Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
Elias Henry "Patsy" Hendren was an English first-class cricketer, active 1907 to 1937, who played for Middlesex and England. He was died in Tooting Bec. A right-handed batsman who bowled off breaks, Hendren was one of the most prolific batsmen of the inter-war period, averaging 47.63 in his 51 Test matches and 50.80 in all his first-class matches. He has the third highest first-class run aggregate of 57,611 runs, his total of 170 centuries ranks second only to Hobbs, a personal friend. Hendren had a talent for mimicry. Hendren joined the Lord's groundstaff at the age of 16, made his first-class debut for Middlesex in 1907, though the game was abandoned after the first day when spectators caused damage to the pitch and he did not get to bat, he played nine games the following year and established himself in the team, but it was 1911 before he made his first hundred, until World War I forced the suspension of the County Championship he never managed to average 40 in a season. Hendren joined the 1st Sportsmens' Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers as a private in September 1914, before being transferred to work at a munitions factory in Royal Leamington Spa.
He rejoined the Royal Fusiliers towards the end of the war. Hendren was a good footballer in the early part of his career, playing at wing forward for Brentford, QPR, Manchester City and Coventry City, he represented the Southern League XI. He was posthumously inducted into the Brentford Hall of Fame in 2015. Returning to cricket in 1919 Hendren scored 1,655 runs and averaged over 60, as he was to do the following year as well, he was a strong player of fast bowling. He was made a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1920 and was picked for the 1920/21 Ashes tour, making his Test debut at Sydney and making 58 in the second innings despite Australia's huge 377-run victory, he scored two further Test fifties in the series and retained his place for the 1921 series against the same opponents, but failed in his four innings, totalling only 17 runs. 1923 was a productive year for Hendren, as he scored 3,010 runs in the season including 13 centuries. Further success was to follow as he averaged over 56 in every year from 1922 to 1928.
In both 1927 and 1928 he again made 13 hundreds, in the latter year recording his highest season's aggregate of 3,311 runs. In 1929/30, Hendren went on tour with England to the West Indies: his 693 series runs came at an average of 115.50 and included his highest Test score, 205 not out at Port of Spain. He made six consecutive Test 50s a new England record, since equalled by Ted Dexter, Ken Barrington and Alastair Cook. Returning to England, he managed a top score of only 72 against the Australians, but in 1933 he topped 3,000 runs for the third and final time at the age of 44 and made his highest score of 301 not out. In 1933 he invented a sort of helmet. Against the West Indies at Lord's he appeared wearing a rubber hat or cap with three peaks, two of which fitted over the sides of his head. Although a competent hooker of fast bowling he felt he needed extra protection to face bowlers such as Martindale and Constantine, he played his final Test match in 1934/1935 at Kingston, the game in which George Headley made 270 not out to win the series for the West Indians, but continued to play well in domestic cricket for a few years more.
Hendren's final season in the game was 1937, fittingly he made a century in his last County Championship match, the local derby with Surrey. He did, appear for "England Past and Present" against Sir PF Warner's XI at Folkestone in September 1938, aged 49, but was caught by the 20-year-old Denis Compton for a duck in what was to be his last first-class innings. In 1919 he played in a Victory International for England. In retirement, he coached cricket at Harrow School and Sussex, acted as scorer for Middlesex, his health failed and he died in hospital from Alzheimer's disease at the Whittington Hospital Tooting Bec, London, at the age of 73. Patsy's brother Denis Hendren played 9 first-class games for Middlesex. A second brother, was killed at Delville Wood in July 1916 while serving with the Royal Fusiliers. Hendren was a Catholic. Brentford London Combination: 1918–19 Media related to Patsy Hendren at Wikimedia Commons Patsy Hendren at ESPNcricinfo Patsy Hendren at CricketArchive
James Mackay (cricketer)
James Rainey Munro Mackay, better known as "Sunny Jim" Mackay, was an Australian cricketer. He was a right-handed opening batsman, likened in his youth to Victor Trumper, was considered unlucky to miss the 1905 Australian tour to England. Mackay was born in New South Wales, he scored 203, 90, 194, 105, 102* and 136 for New South Wales in the 1905/06 season, as well as six centuries for his club side, Burwood. Along with several other players he signed a contract with Melbourne Cricket Club to bring an English side to Australia and was suspended, he moved to South Africa where, while working at a diamond mine, he scored 247 runs at 35.28 for Transvaal in 1906-07 and was only left out of the South African team to tour England in 1907 because it was felt that he had not spent long enough in the country. His eyesight was damaged when a motorbike knocked him down and his brief but dazzling career was cut short. Mackay moved back to Sydney and tried to regain his place in the New South Wales side but his injury was too debilitating and he was forced to retire.
In just 20 first class matches from 1902/03 to 1906/07, he had scored 1556 runs at 50.19 with six hundreds and seven fifties. He died in Walcha. List of New South Wales representative cricketers James Mackay at Cricinfo Sunny Jim Mackay at Cricket Archive
William Harold "Bill" Ponsford MBE was an Australian cricketer. Playing as an opening batsman, he formed a successful and long-lived partnership opening the batting for Victoria and Australia with Bill Woodfull, his friend and state and national captain. Ponsford is the only player to twice break the world record for the highest individual score in first-class cricket. Ponsford holds the Australian record for a partnership in Test cricket, set in 1934 in combination with Donald Bradman —the man who broke many of Ponsford's other individual records. In fact, he along with Don Bradman set the record for the highest partnership for any wicket in Test cricket history when playing on away soil Despite being built, Ponsford was quick on his feet and renowned as one of the finest players of spin bowling, his bat, much heavier than the norm and nicknamed "Big Bertha", allowed him to drive powerfully and he possessed a strong cut shot. However, critics questioned his ability against fast bowling, the hostile short-pitched English bowling in the Bodyline series of 1932–33 was a contributing factor in his early retirement from cricket a year and a half later.
Ponsford represented his state and country in baseball, credited the sport with improving his cricketing skills. Ponsford was a taciturn man. After retiring from cricket, he went to some lengths to avoid interaction with the public, he spent over three decades working for the Melbourne Cricket Club, where he had some responsibility for the operations of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the scene of many of his great performances with the bat. In 1981 the Western Stand at the MCG was renamed the WH Ponsford Stand in his honour; this stand was demolished in 2003 as part of the redevelopment of the ground for the 2006 Commonwealth Games, but its replacement was named the WH Ponsford Stand. At the completion of the stadium redevelopment in 2005, a statue of Ponsford was installed outside the pavilion gates. In recognition of his contributions as a player, Ponsford was one of the ten initial inductees into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame; the son of William and Elizabeth Ponsford, Bill Ponsford was born in the Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy North on 19 October 1900.
His father was a postman whose family had emigrated from Devon to Bendigo, Victoria, to work in the mines during the 1850s gold rush. His mother was born in the goldfields, at Guildford, before moving to Melbourne with her father, a Crown Lands bailiff. Ponsford grew up on Newry St in Fitzroy North, attended the nearby Alfred Crescent School, which stood beside the Edinburgh Gardens. Ponsford learnt the rudiments of cricket from his uncle Cuthbert Best—a former club player for Fitzroy, he had the best batting and bowling averages for his school team in 1913, 1914 and 1915 and rose to the captaincy. His local grade club, awarded Ponsford a medallion—presented by the local mayor—for being his school's outstanding cricketer in the 1913–14 and 1914–15 seasons; the medallion was awarded along with an honorary membership of the club, Ponsford trained enthusiastically, running from school to the nearby Brunswick Street Oval in the Edinburgh Gardens to practise in the nets. Les Cody, the general secretary of Fitzroy Cricket Club and a first-class cricketer with New South Wales and Victoria, was Ponsford's first cricketing role model.
In December 1914, Ponsford completed his schooling and earned a qualifying certificate, which allowed him to continue his education at a high school should he wish. He instead chose to attend a private training college, Hassett's, to study for the Bank Clerk's exam. Ponsford passed the exam and commenced employment with the State Savings Bank at the Elizabeth Street head office in early 1916. In May 1916, the Ponsford family moved to Orrong Rd in a wealthier part of Melbourne. Ponsford played with Fitzroy in a minor league for the remainder of the 1915–16 season, but under the geographical "zoning" rules in place for club cricket, he was required to transfer to St Kilda Cricket Club in the following season; the First World War and the creation of the First Australian Imperial Force led to a significant shortage of players available for cricket. As a result, Ponsford was called up to make his first-grade debut for St Kilda during the 1916–17 season, just one week before his sixteenth birthday.
This match was against his old club Fitzroy, was played at the familiar Brunswick Street Oval. The young Ponsford's shot-making lacked power, after making twelve singles, he was bowled, he played ten matches in his first season with the St Kilda First XI and averaged 9.30 runs per innings. By the 1918–19 season, Ponsford topped the club batting averages with an average of 33, he topped the bowling averages, taking 10 wickets at an average of 16.50 runs per wicket with his leg spin. Despite failing to score a century for his club side, Ponsford was called up to represent Victoria against the visiting England team in February 1921—his first-class cricket debut, his selection was controversial. Armstrong's omission sparked a series of angry public meetings protesting against the perceived persecution of Armstrong by administrators. While making his way to the Melbourne Cricket Ground for the match, Ponsford had to walk through demonstrators carrying placards that denounced his selection at the expense of Armstrong.
Without Armstrong, the Victorians were comfortably beaten by Johnny Douglas's English team by sev
Arthur Percy Frank Chapman known as Percy Chapman, was an English cricketer who captained the England cricket team between 1926 and 1931. A left-handed batsman, he played 26 Test matches for England, captaining the side in 17 of those games. Chapman was appointed captain for the decisive Test of the 1926 series against Australia. An amateur cricketer, Chapman played Minor Counties cricket for Berkshire and first-class cricket for Cambridge University and Kent. Never a reliable batsman, Chapman had a respectable batting record, he could score runs quickly and was popular with spectators. As a fielder, contemporaries rated him highly. Although opinions were divided on his tactical ability as a captain, most critics accepted he was an inspirational leader. Born in Reading and educated at Uppingham School, Chapman established a reputation as a talented school cricketer and was named one of Wisden's schoolboy Cricketers of the Year in 1919, he went to Pembroke College and represented the University cricket team with great success.
Chapman made his Test debut in 1924. Having qualified for Kent, he was the surprise choice to take over from Arthur Carr as England captain in 1926, he achieved victory in his first nine matches in charge but lost two and drew six of his remaining games. Perceived tactical deficiencies and growing concerns over his heavy drinking meant that Chapman was dropped from the team for the fifth Test against Australia in 1930, he captained England on one final tour in 1930 -- 31. After he assumed the Kent captaincy in 1931, his career and physique declined until he resigned the position in 1936. Chapman's fame as a cricketer made him a popular public figure. Outside of cricket, he worked for a brewery. In his years, Chapman suffered from the effects of alcoholism and was seen drunk in public, he and his wife divorced in 1942. Following a fall at his home and a subsequent operation, Chapman died in 1961, aged 61. Chapman was born on 3 September 1900 in Reading, the son of Frank Chapman, a schoolteacher, his wife Bertha Finch.
Chapman's father coached him personally. Chapman was first educated at his father's preparatory school, Fritham House, by the age of eight was in the school's first eleven. In September 1910, he joined Oakham School and scored his first century, dominating the cricket and football teams. From 1914 to 1918, he attended Uppingham School. Although his academic performance was undistinguished, he soon established a cricketing reputation. By 1916, he was in the Uppingham first team. Chapman improved his record in 1917, scoring 668 runs at an average of 111.33. In 1918, Chapman took 15 wickets; as a consequence of his achievements, he was chosen as one of the Cricketers of the Year for 1919 in Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. In both 1918 and 1919 he was selected for prestigious school representative matches at Lord's Cricket Ground. In 1919, Chapman entered Cambridge, he failed in two trial games, organised prior to the 1920 cricket season to inform the selection of the Cambridge team, despite his reputation, was omitted from the University's opening first-class match against Essex.
But on the day of the match, a player withdrew from the Cambridge team and Chapman replaced him. Making his first-class debut on 15 May 1920, he scored 118 in a rapid innings and kept his place in the team for the remainder of the season. After a century and two fifties, he was selected for the University Match against Oxford. Chapman scored 27 in this final game of the university season to aggregate 613 runs at an average of 40.86, second in the Cambridge batting averages. Unusually for someone in their first year of University cricket, he was subsequently selected for the prestigious Gentlemen v Players match at Lord's. Although not successful with the bat, critics singled him out for his effective fielding. During August, he played second-class Minor Counties cricket for Berkshire as an amateur and headed the team's batting averages. In all first-class matches in 1920, Chapman scored 873 runs at 39.68. In 1921, Chapman averaged over 50 for the University and scored three centuries, although his growing reputation meant some critics felt he had underachieved.
He once again played in the University match against Oxford, for the Gentlemen against the Players, impressed commentators. Some critics suggested he, along with other promising University players
Jack Ryder (cricketer)
John "Jack" Ryder, MBE was a cricketer who played for Victoria and Australia. Born in the inner-city Melbourne suburb of Collingwood, Ryder was known as the "King of Collingwood" for his long association with the local cricket team. An all-rounder, he scored 12,677 runs in 338 district matches, he played in one against South Africa. In 1921–22, he averaged more than 100 in a series against South Africa. Ryder was an aggressive batsman and strong on the drive, he was a useful medium-pace bowler. His best performance was an innings of 201 not out against England, made in six and half hours at Adelaide in 1924–25; this included century partnerships of 134 and 108. He made 88 in the second innings. In 1926–27, he made his highest first-class score of 295 for Victoria against New South Wales, in a world record team total of 1,107. Ryder smashed six sixes, including two in three balls, was out attempting to hit another six to bring up his triple century. For over 50 years after his retirement, he held the record for games played and runs scored in Melbourne District Cricket, before being passed by district stalwart John Scholes.
Ryder's bowling brought him 150 wickets for Victoria and 805 in all grades and he was an outstanding fieldsman, who once caught five English batsman in a Test innings. Ryder's career as an Australia team selector was unusual; as Test captain, he was on the selection panel for the 1930 Ashes tour of England, but was out-voted for a place on the team, the captaincy passed to Bill Woodfull. In 1946, he was made a selector again and held the post for 23 years, forming a long association with Sir Donald Bradman and Chappie Dwyer, he remains the only Test cricketer to be run out in both innings of his debut Test match. Ryder was the first Australian to complete a Test Career of more than 20 innings with a batting average over 50.00. He was the oldest former player present at the Centenary Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1977, he died just weeks after the match. Ryder's long district cricket career for which he is best known spanned 37 years, from 1906–07 until 1942–43, his career of 338 games was played entirely for Collingwood, except for six games for Northcote in 1933–34 and 12 games for the VCA Colts in 1939–40.
He scored 12,677 runs at 41.83 with 37 centuries, took 612 wickets at 16.83 with 46 five-wicket hauls. The medal for the outstanding player of the season in Melbourne Premier Cricket is named in his honour, was first presented in 1973–74, he holds the record for facing the most number of balls in a single test innings when batting at number seven position List of Victoria first-class cricketers Media related to Jack Ryder at Wikimedia Commons Cricinfo article on Jack Ryder
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the