Les Angles, Pyrénées-Orientales
Les Angles is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France. Legend has it that at the beginning of the XIV century, the Black Death wiped out the entire population of the former village of Vallsera. Only two sisters survived, they are believed to have donated all of the land to the commune of Les Angles. Les Angles is located in the arrondissement of Prades. Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE Activities in Les Angles Official site
Latour-de-Carol is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France. Latour-de-Carol is located in the canton of Les Pyrénées catalanes and in the arrondissement of Prades; the village's main claim to fame is as the site of the international railway station, Gare de Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg. This station is the terminus of three lines, each with different gauges: the Spanish state operator RENFE's 1,668 mm gauge line running north from Barcelona via Ripoll the French state operator SNCF's 1,435 mm gauge line running south from Toulouse via Foix SNCF's 1,000 mm gauge line running west from Villefranche-de-ConflentAs the French and Spanish tracks are different gauges, no trains run the whole way from Toulouse to Barcelona. Passengers have to change trains. Occasional freight-trains cross the border and are worked to Puigcerda, where freight is transferred; the double-track line to Puigcerda consists of two separate tracks with different gauges and electrified at different currents.
September 2011 - the French gauge line across the border is out of use. Spanish passenger trains run across into France to meet up with the French line. No freight services operate. Judging from the Google maps satellite photos, the French line into Puigcerda has been severed and the alignment of the Spanish line changed; the sidings served by the French lines are being left to nature, although the Spanish lines seem well maintained. European route E09 and part of the Route nationale 20 connect Latour-de-Carol with Bourg-Madame and Foix. Break of gauge Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE commune file Railways through Europe: Latour de Carol - Enveigt
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
Ansignan is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. Ansignan is located in the arrondissement of Perpignan; the town council of Ansignan is composed in 2014 of eleven councilors: four women. Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE commune file
Argelès-sur-Mer is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France. It is about 25 km from Perpignan. Argelès-sur-Mer is located in the arrondissement of Céret. Argelès-sur-Mer is on the Côte Vermeille at the foot of the Albères mountain range, close to the Spanish border, it has the longest beach in the Pyrenées Orientales. During World War II, Argelès-sur-Mer was the location of a concentration camp, where up to 100,000 defeated Spanish Republicans were interned next to a windy beach in abysmal sanitary conditions by the French government after the defeat of the Spanish Republic; the refugees streamed to the camp from the winter of 1938/39 after the collapse of the Catalan front following the rebel offensive. Étoile sportive catalane is the rugby union club of Argelès-sur-Mer. BuildingsDolmen of the Collets de Cotlliure Dolmen of the Cova de l'Alarb Dolmen of Sant Pere dels Forquets Chapel of Saint-Jérôme d'Argelès, from the 10th century Church of Saint-Ferréol de la Pava, from the 10th century Parish church of Notre-Dame del Prat, from the 14th to the 20th centuries Church of Sainte-Marie de Torreneules, from the 8th to the 10th centuries Abbey of Valbonne, from the 13th to the 14th centuries Church of Saint-Laurent-du-Mont, from the 12th century Church of Saint-Martin-et-Sainte-Croix, from the 11th or 12th century, the old village of Taxo d'Avall Church of Saint-Pierre dels Forquets, pre-romanesque ruins Castle of Pujols, from the 13th century Massane tower, in the Albera Massif, from the 13th century Castle of Valmy, from the 19th century Casa de l'Albera, museum about the Albera MassifNatural sitesNational nature reserve of the Mas Larrieu National nature reserve of the Massane forest The Bois des pins is the historical pine forest located near the beach front.
Created in the 1860s by the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales, it still has to this day over 8,000 centenarian pines. Marcelle Narbonne: supercentenarian who lived and died in Argelès-sur-Mer. David Ensor: British lawyer, actor and Labour Party politician and died in Argelès-sur-Mer. Marc Lièvremont: former rugby union footballer raised in Argelès-sur-Mer and former member of the Étoile sportive catalane club. Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE commune file Town council website Information in Catalan Encyclopaedia
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Saint Saturnin of Toulouse, with a feast day entered for 29 November, was one of the "Apostles to the Gauls" sent out during the consulate of Decius and Gratus to Christianise Gaul after the persecutions under Emperor Decius had all but dissolved the small Christian communities. St Fabian sent out seven bishops from Rome to Gaul to preach the Gospel: Saint Gatien to Tours, Saint Trophimus to Arles, Saint Paul to Narbonne, Saint Saturnin to Toulouse, Saint Denis to Paris, Austromoine to Clermont, Saint Martial to Limoges. St Saturnin is styled the first Bishop of Tolosa; the lost Acts of Saturninus were employed as historical sources by the chronicler Gregory of Tours. The martyrology gave a genealogy for Saturnin: the son of Aegeus, King of Achaea, by his wife Cassandra, herself, was the daughter of Ptolemy, King of the Ninevites; the Acts placed Saturninus in the 1st century, made him one of the 72 disciples of Christ, placed him at the Last Supper. Legends associated with Saturninus state that after Saint Peter consecrated him a bishop, “he was given for his companion Papulus to become Saint Papulus the Martyr.”
Legend states that besides Papulus, Saturninus had Saint Honestus as a disciple. The detail from the Acts, selected for remembering today describes his martyrdom: to reach the Christian church Saturninus had to pass before the capitol, where there was an altar, according to the Acts, the pagan priests ascribed the silence of their oracles to the frequent presence of Saturninus. One day they seized him and on his unshakeable refusal to sacrifice to the images they condemned him to be tied by the feet to a bull which dragged him about the town until the rope broke; the bull, it is said, finished at the place since named Matabiau (that is, matar and biau or bœuf. An inversion of this martyrdom, the tauroctony, the "killing of the bull," is the central rite of Mithraism, the most important icon in the mithraeum, a depiction of Mithras in the act of killing a bull; the tauroctony was either depicted in a sculptural relief, sometimes on the altar. Two Christian women piously gathered up the remains and buried them in a "deep ditch", that they might not be profaned by the pagans.
It is not beyond possibility, in this part of Gaul, where today the greatest bull among many in Toulouse is honored with the name "Le Grand Taur," that the deep ditch was in fact a mithraeum. The site, said to be "where the bull stopped" is on the rue du Taur; the street with the Mithraic name is one of the original Roman cross streets running straight from the Capitole now to the Romanesque basilica honoring St. Saturnin. Saturnin's successors at Toulouse and Exuperius, gave him more honorable burial, once Christian rites were no longer illicit, by erecting a simple wooden oratory over the "Roman crypt" where he had been interred; the noteworthy 14th-century Gothic church that replaced earlier buildings is Notre-Dame du Taur. At the end of the century, the press of pilgrims to the cramped site encouraged Bishop Silvius to build a larger church, finished by his successor Exuperius in 402; the body of the saint was translated to the new church, which now forms the crypt of the present Romanesque basilica, one of the buildings that defines the Romanesque style in southern France.
The basilica is not the cathedral, dedicated to Saint Stephen. The reburial place was at the crossing, before the altar, where the saint's relics remained until 1284. At the same time the bishop took the official Acts of Saturnin, the Passio antiqua, rewrote them as a panegyric that took the place of the originals embellishing them with colorful details, with pious legends linking Saturnin to the founding of the churches of Eauze, Auch and Amiens. So, they are among the oldest documents of the Gallican Church. Numerous places in France named Saint-Saturnin numerous places in France named Saint-Sernin Burgo de San Cernín, Spain, it was the Languedocian borough of Pamplona. In Catalonia, Spain. Sant Sadurní d'Anoia Sant Sadurní d'Osormort Sant Sadurní de l'Heura In Spain. San Saturnino In Wales Llansadwrn, Anglesey The Golden Legend: The Life of Saint Saturnine