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Version control

A component of software configuration management, version control known as revision control or source control, is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, other collections of information. Changes are identified by a number or letter code, termed the "revision number", "revision level", or "revision". For example, an initial set of files is "revision 1"; when the first change is made, the resulting set is "revision 2", so on. Each revision is associated with the person making the change. Revisions can be compared and with some types of files, merged; the need for a logical way to organize and control revisions has existed for as long as writing has existed, but revision control became much more important, complicated, when the era of computing began. The numbering of book editions and of specification revisions are examples that date back to the print-only era. Today, the most capable revision control systems are those used in software development, where a team of people may concurrently make changes to the same files.

Version control systems most run as stand-alone applications, but revision control is embedded in various types of software such as word processors and spreadsheets, collaborative web docs and in various content management systems, e.g. Wikipedia's page history. Revision control allows for the ability to revert a document to a previous revision, critical for allowing editors to track each other's edits, correct mistakes, defend against vandalism and spamming in wikis. In computer software engineering, revision control is any kind of practice that tracks and provides control over changes to source code. Software developers sometimes use revision control software to maintain documentation and configuration files as well as source code; as teams design and deploy software, it is common for multiple versions of the same software to be deployed in different sites and for the software's developers to be working on updates. Bugs or features of the software are only present in certain versions. Therefore, for the purposes of locating and fixing bugs, it is vitally important to be able to retrieve and run different versions of the software to determine in which version the problem occurs.

It may be necessary to develop two versions of the software concurrently: for instance, where one version has bugs fixed, but no new features, while the other version is where new features are worked on. At the simplest level, developers could retain multiple copies of the different versions of the program, label them appropriately; this simple approach has been used in many large software projects. While this method can work, it is inefficient as many near-identical copies of the program have to be maintained; this requires a lot of self-discipline on the part of developers and leads to mistakes. Since the code base is the same, it requires granting read-write-execute permission to a set of developers, this adds the pressure of someone managing permissions so that the code base is not compromised, which adds more complexity. Systems to automate some or all of the revision control process have been developed; this ensures. Moreover, in software development and business practice and other environments, it has become common for a single document or snippet of code to be edited by a team, the members of which may be geographically dispersed and may pursue different and contrary interests.

Sophisticated revision control that tracks and accounts for ownership of changes to documents and code may be helpful or indispensable in such situations. Revision control may track changes to configuration files, such as those stored in /etc or /usr/local/etc on Unix systems; this gives system administrators another way to track changes made and a way to roll back to earlier versions should the need arise. Revision control manages changes to a set of data over time; these changes can be structured in various ways. The data is thought of as a collection of many individual items, such as files or documents, changes to individual files are tracked; this accords with intuitions about separate files but causes problems when identity changes, such as during renaming, splitting or merging of files. Accordingly, some systems such as Git, instead consider changes to the data as a whole, less intuitive for simple changes but simplifies more complex changes; when data, under revision control is modified, after being retrieved by checking out, this is not in general reflected in the revision control system, but must instead be checked in or committed.

A copy outside revision control is known as a "working copy". As a simple example, when editing a computer file, the data stored in memory by the editing program is the working copy, committed by saving. Concretely, one may print out a document, edit it by hand, only manually input the changes into a computer and save it. For source code control, the working copy is instead a copy of all files in a particular revision stored locally on the developer's computer. If multiple people are working on a single data set or document, they are implicitly creating branches of the data, thus issues of merging arise, as discussed below. For simple collaborative document

Julia Thorne

Julia Stimson Thorne was an American writer. She was the first wife of John Kerry, U. S. Senator during their marriage and Democratic presidential nominee and U. S. Secretary of State. Thorne was born in New York City on September 16, 1944, the daughter of Alice and Landon K. Thorne, Jr, her maternal great-grandfather was journalist David S. Barry. Thorne spent much of her childhood in Rome, she graduated from the Foxcroft School in 1962. She took some classes at the New York School of Interior Design and at Radcliffe. Thorne married John Kerry on May 23, 1970, wore a dress, over "two centuries old." She and Kerry had Alexandra Forbes Kerry and Vanessa Bradford Kerry. During their marriage, Julia began showing signs of depression and wrote that she had at one time contemplated suicide. In the 1980s, she created a nonprofit called the Depression Initiative to educate people about depression. Thorne and Kerry were divorced on July 1988 after a six-year separation, she overcame depression by 1990, by all accounts the two had an amicable relationship.

She married Richard J. Charlesworth in 1997 and they moved to Bozeman, Montana, she continued to be supportive of Kerry's run for president in 2004. Thorne died from cancer on April 2006, in her home in Concord, Massachusetts, her book, You Are Not Alone: Words of Experience and Hope for the Journey Through Depression collects accounts of different people who have faced depression. Ann Landers wrote that "this little book could be a lifesaver and the best $10 you will spend."A Change of Heart: Words of Experience and Hope for the Journey Through Divorce Julia Stimson Thorne's Family Tree Another Thorne Family Tree, with navigable links through the generations

2015 World Men's Handball Championship

The 2015 World Men's Handball Championship was the 24th staging of the World Men's Handball Championship, organised by the International Handball Federation. The final tournament was held for the first time in Qatar, from 15 January to 1 February 2015; the Qatari bid was selected over those of Norway and France after a vote by the IHF Council on 27 January 2011, in Malmö, Sweden. This is the third time that the World Championship was hosted in the Middle East And North Africa, after Egypt in 1999 and Tunisia in 2005. France won the final against Qatar 25–22 to win their fifth title, a first in handball history while Qatar won their first medal. Poland captured the bronze medal by defeating Spain 29–28 after extra time. Denmark secured the fifth place by winning against Croatia which finished sixth and thus had the worst result in the past 13 years of international handball competing; the competition was marred by numerous controversies throughout. The games of the tournament were played in the newly created town of Lusail.

Three new venues were constructed for the tournament: Lusail Sports Arena in the town of Lusail: with a capacity of 15,300 seats, Lusail hall became the main venue of the tournament. The hall opened in November 2014. Ali Bin Hamad Al Attiya Arena in al-Sadd district of Doha with a capacity of 7,700 seats; the hall is part of the al-Sadd Club sports complex. Duhail Handball Sports Hall in Duhail district of Doha with a capacity of 5,500 seats; the hall is part of the Qatar Handball Association complex. Twenty-four teams participated in the final tournament. Qatar, as hosts and Spain, as world champions, were automatically qualified, which left 22 places available for the best teams of each continental qualification tournament and the winners of an additional European qualification competition. In a decision taken by the International Handball Federation on 8 July 2014 the spot allocated for a nation from Oceania was revoked on the grounds that Oceania has no continental confederation; the national team, qualified for this spot through the 2014 Oceania Handball Championship, was Australia.

The spot was instead handed out as a wild card to the nation with the highest ranking at the previous world championships not qualified for the Qatar tournament. This nation was Germany. Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates withdrew on 7 November 2014. Iceland and Saudi Arabia were chosen as the replacements; the draw was held on 20 July 2014 at 21:30 local time in Qatar. The seedings were published on 11 July 2014; each team selects 16 players for the tournament. 18 referee pairs are selected: The schedule was published on 21 August 2014. A new schedule was released on 12 December 2014; the top four teams from each group advanced to the knockout stage. For the group stage of this tournament, where two or more teams in a group tied on an equal number of points, the finishing positions will be determined by the following tie-breaking criteria in the following order: number of points obtained in the matches among the teams in question goal difference in the matches among the teams in question number of goals scored in the matches among the teams in question goal difference in all the group matches number of goals scored in all the group matches drawing of lotsAll times are local.

The final rankings were used in the 2016 Summer Olympics qualification process. France, as World Champion, qualified for the Olympics; the next 6 teams earned a place in the Olympic Qualification Tournaments. Qatar and Germany, won their continental tournaments and thus their spots in the Olympic Qualification Tournaments went to Slovenia and Macedonia; as mentioned under qualifications, Australia lost its spot in the tournament due to an IHF decision, being replaced by Germany, who did not qualify. Further and United Arab Emirates withdrew. A large number of players in the Qatar team had been naturalised in the years leading up to the championship. According to IHF rules, to gain eligibility for a new national team, a player cannot have played for another nation for three years in an official match; this allowed several foreign-born players, including Spanish-born Borja Vidal, Goran Stojanović and Jovo Damjanović from Montenegro, Bertrand Roiné who played for France, to play for the Qatar team at the championship.

According to the Frankfurter Allgemeine, only four of the 17 players in the squad were native to Qatar. Head of the Qatar Handball Federation, Ahmed Mohammed Abdulrab Al Shaabi, acknowledged the policy in a statement in June 2013, saying "We're a small nation with limited human resources, so we had to bring players from outside in the past." He announced an end to the policy at the time, adding however that they " make an exception only in the case of an experienced goalkeeper." In January 2014, Danish sports agent Mads Winther said he had met with "contacts involved with Qatar" regarding the possibility of naturalising Danish players. The practice was criticised by Austrian goalkeeper after his team's loss to Qatar in the round of 16, saying "It like playing against a world selection team" and "I think it is not the sense of a world championship." At a press conference during the championship, Qatar head coach Valero Rivera declined to comment on the matter. Spanish player Joan Cañellas did not think it was an issue, saying "If they can do it, why not."After the controversial semi-final against Poland, reaching the final as a result the practice was more criticised, with players such as Danijel Šarić having now represented four different national teams.

Qatar flew in about 60 Spanish fans to cheer for Qatar during the championship. During the first 12 matches of the tournament, 143 two-minute suspens

HMS Faulknor (1914)

HMS Faulknor was a British destroyer of the First World War. She was purchased by the Royal Navy whilst still under construction in Britain for the Chilean Navy who had ordered her in 1912 as part of the Almirante Lynch class, she was renamed after the Faulknor family of British nineteenth century naval officers. Faulknor was a large destroyer leader that served throughout the war in the Dover Patrol, a force tasked with preventing German raiding craft gaining access to the English Channel where vulnerable troopships and other targets were available. Faulknor conducted numerous operations against the coastline of German-held Belgium, including participating in both the First and Second Ostend Raid during the spring of 1918. In 1920, following the end of the war and her surviving sisters were all returned to Chile, where she served as Almirante Riveros until 1933. In 1912, Chile placed an order for six large destroyers, the Almirante Lynch class, from the Cowes, Isle of Wight shipbuilder J. Samuel White in response to large destroyers ordered by Argentina.

Almirante Simpson, the third of the class, was launched on 26 February 1914 and purchased complete, by the Royal Navy on the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914. She was renamed Faulknor and commissioned on 25 August 1914. White's design was 331 feet 3 inches long overall and 320 feet 0 inches between perpendiculars, with a beam of 32 feet 6 inches and a draught of 11 feet 8 1⁄2 inches. Displacement was 1,430 long tons 1,800 -- 1,850 long tons full load. Six White-Forster boilers with mixed oil- and coal-firing fed steam at 220 pounds per square inch to Parsons steam turbines driving three shafts; the machinery was rated at 30,000 shaft horsepower. Four funnels were fitted, with three larger funnels; the forward funnel was raised by 6 feet following sea trials. 403 tons of coal and 83 tons of oil were carried, giving a range of 2,405 nautical miles at 15 knots. The ship was completed with a main gun armament of six 4-inch Mk. VI guns, with two mounted side-by-side on the ship's forecastle forward of the bridge, one on either side of the bridge, two side-by-side right aft.

These guns were of an Elswick design for export to Chile, fired a 31-pound shell to a range of 11,630 yards. A single 1​1⁄2-pounder pom-pom was fitted, although this was replaced by a 2-pounder gun. Four single 21 inch torpedo-tubes were mounted singly on the ship's sides. In 1918, she was rearmed based on experience of Dover Patrol operations, with the side-by-side 4-inch guns mounted fore-and-aft removed and replaced by two single BL 4.7 inch /45 guns. These could fire a 50-pound shell to 15,800 yards. Faulknor took part in a sweep by the cruiser Fearless and 10 destroyers off the mouth of the River Ems on 25 October 1914 which acted as a diversion for a planned raid by aircraft from the seaplane carriers Engadine and Riviera, escorted by the Harwich Force, on the German airship base near Cuxhaven. Poor weather led to the abandonment of the operation, with four of the six aircraft unable to take off. On 5–7 November and 9–11 November Faulknor took part in patrols off the Dutch coast with the Harwich Force.

In November 1914, Faulknor was recorded as part of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla of the Grand Fleet. Early in February 1915, Faulknor took part in anti-submarine sweeps in the Irish Sea as a response to operations by U-21 which sank three small steamers on 30 January, in escorting the ships carrying the 1st Canadian Division from Avonmouth to St Nazaire. By March 1915, Faulknor had transferred to the 4th Destroyer Flotilla. On 12 March 1915, Faulknor and six destroyers were detached from the Grand Fleet for anti-submarine operations in the Irish Sea where the German submarines U-20 and U-27 were active, disrupting the operations of the Northern Patrol, but they were recalled on 15 March as a result of increased submarine activity off Rosyth. On 1 July 1915, U-25 attempted to torpedo the cruiser Hampshire off Noss Head near Caithness. Faulknor led an unsuccessful search by twelve destroyers together with several trawlers for the German submarine. Faulknor was still part of the 4th Flotilla in March 1916, but by 24 April 1916 was leader of the 12th Destroyer Flotilla of the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow.

Faulknor was still leader of the 12th Destroyer Flotilla at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May-1 June 1916, operating in support of the Grand Fleet. From about 19:15 hr Greenwich Mean Time, the Germans launched a series of torpedo-boat attacks against the British battle line, the 12th Flotilla got into a brief exchange of fire with German torpedo boats of the 3rd Torpedo-Boat Flotilla. Faulknor fired on the German torpedo boat V48, disabled in an earlier action with Shark, ordered four destroyers of her flotilla to finish off V48, with the German destroyer being sunk by gunfire from the four British ships. At about 01:43 hr GMT on 1 June, Faulknor spotted a group of German battleships and manoeuvred to set up a torpedo attack by her flotilla. Faulknor fired two torpedoes at the German battle line, while she claimed a single hit, both torpedoes missed although one narrowly missed the German battleship Grosser Kurfürst. One torpedo from Onslaught sunk the predreadnought battleship Pommern. On 2 November 1916, the German submarine U-30 suffered double engine failure 25 miles west of Bergen, with U-20 responding to U-30' s distress signals and taking the stricken submarine under tow.

U-30's radio signals were picked up by the

1997–98 Cypriot Cup

The 1997–98 Cypriot Cup was the 56th edition of the Cypriot Cup. A total of 50 clubs entered the competition, it began on 12 November 1997 with the preliminary round and concluded on 15 May 1998 with the final, held at Makario Stadium. Anorthosis won their 7th Cypriot Cup trophy after beating Apollon 3–1 in the final. In the 1997–98 Cypriot Cup, participated all the teams of the Cypriot First Division, the Cypriot Second Division, the Cypriot Third Division and 8 of the 14 teams of the Cypriot Fourth Division; the competition consisted of six knock-out rounds. In the preliminary round and in the first round each tie was played as a single leg and was held at the home ground of the one of the two teams, according to the draw results; each tie winner was qualifying to the next round. If a match was drawn, extra time was following. If extra time was drawn, there was a replay at the ground of the team who were away for the first game. If the rematch was drawn extra time was following and if the match remained drawn after extra time the winner was decided by penalty shoot-out.

The next three rounds were played in a two-legged format, each team playing a home and an away match against their opponent. The team which scored more goals on aggregate, was qualifying to the next round. If the two teams scored the same number of goals on aggregate the team which scored more goals away from home was advancing to the next round. If both teams had scored the same number of home and away goals extra time was following after the end of the second leg match. If during the extra thirty minutes both teams had managed to score, but they had scored the same number of goals the team who scored the away goals was advancing to the next round. If there weren't scored any goals during extra time, the qualifying team was determined by penalty shoot-out; the cup winner secured a place in the 1998–99 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. All the 14 clubs of the Cypriot Second Division, all the 14 clubs of the Cypriot Third Division and 8 clubs from the Cypriot Fourth Division participated in the preliminary round.

The 14 clubs of the Cypriot First Division advanced directly to the first round and met the winners of the preliminary round ties: "1997/98 Cyprus Cup". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2016-01-14. Cypriot Cup 1997–98 Cypriot First Division

George Edmundson (footballer)

Samuel George Alan Edmundson is an English footballer who plays as a defender for Scottish Premiership side Rangers. Edmundson signed for Oldham Athletic on a scholarship on 14 July 2013, signed a one-year professional contract on 13 May 2015, he was first included in a senior matchday squad on 22 August of that year, remaining an unused substitute in a 1–1 League One draw against Shrewsbury Town at Boundary Park. Nine days away to the same opposition, he made his debut in the first round of the Football League Trophy, playing the full 90 minutes of a 2–0 defeat at the New Meadow. On 13 October 2017, Edmundson joined National League side AFC Fylde on a one-month loan deal along with teammate Jamie Stott. After impressing in his loan spell at AFC Fylde, Edmundson returned to Oldham Athletic. During the 2018–19 season, Edmundson formed an impressive partnership with veteran defender Peter Clarke, was named in the EFL League Two team of the season Edmundson signed for Rangers on 21 June 2019, for an undisclosed transfer fee, where he claimed the number 4 shirt he wore at Oldham.

He made his European competition debut, starting against St. Joseph's of Gibraltar, in a 6–0 Rangers victory in the second leg of the Europa League first qualifying round, he scored his first goal for the club in a 3-1 defeat at home to Bayer Leverkusen. As of match played 4 August 2019 George Edmundson at Soccerbase George Edmundson at Soccerway Ramsbottom United profile