Bryant McFadden is a former American football cornerback. He played college football at Florida State and was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the second round of the 2005 NFL Draft. McFadden was a member of the Arizona Cardinals, he earned two Super Bowl rings during his time with the Steelers, Super Bowl XL and Super Bowl XLIII. He is the older brother of Walter McFadden. McFadden serves as a studio analyst for the all-digital sports network, 120 Sports, he hosts Huddlecast, the football podcast of his alma mater, Florida State University. Bryant McFadden attended McArthur High School in Florida, he was ranked the top cornerback by most recruiting services. As a senior, he was a USA Today All-USA selection, a Parade All-America first team selection, named to the Super Southern 100 team by the Atlanta Journal Constitution, after posting two interceptions and 75 tackles; as a junior, he posted 75 tackles. McFadden played college football at Florida State University where he finished his career with 107 tackles.
He played free safety at FSU, but he sometimes doubled as a cornerback. He majored with a minor in studio art. Bryant was drafted 62nd overall in the 2005 NFL Draft, as a nickel back, he recorded his first career interception against Jacksonville in Week 5. Filling in at the starting position for the injured Deshea Townsend, McFadden intercepted a Byron Leftwich pass in the Steelers' end zone; the interception led to a game-tying Jeff Reed 29-yard field goal. The Steelers ended up losing, 23-17. Bryant is well known among Steelers fans for his two big plays in the AFC Divisional Playoffs against the Indianapolis Colts. After Jerome Bettis's crucial fumble at the goal line, Colts' quarterback Peyton Manning threw to the end zone for wide receiver Reggie Wayne. Bryant tipped the ball away at the last second. On the next play, Manning again went deep for Wayne, McFadden tipped it away again. Mike Vanderjagt missed a game-tying field goal, he finished his debut season with 18 tackles, one interception and a victory at Super Bowl XL.
In the third game of the 2007 season against the San Francisco 49ers, he intercepted the ball and ran it back for a touchdown. He ended the campaign with one interception. An unrestricted free agent in the 2009 offseason, McFadden signed a two-year, $10 million contract with the Arizona Cardinals, the team the Steelers had just beaten in Super Bowl XLIII. McFadden finished. McFadden, along with Arizona's sixth round draft pick was traded back to the Steelers during the 2010 NFL Draft, in exchange for the Steelers' second fifth round draft pick. At the end of the 2010 season, McFadden and the Steelers appeared in Super Bowl XLV against the Green Bay Packers, he recorded four total tackles in the 31 -- 25 loss. He played two seasons with the Steelers, with 91 tackles in 29 games, was released on February 8, 2012. While still a player, for three seasons, McFadden hosted his own 30-minute weekly TV show on WPMY, “The Hometowne Sports B-Mac Corner.” He hosted a weekly radio show on Pittsburgh’s WEAE-FM in 2011-12.
Following his playing career, McFadden joined the team at 120 Sports, an all-digital sports network based out of Chicago, where he now serves as a studio analyst. In addition to his work on 120 Sports, McFadden has worked as a game analyst for the 2015 Southern Heritage Classic on Fox Sports South, been a regular guest on radio shows across the country, including national broadcasts on ESPN Radio and Sirius/XM. McFadden joins several of his Steelers’ teammates who have moved into broadcasting after their playing careers, including Jerome Bettis, Ryan Clark, Ike Taylor and Hines Ward, his younger brother, Walter McFadden, played cornerback for Auburn University and was drafted by the NFL’s Oakland Raiders. McFadden’s other cousin, Patrick Peterson, is a Pro Bowl cornerback for the Arizona Cardinals. Bryant McFadden on Twitter Arizona Cardinals bio Florida State Seminoles bio Pittsburgh Steelers bio
William Everett Parker Jr. is a former American football running back who played for six seasons for the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. After playing college football for North Carolina, he was signed by the Steelers as an undrafted free agent in 2004. Willie Parker was born in Clinton, North Carolina, attended Clinton High School, was a letterman in football and track, he was a two-time All-Region honoree. As a junior, he rushed for 1,329 yards and 20 touchdowns and helped lead his team to the state AA title; as a senior, he rushed for 1,801 yards and 18 touchdowns and was named the County Player of the Year. One of Parker's cousins is former Miami Dolphins running back. In track & field, Parker competed as a sprinter and was a state qualifier in the 100-meter dash and 4 × 100 m, he attended the University of North Carolina. In his first year, he had some success with 355 yards on 84 carries, but was only used sparingly in his last three years due to decisions made by former head Coach John Bunting to restrict Parker's playing time until he "bulked up" to fit within Bunting's attempt at establishing a power running game.
In addition, Parker's father has stated that he thought the murder of Parker's best friend from home during Parker's sophomore year made it difficult for him to adapt to the new system at North Carolina. Sophomore Year Willie played in nine games, he was able to finish the season second on the team in rushing with 400 yards but only having 83 carries and had three touchdowns. Willies best game was the Peach Bowl against Auburn where he racked up 131 rushing yards on 19 carries and scored one touchdown, his touchdown run in the first quarter gave Carolina a 7-0 lead. Willie caught three passes for 24 yards. Parker began the year as UNC’s starting tailback, but was replaced in the starting lineup against Florida State, he did not play against Florida State, NC State or Georgia Tech, but was a crucial part of the offense towards the end of the season. Had a 102-yard showing at Maryland in the second game of the season. Scored on UNC’s first play from scrimmage against the Terps on a 77-yard run. Parker had 66 yards on 10 carries and one touchdown vs. Duke, as outstanding against SMU, with 82 yards on 13 carries and a 2-yard touchdown run.
In the last two regular-season games against Duke and SMU, he totaled 148 yards on 23 carries and two touchdowns. Junior Year Willie started only two. Parker was able to start the season-opener at Virginia, he was able to finish the season second on the team with 70 carries for one touchdown. Willie was able to haul in 12 passes for 104 yards, his most productive day of the season was in Carolina’s win at Syracuse with 79 yards rushing on 13 carries, averaging 6.1 yards per attempt. He had a 50-yard touchdown run to end the first quarter as the Tar Heels took a 10-0 lead vs. SU. Willie led the Tar Heels with 43 yards rushing on 13 attempts against NC State, had one reception for five yards. Willie had five receptions for 43 yards at Virginia. Willie’s usage began to slip away against Florida State when he only mounted six rushes for 26 yards. Again against Maryland, his usage began to diminish when he only toted the ball four times for five yards. Willie gained, he gained 12 yards on five carries against Arizona State.
In a loss to the Longhorns, Willie was only able to gain 15 yards on two carriers. Parker's experience as a backup in college has since drawn comparison to Hall of Famer Franco Harris, the Steelers all-time leading rusher and Super Bowl IX MVP, who served as a backup to Lydell Mitchell when he played at Penn State. Joe Paterno preferred Mitchell's style over Harris. Parker was an undrafted free agent with the Steelers in 2004. While at UNC, Parker displayed great speed, but little vision, resulting in inconsistent play which led to him being benched in favor of Ronnie McGill during his senior year, he spent the 2004 NFL season as a backup player behind Duce Staley and Verron Haynes. During the 2004 season, he had his most impressive game in week 17 at Buffalo. Duce Staley started the game and played most of the first quarter, while Parker took over for the rest of the game, he ran for 102 yards in the remaining 3 quarters, including a long sprint of 58 yards, part of a game-controlling drive. The Steelers, playing reserves had sealed the top seed in the AFC that year, but for the Bills, a win could have meant the playoffs.
After Parker's performance in this game, head coach Bill Cowher gave Parker extensive playing time during the 2005 preseason. In his second year, Parker earned the starting job after both Bettis and Staley missed the first part of the season with injuries. By default, Parker had to play the first game against the Tennessee Titans, he impressed Bill Cowher, as well as Titans coach Jeff Fisher, by gaining 161 rushing yards on 22 attempts. After following this performance with another 100+ yard game against the Houston Texans, Cowher gave Parker the starting position. "Fast Willie" started 15 of 16 games that season, finishing with 255 carries for 1,202 yards and 4 touchdowns. He finished the season with 218 yards receiving and one touchdown. Pa
Trinidad and Tobago national football team
The Trinidad and Tobago national football team, nicknamed the Soca Warriors, represents the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago in international football. It is controlled by the Trinidad and Tobago Football Association and competes in both CONCACAF and the Caribbean Football Union, its sub-continental confederation; the team is ranked 93rd in the world according to the FIFA Rankings, 89 in the World Football Elo Ratings. They reached the first round of the 2006 World Cup and held the record of being the smallest nation to qualify for a World Cup, until the 2018 World Cup, when Iceland broke the record; the national team competes in the World Cup and the Gold Cup, in addition to the Caribbean Cup and other competitions by invitation. The Soca Warriors lone appearance at the World Cup came in 2006 after the team defeated Bahrain 2–1 on aggregate in the CONCACAF–AFC intercontinental play-off; the team has qualified for the CONCACAF Gold Cup on eight occasions with their best performance in 2000 after reaching the semi-finals, finishing 3rd.
However, the national team has experienced great success in the Caribbean Cup having won the sub-continental competition eight times and runners-up on five occasions. The separate Trinidad and Tobago national football teams are not related to the national team and are not directly affiliated with the game's governing bodies of FIFA or CONCACAF, but are affiliated with the Trinidad and Tobago Football Federation. At the 1973 CONCACAF Championship and Tobago fell two points short of qualifying for the 1974 World Cup Finals in controversial fashion. Trinidad and Tobago lost a crucial game on 4 December 1973 against hosts Haiti 2–1 after being denied five goals; the referee, José Roberto Henríquez of El Salvador, Canadian linesman James Higuet were subsequently banned for life by FIFA for the dubious events of the match. Trinidad and Tobago came within one game of qualifying for the 1990 World Cup in Italy. Nicknamed the Strike Squad during the qualifying campaign and Tobago needed only a draw to qualify in their final game played at home against the United States on 19 November 1989.
In front of an over-capacity crowd of more than 30,000 at the National Stadium on Red Day, Paul Caligiuri of the United States scored the only goal of the game in the 38th minute dashing Trinidad and Tobago's qualification hopes. For the good behaviour of the crowd at the stadium, despite the devastating loss and overcrowded stands, the spectators of Trinidad and Tobago were awarded the FIFA Fair Play Award in 1989. Trinidad and Tobago qualified for the 2006 World Cup in Germany, its first-ever qualification for the tournament. During their qualifying campaign, they sat at the bottom of the table in the final round of qualifying with one point from three. However, after the arrival of Leo Beenhakker as team coach and the recalling of veteran players Dwight Yorke and Russell Latapy and Tobago reversed its fortunes and placed fourth in the group, they qualified via a play-off against Bahrain, recovering from a 1–1 draw at home to win 1–0 in Manama, Bahrain to book a place in the finals. As a result and Tobago became the smallest country to qualify for the FIFA World Cup, a record they held until Iceland reached their first World Cup in 2018.
In Germany and Tobago were grouped with England and Paraguay in Group B. They drew their first game 0–0 against Sweden despite going down to ten men early in the second half, they lost both their remaining matches against Paraguay by a 2 -- 0 margin. Trinidad and Tobago began their campaign in the Second Round with a home and away series against Bermuda. Trinidad and Tobago lost the first match at home 1–2, but bounced back to win the away leg in Bermuda 2–0 to progress to the third round 3–2 on aggregate; the Soca Warriors advanced to Group 1 of the Third Round alongside the United States and Cuba. Trinidad and Tobago progressed to the Fourth Round by placing second in the group with eleven points from six games; this qualified Trinidad and Tobago for the Fourth Round, or Hexagonal, against Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and the United States. The Fourth Round was played in a home and away format among the six teams involved. Qualification turned disastrous for Trinidad and Tobago as they tied 2–2 with El Salvador after leading 2–0.
They would tie 1–1 with Honduras following a late-strike. However, three consecutive losses to the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico found the Soca Warriors bottom of the Hexagonal with two points from their first five matches. In their sixth match, they recorded their first win of the round by defeating El Salvador 1–0. However, the victory was short lived as they suffered losses to Honduras and the United States the following month. Trinidad and Tobago entered qualification for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in the Second Round of CONCACAF as a seeded team with Guyana and Barbados the other teams drawn in Group B; the Soca Warriors defeated Bermuda and Bardados in their first two matches to earn a full six points. However, on 7 October 2011, Trinidad and Tobago lost away to Bermuda in Devonshire Parish 2–1 to hurt its chances of advancing to the Third Round of qualification; the team rebounded four days by defeating Barbados 4–0 in Hasely Crawford Stadium with a hat-trick from Lester Peltier. Entering the final two matches in the Second Round and Tobago found itself in second place behind Guyana by one point.
As only the group winner would advance to the Third Round of qualification, the Soca Warriors needed to take four points in the next two matches both facing Guyan
Charles D'Donte Batch is a former American football quarterback who played in the National Football League. He was drafted by the Detroit Lions in the second round of the 1998 NFL Draft and played 15 seasons in the NFL, most of it as a backup with his hometown Pittsburgh Steelers, with whom he earned two Super Bowl rings, he played college football at Eastern Michigan. Batch works for KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh as a pre-game analyst for the Steelers as well as a color commentator for their preseason games. Batch works with Champs Sports Network as a color analyst for WPIAL high school football and basketball broadcasts. Batch is the son of Lynne Settles, a former school teacher, Nilesh Shah, a former Pittsburgh steel mill operator. Batch had a remarkable career at Eastern Michigan University, owning every passing record, he earned a degree in criminal justice. He was a local favorite when he was drafted by the Detroit Lions in the second round of the 1998 NFL Draft. Source: Charlie Batch was the Detroit Lions' starter through better parts of the 1998–2001 seasons.
After the surprising retirement of running back Barry Sanders in 1999, Detroit struggled to find consistency in its running game, Batch was asked to assume a "hybrid" quarterback role and assist in the Lions' running game by using various QB sweeps, QB draws in an attempt to keep defenders off balance. He proved to be injury prone, in his years with Detroit. In 1999, the year Sanders retired, Batch helped rally Detroit to a surprising wildcard playoff game against the Washington Redskins. Batch did not play in the game, giving way to Gus Frerotte due to injury, Detroit lost 27–13; the 2000 season proved to be Batch's last full season as an NFL starter. He was injured in a pivotal game; the game cost the Lions a playoff berth and set into motion a radical turn of events in the Lions' front office, resulting in the hiring of Fox Sports color commentator Matt Millen as the new CEO and general manager. Millen's arrival resulted in an extreme makeover in Detroit's roster, Batch became one of the more visible casualties.
He started the 2001 season as Detroit's starter under new head coach Marty Mornhinweg, but was injured late in 2001. Batch was replaced mid-season by Ty Detmer for whom the Cleveland Browns received a fourth round pick, but had planned to cut him. Detmer came in as a starter only to throw seven interceptions against his former team. Batch was released by the Lions that offseason for stated salary cap reasons. Batch had been deemed expendable due in part to the team's drafting of Joey Harrington with their first-round pick, Millen had gone on record in his desire to find a starting quarterback other than Batch earlier that year. Still, Batch passed for over 9,000 yards with Detroit. Batch would last longer in the NFL than Harrington, who would prove to be a draft bust and was out of the NFL by 2009; the Pittsburgh Steelers signed him to a one-year contract for 2002 as a backup. The move to sign Batch was not a surprise, given that Batch was from Pittsburgh and the Steelers' current Director of Football Operations Kevin Colbert drafted Batch in Detroit.
Despite not playing in 2002, Batch became popular with Steeler fans due to having grown up in nearby Homestead, Pennsylvania but because of his charity works. His contract was renewed by the Steelers, Batch saw some action in 2003. In 2004, Batch spent the season on injured reserve after offseason knee surgery. In 2005, he became the second-string quarterback for the Steelers, playing behind Ben Roethlisberger. During 2005, an injury to Roethlisberger gave Batch two starting opportunities, yielding two victories. In the process, Batch became the first Pittsburgh-area native to start for the team at quarterback since Terry Hanratty, a native of Butler, started for a few games during his rookie season in 1969 before becoming a backup the following season to Terry Bradshaw, he backed up Ben Roethlisberger during Super Bowl XL, the Steelers' 21-10 victory made Batch a Super Bowl Champion. On March 14, 2006, Charlie Batch signed a 3-year deal, through the 2008 season, he was one of several Pittsburgh Steelers players that visited Ben Roethlisberger in the hospital to hear of his condition after his motorcycle accident on June 12, 2006.
Batch was again tapped to fill in for Roethlisberger to start the Steelers 2006 season when Roethlisberger had to have an emergency appendectomy the week before the season started. Batch had his best game in over 4 years, throwing for 209 yards, 3 touchdowns, no interceptions, he threw the first touchdown pass of the 2006 regular season. Batch temporarily replaced Ben Roethlisberger in week 7 in Atlanta when Roethlisberger went down with a concussion. Batch completed 8 of 13 passes for 195 yards and 2 touchdowns, including a 70-yard touchdown pass to Hines Ward. On August 8, 2008, Batch sustained a broken clavicle in the second quarter of a pre-season game against the Philadelphia Eagles at Heinz Field; the team signed former Jacksonville Jaguars starter Byron Leftwich. Batch was placed on season-ending injured reserve on August 30. On April 14, 2009, an unrestricted free agent after the 2008 season, re-signed with the Steelers. On November 22, 2009, Batch took over in a week 11 game against the Kansas City Chiefs in overtime after Ben Roethlisberger was
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
Pittsburgh Magazine is a lifestyle magazine covering the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. It has a monthly readership of 341,274, it produces the annual "40 Under 40" list of prominent young Pittsburghers in addition to the annual list of Pittsburgh's 25 Best Restaurants, Best of the'Burgh, Top Doctors, Top Dentists and annual City Guide. It is a member of the Regional Magazine Association; the magazine was purchased in 1970 by WQED. By 1978, it was still losing money, but it had gained tax-exempt status through WQED. Allies of Richard Mellon Scaife, the owner of the rival Pittsburgh Tribune-Review and the Pittsburgher, investigated the financial status, with a possible eye toward challenging the tax-exempt status. In 1983, the magazine was drawn into a battle between staff members regarding WQED's involvement with Nancy Reagan's anti-drug campaign. In 1990, the magazine was the subject of a libel lawsuit brought by two police officers after publishing an article about the disappearance of a Pittsburgh man.
Amid significant staff turnover, former employees suggested that the growth of the magazine was stunted by its relationship with the financially distressed WQED. In October 1993, Sewickley native Christopher E. Fletcher was hired as editor; the magazine underwent a significant format re-design in 1994. In 2009, the magazine was purchased by a suburban Denver-based publishing company. A short time the offices were moved out of WQED's Oakland headquarters to new facilities on Washington's Landing. In January 2010, the magazine launched its World Wide Web home: PittsburghMagazine.com, which includes daily and weekly blogs and e-media
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America. Though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2, it is the fifth largest in the West Indies; the original name for the island in the Arawaks' language was Iëre which meant "Land of the Hummingbird". Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow he had made before setting out on his third voyage; this has since been shortened to Trinidad. Caribs and Arawaks lived in Trinidad long before Christopher Columbus encountered the islands on his third voyage on 31 July 1498; the island remained Spanish until 1797, but it was settled by French colonists from the French Caribbean Martinique. In 1889 the two islands became a single British Crown colony.
Trinidad and Tobago obtained self-governance in 1958 and independence from the United Kingdom in 1962. Major landforms include the hills of the Northern and Southern Ranges, the Caroni and Oropouche Swamps, the Caroni and Naparima Plains. Major river systems include the Caroni and South Oropouche and Ortoire Rivers. There are many other natural landforms such as waterfalls. Trinidad has two seasons per calendar year: the dry season. El Cerro del Aripo, at 940 metres, is the highest point in Trinidad, it is part of the Aripo Massif and is located in the Northern Range on the island, northeast of the town of Arima. The demographics of Trinidad and Tobago reflect the diversity of this southern-most country in the West Indies, it is sometimes known as a "rainbow island" or more fondly "a callaloo". There is a wide range of ethnicity and culture; the variety of denominations has followed this pattern for decades: Protestant 32.1%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1%.
Religion in Trinidad and Tobago consists of a diverse array of denominations including Roman Catholic, other Christian denominations and Muslim faiths. There are a minority of people who are followers of Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Amerindian religions, Sikhism, Chinese folk religion and Bahá'í. Catholicism constitutes the largest religious denomination of the country; as of the 2011 Trinidad and Tobago Census, the population was 35.43% East Indian, 34.22% African, 7.66% Mixed – African and East Indian, 15.16% Mixed – Other. Venezuela has had a great impact on Trinidad's culture, such as introducing the music style parang to the island. Many groups overlap. For example, a "Dougla" is a person of African and East Indian descent who may identify as being part of either group. There are multiple festivals featuring the music of the Caribbean and the steelpan, which originated in Trinidad and is the country's national instrument; these festivals include the world-renowned Carnival, J'ouvert, Panorama, the national steel pan competition.
Trinidad has many public holidays, such as Indian Arrival Day, Emancipation Day, Independence Day, Republic Day, Labour Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Phagwah, Eid al-Fitr, Corpus Christi, Good Friday, Easter Monday and Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day. There are places that can be visited that hold cultural significance, such as Mount Saint Benedict and the Temple in the Sea. Further information: Natural history of Trinidad and Tobago The island of Trinidad has a rich biodiversity; the fauna is overwhelmingly of South American origin. There are about 100 species of mammals including the Guyanan red howler monkey, the collared peccary, the red brocket deer, the ocelot and about 70 species of bats. There are over 400 species of birds including the endemic Trinidad piping-guan. Reptiles are well represented, with about 92 recorded species including the largest species of snake in the world, the green anaconda, the spectacled caiman, one of the largest lizards in the Americas, the green iguana.
The largest of turtles nests on Trinidad's northern beaches. There are 37 recorded frog species, including the tiny El Tucuche golden tree frog, the more widespread huge cane toad. About 43 species of freshwater fishes are known including the well known guppy, it is estimated that there are at least 80,000 arthropods, at least 600 species of butterflies. The economy of Trinidad and Tobago is diversified, based to a large extent on oil, natural gas and agriculture, it is one of the leading gas-based export centres in the world, being the leading exporter of ammonia and methanol and among the top five exporters of liquefied natural gas. This has allowed Trinidad to capitalise on the biggest mineral reserves within its territories, it is an oil-rich country and stable economically. The Venezuela Tertiary Basin is a subsidence basin formed between the Caribbean and South American plates, is bounded on the north by the coast ranges of Venezuela and the Northern Range of Trinidad, bounded on the south by the Guayana Shield.
This Guayana shield supplied fine-grained clastic sediments, which with the subsidence, formed a regional negative gravity anomaly and growth faults. Oil and g