Palestrina is modern Italian city and comune with a population of about 22,000, in Lazio, about 35 kilometres east of Rome. It is connected to the latter by the Via Prenestina, it is built upon the ruins of an ancient city of the same name. Palestrina is the birthplace of composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Palestrina is sited on a spur of the Monti Prenestini, a mountain range in the central Apennines. Palestrina borders the following municipalities: Artena, Castel San Pietro Romano, Gallicano nel Lazio, Rocca di Cave, Rocca Priora, San Cesareo, Zagarolo. Early burials show that the site was occupied in the 8th or 7th century BC; the ancient necropolis lays on a plateau at the foot of the hill below the ancient town. Of the objects found in the oldest graves, supposed to date from about the 7th century BC, the cups of silver and silver-gilt and most of the gold and amber jewelry are Phoenician, but the bronzes and some of the ivory articles seem to be of the Etruscan civilization. Praenestine graves from about 240 BC onwards have been found: they are surmounted by the characteristic pineapple made of local stone, containing stone coffins with rich bronze and gold ornaments beside the skeleton.
From these come the famous bronze boxes and hand mirrors with inscriptions in Etruscan. Famous is the bronze Ficoroni Cista, engraved with pictures of the arrival of the Argonauts in Bithynia and the victory of Pollux over Amycus, found in 1738. An example of archaic Latin is the inscription on the Ficoroni Cista: "Novios Plautios Romai med fecid / Dindia Macolnia fileai dedit"; the caskets are unique in Italy, but a large number of mirrors of similar style have been discovered in Etruria. Hence, although it would be reasonable to conjecture that objects with Etruscan characteristics came from Etruria, the evidence points decisively to an Etruscan factory in or near Praeneste itself. Other imported objects in the burials show that Praeneste traded not only with Etruria but with the Greek east; the origin of Praeneste was attributed by the ancients to Ulysses, or to other fabulous characters variously called Caeculus, Erulus or Praenestus. The name derives from the word Praenesteus, referring to its overlooking location.
Praeneste was under the hegemony of Alba Longa while that city was the head of the Latin League. It withdrew from the league in 499 BC, according to Livy, formed an alliance with Rome. After Rome was weakened by the Gauls of Brennus, Praeneste switched allegiances and fought against Rome in the long struggles that culminated in the Latin War. From 373 to 370, it was in continual war against Rome or her allies, was defeated by Cincinnatus. In 354 and in 338 the Romans were victorious and Praeneste was punished by the loss of portions of its territory, becoming a city allied to Rome; as such, it furnished contingents to the Roman army, Roman exiles were permitted to live at Praeneste, which grew prosperous. The roses of Praeneste were a byword for beauty. Præneste was situated on the Via Labicana, its citizens were offered Roman citizenship in 90 BC in the Social War, when concessions had to be made by Rome to cement necessary alliances. In Sulla's second civil war, Gaius Marius the Younger was blockaded in the town by the forces of Sulla.
When the city was captured, Marius slew himself, the male inhabitants were massacred in cold blood, a military colony was settled on part of its territory. From an inscription it appears that Sulla delegated the foundation of the new colony to Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, consul in 73 BC. Within a decade the lands of the colonia had been assembled by a few large landowners. From the late Republic to the late Empire, baths, shrines and a second forum were built in the lower city, near today's Madonna dell'Aquila. Under the Empire the cool breezes of Praeneste made it a favorite summer resort of wealthy Romans, whose villas studded the neighborhood, though they ridiculed the language and the rough manners of the native inhabitants; the poet Horace ranked "cool Praeneste" with Baiae as favored resorts. The emperor Augustus stayed in Praeneste, Tiberius recovered there from a dangerous illness and made it a municipium; the emperor Marcus Aurelius was at Praeneste with his family. The ruins of the imperial villa associated with Hadrian stand in the plain near the church of S. Maria della Villa, about three-quarters of a mile from the town.
At the site was discovered the Braschi Antinous, now in the Vatican Museums. Pliny the Younger had a villa at Praeneste, L. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus retired there. Inscriptions show. Archaeologists working in the 1950s were able to identify the area around the Cathedral and the Piazza Regina Margherita as the Forum of Ancient Praeneste; the buildings of the forum comprised a central temple, whose walls were re-used for the cathedral, a two-storey civil basilica consisting of four naves separated by columns, once roofed but today an open space. The basilica was flanked by two buildings, the easternmost containing a raised podium and the public treasury, the aerarium, identified by an inscription dating it to ~150 BC. At some date, the buildings flanking the basilica were each embellished with a nymphaeum with a mosaic floor; the western mosaic represents a seascape: a temple of P
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon known as Paulus Diaconus, Barnefridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis, was a Benedictine monk and historian of the Lombards. An ancestor named Leupichis entered Italy in the train of Alboin and received lands at or near Forum Julii. During an invasion, the Avars swept off the five sons of this warrior into Pannonia, but one, his namesake, returned to Italy and restored the ruined fortunes of his house; the grandson of the younger Leupichis was Warnefrid, who by his wife Theodelinda became the father of Paul. Paulus was his monastic name. Born between 720 and 735 in the Duchy of Friuli to this noble Lombard family, Paul received an exceptionally good education at the court of the Lombard king Ratchis in Pavia, learning from a teacher named Flavian the rudiments of Greek, it is probable. After Adelperga had married Arichis II, duke of Benevento, Paul at her request wrote his continuation of Eutropius, it is certain that he lived at the court of Benevento taking refuge when Pavia was taken by Charlemagne in 774.
Soon he entered a monastery on Lake Como, before 782 he had become a resident at the great Benedictine house of Monte Cassino, where he made the acquaintance of Charlemagne. About 776 his brother Arichis had been carried as a prisoner to Francia, when five years the Frankish king visited Rome, Paul wrote to him on behalf of the captive, his literary achievements attracted the notice of Charlemagne, Paul became a potent factor in the Carolingian Renaissance. In 787 he returned to Italy and to Monte Cassino, where he died on 13 April in one of the years between 796 and 799, his surname Diaconus, shows. Paul's extant works are edited in Patrologia Latina vol. 95. The chief work of Paul is his Historia Langobardorum; this incomplete history in six books was written after 787 and at any rate no than 795/96, maybe at Monte Cassino. It covers the story of the Lombards from their legendary origins in the north in'Scadinavia' and their subsequent migrations, notably to Italy in 568/9 to the death of King Liutprand in 744, contains much information about the Eastern Roman empire, the Franks, others.
The story is told from the point of view of a Lombard and is valuable for the relations between the Franks and the Lombards. It begins: The region of the north, in proportion as it is removed from the heat of the sun and is chilled with snow and frost, is so much the more healthful to the bodies of men and fitted for the propagation of nations, just as, on the other hand, every southern region, the nearer it is to the heat of the sun, the more it abounds in diseases and is less fitted for the bringing up of the human race. Among his sources, Paul used the document called the Origo gentis Langobardorum, the Liber pontificalis, the lost history of Secundus of Trent, the lost annals of Benevento. Cognate with this work is a continuation of the Breviarium of Eutropius; this was compiled at Benevento. The story runs, she did so, but complained that this Pagan writer said nothing about ecclesiastical affairs and stopped with the accession of the emperor Valens in 364. This work has value for its early historical presentation of the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, although it was popular during the Middle Ages.
It has been published in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Auctores antiquissimi, Band ii. as well as by A. Crivellucci, in Fonti per la storia d' Italia, n. 51. Paul wrote at the request of Angilram, bishop of Metz, a history of the bishops of Metz to 766, the first work of its kind north of the Alps, translated in English in 2013 as Liber de episcopis Mettensibus, he wrote many letters and epitaphs, including those of Duke/Prince Arichis II of Benevento and of many members of the Carolingian family. Some of the letters are published with the Historia Langobardorum in the Monumenta. Fresh material having come to light, a new edition of the poems has been edited by Karl Neff, who denies, the attribution to Paul of the most famous poem in the collection, the Ut queant laxis, a hymn to St. John the Baptist, which Guido of Arezzo fitted to a melody, used for Horace's Ode 4.11. From the initial syllables of the first verses of the resultant setting he took the names of the first notes of the musical scale.
Paul wrote an epitome, which has survived, of Sextus Pompeius Festus' De verborum significatu. It was dedicated to Charlemagne. While in Francia, Paul was requested by Charlemagne to compile a collection of homilies, he executed this after his return to Monte Cassino, it was used in the Frankish churches. A life of Pope Gregory the Great has been attributed to him, he is credited with a Latin translation of the Greek Life of Saint Mary the Egyptian. Lyons, S
Henry Nettleship was an English classical scholar. Nettleship was born at Kettering, was educated at Lancing College, Durham School and Charterhouse schools, gained a scholarship for entry to Corpus Christi College, Oxford in 1858. In 1861, he was elected to a fellowship at Lincoln, which he vacated on his marriage in 1870 to Matilda Steel, eldest daughter of his colleague Rev. T. H. Steel at Harrow. In 1868, he became an assistant master at Harrow, but in 1873 he returned to Oxford, was elected to a fellowship at Corpus. In 1878 he was appointed to succeed Edwin Palmer as the Corpus Professor of Latin, held the post till his death. In 1879, Nettleship sat in the committee, formed to create an Oxford women's college "in which no distinction will be made between students on the ground of their belonging to different religious denominations." This resulted in the founding of Somerville Hall. He had Henry Melvill and a daughter, Edith. Nettleship had always been interested in Virgil, a good deal of his time was devoted to his favourite poet.
After John Conington's death in 1869, he saw his edition of Virgil through the press, revised and corrected subsequent editions of the work. In 1875, he had undertaken to compile a new Latin lexicon for the Clarendon Press, but the work proved more than he could accomplish, in 1887 he published some of the results of twelve years' labour in a volume entitled Contributions to Latin Lexicography, a genuine piece of original work. In conjunction with John Edwin Sandys, Nettleship revised and edited Oskar Seyffert's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, he contributed to a volume entitled Essays on the Endowment of Research an article on "The Present Relations between Classical Research and Classical Education in England," in which he pointed out the great value of the professorial lecture in Germany. In his views on the research question, he was a follower of Mark Pattison, whose essays he edited in 1889 for the Clarendon Press. In Lectures and Essays on Subjects connected with Latin Literature and Scholarship, Nettleship revised and republished some of his previous publications.
A second series of these, published in 1895, edited by F. Haverfield, contained a memoir by Mrs M. Nettleship. Obituary notices appeared in The Times; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nettleship, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by Henry Nettleship at Open Library Works by or about Henry Nettleship in libraries Complete online version of Lectures and Essays, 1895
The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic. The term includes the Julian calendar established by the reforms of the dictator Julius Caesar and emperor Augustus in the late 1st century BC and sometimes includes any system dated by inclusive counting towards months' kalends and ides in the Roman manner; the term excludes the Alexandrian calendar of Roman Egypt, which continued the unique months of that land's former calendar. Roman dates were counted inclusively forward to the next of three principal days: the first of the month, a day less than the middle of the month, eight days—nine, counting inclusively—before this; the original calendar consisted of 10 months beginning in spring with March. These months ran for 38 nundinal cycles, each forming an eight-day week ended by religious rituals and a public market; the winter period was divided into two months and February. The legendary early kings Romulus and Numa Pompilius were traditionally credited with establishing this early fixed calendar, which bears traces of its origin as an observational lunar one.
In particular, the kalends and ides seem to have derived from the first sighting of the crescent moon, the first-quarter moon, the full moon respectively. The system ran well short of the solar year, it needed constant intercalation to keep religious festivals and other activities in their proper seasons. For superstitious reasons, such intercalation occurred within the month of February after it was no longer considered the last month. After the establishment of the Roman Republic, years began to be dated by consulships and control over intercalation was granted to the pontifices, who abused their power by lengthening years controlled by their political allies and shortening the years in their rivals' terms of office. Having won his war with Pompey, Caesar used his position as Rome's chief pontiff to enact a calendar reform in 46 BC, coincidentally making the year of his third consulship last for 446 days. In order to avoid interfering with Rome's religious ceremonies, the reform added all its days towards the ends of months and did not adjust any nones or ides in months which came to have 31 days.
The Julian calendar was supposed to have a single leap day on 24 February every fourth year but following Caesar's assassination the priests figured this using inclusive counting and mistakenly added the bissextile day every three years. In order to bring the calendar back to its proper place, Augustus was obliged to suspend intercalation for one or two decades; the revised calendar remaining longer than the solar year, the date of Easter shifted far enough away from the vernal equinox that Pope Gregory XIII ordered its adjustment in the 16th century. The original Roman calendar is believed to have been an observational lunar calendar whose months began from the first signs of a new crescent moon; because a lunar cycle is about 29 1⁄2 days long, such months would have varied between 29 and 30 days. Twelve such months would have fallen 11 days short of the solar year. Given the seasonal aspects of the calendar and its associated religious festivals, this was avoided through some form of intercalation or through the suspension of the calendar during winter.
Rome's 8-day week, the nundinal cycle, was shared with the Etruscans, who used it as the schedule of royal audiences. It was a part of the early calendar and was credited in Roman legend variously to Romulus and Servius Tullius; the Romans themselves described their first organized year as one with ten fixed months, each of 30 or 31 days. Such a decimal division fitted general Roman practice; the four 31-day months were called "full" and the others "hollow". Its 304 days made up 38 nundinal cycles; the system is said to have left the remaining 50-odd days of the year as an unorganized "winter", although Licinius Macer's lost history stated the earliest Roman calendar employed intercalation instead and Macrobius claims the 10-month calendar was allowed to shift until the summer and winter months were misplaced, at which time additional days belonging to no month were inserted into the calendar until it seemed things were restored to their proper place. Roman writers credited this calendar to Romulus, their legendary first king and culture hero, although this was common with other practices and traditions whose origin had been lost to them.
Some scholars doubt the existence of this calendar at all, as it is only attested in late Republican and Imperial sources and supported only by the misplaced names of the months from September to December. Rüpke finds the coincidence of the length of the supposed "Romulan" year with the length of the first ten months of the Julian calendar to be suspicious. Other traditions existed alongside this one, however. Plutarch's Parallel Lives recounts that Romulus's calendar had been solar but adhered to the general principle that the year should last for 360 days. Months were employed secondarily and haphazardly, with some counted as 20 days and others as 35 or more; the attested calendar of the Roman Republic was quite different. It followed Gre