San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there
Cabrillo Beach is a historic beach located in San Pedro, Los Angeles, California. It is named after Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese explorer, the first to sail up the California coast. Cabrillo has two separate beach areas. Cabrillo Beach is a historic beach situated within the small coastal community of San Pedro. Cabrillo Beach is named after Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, the first European to sail along the coast of California; the city of San Pedro was in consideration of being the host of a major port in Southern California. After much deliberation, the federal government selected San Pedro. Construction of the San Pedro Breakwater began in 1899 for the purpose of protecting San Pedro Bay and the new, major port. Rocks from Catalina Island, 25.1 miles away from the coast of San Pedro, were used in the construction of the breakwater. However, due to many problems and set-backs, rocks from Chatsworth, California were transported to San Pedro for the construction of the breakwater; some of the rocks used weighed about 6,000 to 16,000 pounds.
In 1913, Angel’s Gate Lighthouse was built at the end of the breakwater, which was, still is today, the main entrance to the Port of Los Angeles. The ocean water traveled right up to the cliffs. So after completion of the breakwater, sand was added in 1927; the addition of sand was from the harbor dredging. As a result of the addition of sand, the expansive outer beach of Cabrillo was created. Cabrillo Beach opened in 1928, residents of San Pedro and Los Angeles flooded the beach to enjoy the new Southern California beach; the San Pedro city leaders were excited to have a newly added destination for visitors and residents to enjoy in San Pedro. Cabrillo Beach is 370 acres of land located at 3720 Stephen M. White Drive San Pedro, California the Port of Los Angeles West Channel; the beach is on both sides of the eastern point of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. ThispPeninsula serves as a breakwater; the inner beach is located within the breakwater. The outer beach is located on the outside of the breakwater, where one would find the ocean surf.
Along with the inner and outer beaches of Cabrillo Beach, the 370 acres of land encompasses several complexes that are open to the public. The Cabrillo Marine Aquarium is a major complex of Cabrillo Beach. Situated within the parking lot, the aquarium has been teaching the public about the coast and its marine life for over 75 years. An emphasis on education is the main reason for Cabrillo Marine Aquarium's success; the aquarium has over some full-time and most part-time. The employees are either marine biologists, or caretakers for the animals. Along with employees, the aquarium has 350 volunteers that help aid the aquarium’s mission of educating the public and fostering an appreciation of the marine life through special events, monthly coastal clean-ups, tours. Overlooking the Los Angeles Harbor is the Cabrillo Beach Fishing Pier. Built in 1969 inside the breakwater, the pier runs 1,200 feet parallel with the breakwater. Biking and fishing on the pier is allowed and neither require a license.
There is a cover area for washing stations for cleaning up after fishing. With the pier on the inner beach, the bathhouse is on the outer beach. Built in 1932, the bathhouse was declared a historic landmark in 1989 as it was one of the last bathhouses built in Southern California. In the Twentieth century, the bathhouse was a place for people to rent beach gear, such as towels and swimsuits, boats. Overall, the bathhouse offered activities for people to enjoy the inner beach of Cabrillo; the 26,000 square foot building was restored on October 12, 2002, kept its Mediterranean-style structure. Today, the bathhouse has shower rooms, life guard facilities, a snack bar, a community meeting room upstairs. Just northeast of the bathhouse, across the parking lot, there is the Cabrillo Beach Youth Waterfront Sports Center, established in 1946; this complex is an aquatic center for the Southern California youth that exposes them to water safety, rescue methods and use of equipment, physical fitness. Through these activities, the youth develop leadership skills.
One company that offer services at this center is Captain Kirk’s, which offer wind surfing lessons and rentals for the youth. About 20,000 young people go through the Cabrillo Beach Youth Waterfront Sports Center each year. Los Angeles City Lifeguards and Los Angeles County Lifeguards are responsible for the beach and ocean safety in and around the Cabrillo Beach area. Cabrillo Beach is a popular destination for those interested in water sports, such as swimming, kitesurfing and scuba diving. Cabrillo Beach is known by'Turn-of-the-Century Sailors' to windsurfers alike, as "Hurricane Gulch" because of its predictably strong westerly winds, it is home to a few famous landmarks, namely the 1.75 mile Los Angeles Breakwater which ends at the Angel's Gate Lighthouse, the restored Cabrillo Beach Bathhouse, the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium. The Angels Gate Lighthouse is home to the annual Angel's Gate Lighthouse Swim competition, held by Lifeguards and San Pedro residents each summer
An urban park or metropolitan park known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens, is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, visitors to, the municipality. The design and maintenance is done by government agencies on the local level, but may be contracted out to a park conservancy, friends of group, or private sector company. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps, and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available. Park advocates claim that having parks near urban residents, including within a 10-minute walk, provide multiple benefits. A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use owned and maintained by a local government. Grass is kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities.
Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade, with an increasing emphasis on reducing an urban heat island effect. Some early parks include the La Alameda de Hércules, in Seville, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the Városliget in the City of Pest, what is today Budapest, was a city property when afforestation started in the middle of the 18th century, from the 1790s with the clear aim to create a public park. Between 1799 and 1805 it was rented out to the Batthyány family to carry out such a project but the city had taken back control and in 1813 announced a design competition to finish the park. An early purpose-built public park, although financed was Princes Park in the Liverpool suburb of Toxteth; this was laid out to the designs of Joseph Paxton from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000; the creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of influential ideas.
First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area, being built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodelling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile sector. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence in global maritime trade before 1800, during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself; the form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much-imitated design for Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead.
The latter commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas which Paxton had pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale. Frederick Law Olmsted praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. Another early public park, the Peel Park, England, opened on 22 August 1846. In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U. S. In the late 19th century, city governments purchased large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities to form "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents the workers, to relax in nature; as time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks.
According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, Mission Bay Park in San Diego. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U. S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services, such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia; these smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults and children. Green space was of secondary importance; as urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been pocket parks. One example of a pocket park is Chess Park in California; the American Society of Landscape Architects gave this park a General Design Award of Honor in 2006. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, a playground for children.
All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, the
Northwest Los Angeles
Northwest Los Angeles or Northwest of Downtown is a term for several neighborhoods near the central area of Los Angeles, California that are north and west of the city center of Los Angeles, California. This name for the area has been in use off and on for over 100 years applying to Angelino Heights and shifting northwesterly as those areas were built out; the names of the individual neighborhoods are used rather than the collective term "Northwest Los Angeles." It offers multiple recreational opportunities. Los Feliz and parts of Silver Lake have always home to Hollywood celebrities. Silver Lake and Elysian Heights were artist communities, but since the 1990s other neighborhoods in this area have experienced substantial gentrification. This has displaced various immigrant and poor communities. Most of the neighborhoods are represented by Councilman Mitch O'Farrell, but some are represented by David Ryu or Gil Cedillo and other councilmen; the following are neighborhoods in Northwest Los Angeles: Angelino Heights Echo Park Elysian Heights Elysian Park Elysian Valley Historic Filipinotown Los Feliz Pico-Union Silver Lake Solano Canyon Sunset Junction Westlake Northwest Los Angeles travel guide from Wikivoyage
Exposition Park (Los Angeles)
Exposition Park is situated in the south region of Los Angeles, California, in a rectangle bounded by Exposition Boulevard to the north, South Figueroa Street to the east, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard to the south and Menlo Avenue to the west, it is directly south of the main campus of the University of Southern California. The park is public open space, managed by the California Natural Resources Agency. Exposition Park houses the following: LA84 Foundation/John C. Argue Swim Stadium Banc of California Stadium Home of Los Angeles FC Lucas Museum of Narrative Art Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Home of USC Trojans football and Los Angeles Rams Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County California Science Center IMAX Theatre at California Science Center Space Shuttle Endeavour Exposition Park Rose Garden California African American Museum Concrete hand and footprints signed by Ed Begley Jr. of St. Elsewhere and other actors from medical TV shows such as Ben Casey EXPO Center and the Soboroff Sports Field Science Center School and Amgen Center for Science Learning The cultural facilities mentioned above are operated by both the state and Los Angeles County.
Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena The 160-acre site served as an agricultural fairground from 1872 to 1910. In 1880, John Edward, Ozro W. Childs, former California Governor John G. Downey persuaded the State of California to purchase 160 acres in Los Angeles to foster agriculture in the Southland. Farmers sold their harvest and arces on the grounds, while horses and camels competed on a racetrack where a rose garden now sits and blooms. In 1909, a group of civic-minded individuals led by former Pasadena Mayor Horace Dobbins set about reforming the park, removing the racetrack and other activities and replacing them with gardens and museums. At the 2028 Summer Olympics, the Coliseum will host Athletics as well as the main closing ceremony; the Banc of California Stadium will be one of the soccer venues. Along the northern edge of the park, the Metro Expo Line light rail line serves the park with its Expo Park/USC Station. On the northeast, the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit serves Exposition Park & USC at its 37th Street/USC Station on the Harbor Transitway.
The Silver Line station is located on the freeway median level of the 1-110 freeway. Exposition Park is a community located in South Los Angeles with a various amount of crime. According to the L. A. Department of City Planning, the population in 2008 was about 33,400 people. Ethnicities in this neighborhood are African American and Latinos. About 56 % are 38 % African American; the remaining percentages are 1.6 % Asian and 2 % other. The average age in Exposition Park is around 26 years old. University of Southern California is located in Exposition Park. South of the campus is an assortment of museums, including the California African American Museum, The California Science Center, Exposition Park Rose Garden, The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. All of this corresponds to the crime that occurs near and in Exposition Park. In the last several decades the crime rate has decreased tremendously. In 1995 the reported violent crime rate in Los Angeles County was 1,437 and in 2016 the rate was 553 total violent crimes.
Exposition Park is ruled number 16 in the most violent crimes in the Los Angeles County out of 197 in the year 2018. The week of November 22nd 2018 through November 28th 2018 there has been about 5 violent crimes, 23 property crimes, about 840 crimes total by means of 10,000 people in Exposition Park. In 2017 there was a massive gang arrest in Exposition Park. Arrested for federal charges, around 44 gang suspects were retained for murder and racketeering, which means false or crooked business dealings. California State and Consumer Services Agency List of parks in Los Angeles Official website — Exposition Park. University Park Family — an online newspaper and social network focused on the neighborhoods around USC and Exposition Park, the surrounding areas. Leimert Park Beat — a collaborative online community focused nearby Leimert Park: "The Soul of Los Angeles and the African American cultural center of the city"
Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden
The Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden is a 7-acre botanical garden located on the southeastern corner of the University of California, Los Angeles campus, United States, it is named after a noted American botanist. The director is Arthur C. Gibson. UCLA's botanical garden was started as an academic laboratory shortly after the Westwood, Los Angeles campus opened in 1929, on seven acres preserved for that purpose near the arroyo on the east side of the campus, it was funded in part by the California State Relief Administration, created by newly elected Governor Frank Merriam in 1933 to provide jobs through municipal work projects. The garden's first manager, George C. Groenewegen, started with horticultural donations from the United States Department of Agriculture and the Huntington Botanical Gardens, among others. By 1947 the garden hosted 1,500 different species and varieties of plants. In the 1960s, garden director Mildred E. Mathias, who oversaw the garden from 1956–74, helped to develop it into the "university garden" and opened it for public tours.
"The nest," a small amphitheater designed and built by the garden's staff and volunteers out of Northern Californian incense cedar and boulders shipped from Duarte, was opened in 1996. Because the garden is frost-free it can accommodate tropical and sub-tropical plants, including special collections of ferns, palms and figs; the eucalyptus and figs were brought to the garden during its early years, before they became widespread in the Los Angeles region. Plants are arranged by geographic, taxonomic or cultural needs to demonstrate to students and visitors how specimens are related to one another, they are organized by themes, including desert plants, aquatic plants, Mediterranean-climate shrubs, native Hawaiian plants, among others. List of botanical gardens in the United States California native plants The Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden - Official website
Heritage Square Museum
Heritage Square Museum is a living history and open-air architecture museum located beside the Arroyo Seco Parkway in the Montecito Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in the southern Arroyo Seco area. The living history museum shows the story of development in Southern California through historical architectural examples; the museum focuses on interpreting the years 1850 to 1950, a century of unprecedented growth in Los Angeles. Volunteer interpreters give thorough tours that incorporate the history and culture of the region. Other specialized living history events and items of historical interest are given on a periodic basis. During the rapid urban expansion of the 1960s, Victorian buildings in Los Angeles were being demolished at an alarming rate; the Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument program, established in 1961, could evaluate properties and list-register them, but not protect them. In 1969, at the request of the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission, a group of concerned citizens established the Cultural Heritage Foundation to counteract this destruction.
The Foundation organized Heritage Square as a last-chance haven for architecturally and significant buildings to be moved to, which otherwise would have been demolished at their original locations. Eight historic buildings, a vintage train car and a trolley car, were stopped from demolition and moved to the Heritage Square location — between 1969 and 2005, they include: The Mount Pleasant House was built in 1876 by prominent businessman and lumber baron William Hayes Perry. Designed by renowned architect E. F. Kysor, the home contains detailing to convey the wealth and social status of the family; these elements include Corinthian columns, fine hardwood floors, a sweeping main staircase, marble fireplace mantles. It was built in the fashionable neighborhood of Boyle Heights; the Perry's Mount Pleasant House was considered the finest and most expensive residence to arrive in mid-1870s Los Angeles. The outward sweep of the entrance stairway, the sculpted brackets under the eaves, the slanted bay windows, the narrow Corinthian columns are characteristic of its Victorian Italianate style.
In 1975, the house was moved from 1315 Mount Pleasant Street to the museum grounds, restoration was begun by the Colonial Dames Society of America. Main: Palms DepotThe Palms Depot was built c. 1875 for the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, was absorbed into the Pacific Electric Railway in 1911. It continued to provide service until 1953; the Palms Depot was declared a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1963, to avoid demolition was moved to the museum grounds. One of only about 500 octagonal buildings remaining in the United States, the octagon house has a unique story; the type is based on the mid-19th century ideas of Orson Squire Fowler, that eight-sided homes were preferable to the standard four-sided type. The builders of octagonal structures believed that: windows on eight sides gave more light and better air circulation. Fowler's architectural ideas were popular in the East through the 1850s, where most octagonal structures and homes were built. After the Civil War interest waned in the octagonal style.
This octagon house is unusual being built in 1893. It was built by Gilbert Longfellow at 3800 Homer Street, L. A, it was declared a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, was moved to the museum grounds. The Ford House was built in 1887 as part of a large tract of simple middle-class homes in downtown Los Angeles built by the Beaudry Brothers; the home is interesting because of its inhabitant – John J. Ford, a well-known wood carver. Ford's works include carvings for the California State Capitol, the Iolani Palace in Hawaii, Leland Stanford's private railroad car; because of his occupation, the exterior and interior carvings were all done by hand in ornate, one-of-a-kind patterns. The Lincoln Avenue Methodist Church was built in 1897. Designed in the Carpenter Gothic and Queen Anne styles, the floor plan follows the Methodist tradition of non-axial plans; this plan, with the entrance in one corner and the pulpit in the opposite, is known as the Akron style, having originated in Akron, Ohio. The carriage barn was built in 1899 on the grounds of what is now Pasadena's Huntington Memorial Hospital for Dr. Osborne, a member of the hospital's staff.
Its architectural style is Queen Anne Cottage with Gothic Revival influences. It has a distinctive pitched roof; the barn was saved from demolition and moved to the Heritage Square Museum in 1981. A unique style for the West Coast, the Shaw House is a Second Empire home with a French mansard roof, it is of a smaller scale than the Perry Houses. The Hale House was built in 1887 by George W. Morgan, a land speculator and real estate developer, at the foot of Mount Washington just a few blocks from the museum in Highland Park in Los Angeles; the building is an outstanding example of the Queen Eastlake Styles. The house was sold many times and was moved from 4501 to 4425 North Pasadena Avenue before being purchased by James G. Hale in 1906, it remained in the Hale Family until it was acquired by the museum in 1970, as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. The exterior colors of Hale House were reproduced from chips of the original colors found on the house during restoration; the interior has been restored to represent the rooms as they may have appeared in 1899.
The Salt Box was one of the last homes on Bunker Hill, one of the first moved to the Heritage Square Museum grounds. It was of the Saltbox style. Shortly after its arrival, an arson fire de