, Zürcher Oberland, See 87xx - Region Right shore of Lake Zurich, Gaster/See, Canton Glarus 88xx - Region Linkes Zürichseeufer, Glarner Unterland, Sarganserland/Lake Walen 89xx - Region Limmattal, Knonauer Amt, Kelleramt 9xxx - Region Eastern Switzerland 90xx - Region St. Gallen, Appenzell 91xx - Region Herisau 92xx - Region Gossau, Uzwil, Bischofszell 93xx - Region Arbon 94xx - Region Rorschach, Liechtenstein 95xx - Region Wil 96xx - Toggenburg 1211: Geneva 80xx: The city districts of Zurich were numbered before the Swiss postal codes were introduced.
The administration of the canton o
Christian Social Party (Switzerland)
The Christian Social Party is a political party in Switzerland. The CSP is more aligned with social democracy than the other major Christian-democratic party, the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, more economically liberal. With the moderate Christian left as its background, the CSP commits itself to social democratic and environmentalist political solutions; the core principles of the CSP contain, among others "solidarity with the and economically disadvantaged and the preservation of the environment."The party should not be confused with the Christian Social Party of Obwalden, affiliated with the Christian Democratic People's Party and holds a seat in the National Council. As of 2016, the CSP does not hold any seats in the National Council of Switzerland. A seat in the lower house was once held for decades by Hugo Fasel representing the canton of Fribourg. On a cantonal level, the CSP has many elected members in the Roman Catholic cantons of Valais, Fribourg and Jura. In the latter, the CSP had until late 2010 one elected member in the Executive body, the Conseil d'Etat of the Republic of Jura.
The CSP has strong environmentalist views. It has social values and aims for taxing richer people. On a societal point of view, it has liberal views and acts in favour of abortion rights, same-sex relationships and euthanasia, which differs with other common Christian political parties, which traditionally are conservative. Christian left Christian Social Party at swisspolitics.org Biography of Hugo Fasel, CSP member of parliament on the website of the Swiss Parliament. Home page.