Polygon
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure, described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed polygonal chain or polygonal circuit. The solid plane region, the bounding circuit, or the two together, may be called a polygon; the segments of a polygonal circuit are called its edges or sides, the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices or corners. The interior of a solid polygon is sometimes called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. A simple polygon is one. Mathematicians are concerned only with the bounding polygonal chains of simple polygons and they define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to cross over itself, creating star polygons and other self-intersecting polygons. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. There are many more generalizations of polygons defined for different purposes; the word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς "much", "many" and γωνία "corner" or "angle".
It has been suggested. Polygons are classified by the number of sides. See the table below. Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity: Convex: any line drawn through the polygon meets its boundary twice; as a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°. Equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints. Non-convex: a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice. Equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon. Simple: the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself. All convex polygons are simple. Concave. Non-convex and simple. There is at least one interior angle greater than 180°. Star-shaped: the whole interior is visible from at least one point, without crossing any edge; the polygon must be simple, may be convex or concave. All convex polygons are star-shaped. Self-intersecting: the boundary of the polygon crosses itself.
The term complex is sometimes used in contrast to simple, but this usage risks confusion with the idea of a complex polygon as one which exists in the complex Hilbert plane consisting of two complex dimensions. Star polygon: a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon can not be both star-shaped. Equiangular: all corner angles are equal. Cyclic: all corners lie on a single circle, called the circumcircle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive: all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is cyclic and equiangular. Equilateral: all edges are of the same length; the polygon need not be convex. Tangential: all sides are tangent to an inscribed circle. Isotoxal or edge-transitive: all sides lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is equilateral and tangential. Regular: the polygon is both isogonal and isotoxal. Equivalently, it is both equilateral, or both equilateral and equiangular. A non-convex regular polygon is called a regular star polygon. Rectilinear: the polygon's sides meet at right angles, i.e. all its interior angles are 90 or 270 degrees.
Monotone with respect to a given line L: every line orthogonal to L intersects the polygon not more than twice. Euclidean geometry is assumed throughout. Any polygon has as many corners; each corner has several angles. The two most important ones are: Interior angle – The sum of the interior angles of a simple n-gon is π radians or × 180 degrees; this is because any simple n-gon can be considered to be made up of triangles, each of which has an angle sum of π radians or 180 degrees. The measure of any interior angle of a convex regular n-gon is 180 − 360 n degrees; the interior angles of regular star polygons were first studied by Poinsot, in the same paper in which he describes the four regular star polyhedra: for a regular p q -gon, each interior angle is π p radians or 180 p degrees. Exterior angle – The exterior angle is the supplementary angle to the interior angle. Tracing around a convex n-gon, the angle "turned" at a corner is external angle. Tracing all the way around the polygon makes one full turn, so the sum of the exterior angles must be 360°.
This argument can be generalized to concave simple polygons, if external angles that turn in the opposite direction are subtracted from the total turned. Tracing around an n-gon in general, the sum of the exterior angles can be any integer multiple d of 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight" or antiparallelogram, where d is the density or starriness of the polygon. See orbit. In this section, the vertices of the polygon under consideration are taken to be, ( x 1
Dodecahedron
In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the regular dodecahedron, a Platonic solid. There are three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form. All of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120; the pyritohedron, a common crystal form in pyrite, is an irregular pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one but pyritohedral symmetry while the tetartoid has tetrahedral symmetry. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a limiting case of the pyritohedron, has octahedral symmetry; the elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra, are space-filling. There are a large number of other dodecahedra; the convex regular dodecahedron is one of the five regular Platonic solids and can be represented by its Schläfli symbol. The dual polyhedron is the regular icosahedron, having five equilateral triangles around each vertex; the convex regular dodecahedron has three stellations, all of which are regular star dodecahedra.
They form three of the four Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra. They are the small stellated dodecahedron, the great dodecahedron, the great stellated dodecahedron; the small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron are dual to each other. All of these regular star dodecahedra have regular pentagrammic faces; the convex regular dodecahedron and great stellated dodecahedron are different realisations of the same abstract regular polyhedron. In crystallography, two important dodecahedra can occur as crystal forms in some symmetry classes of the cubic crystal system that are topologically equivalent to the regular dodecahedron but less symmetrical: the pyritohedron with pyritohedral symmetry, the tetartoid with tetrahedral symmetry: A pyritohedron is a dodecahedron with pyritohedral symmetry. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not constrained to be regular, the underlying atomic arrangement has no true fivefold symmetry axes.
Its 30 edges are divided into two sets -- containing 6 edges of the same length. The only axes of rotational symmetry are three mutually perpendicular twofold axes and four threefold axes. Although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the pyritohedron form occurs in the crystals of the mineral pyrite, it may be an inspiration for the discovery of the regular Platonic solid form; the true regular dodecahedron can occur as a shape for quasicrystals with icosahedral symmetry, which includes true fivefold rotation axes. Its name comes from one of the two common crystal habits shown by pyrite, the other one being the cube; the coordinates of the eight vertices of the original cube are: The coordinates of the 12 vertices of the cross-edges are: where h is the height of the wedge-shaped "roof" above the faces of the cube. When h = 1, the six cross-edges degenerate to points and a rhombic dodecahedron is formed; when h = 0, the cross-edges are absorbed in the facets of the cube, the pyritohedron reduces to a cube.
When h = −1 + √5/2, the multiplicative inverse of the golden ratio, the result is a regular dodecahedron. When h = −1 − √5/2, the conjugate of this value, the result is a regular great stellated dodecahedron. A reflected pyritohedron is made by swapping; the two pyritohedra can be superimposed to give the compound of two dodecahedra. The image to the left shows the case; the pyritohedron has a geometric degree of freedom with limiting cases of a cubic convex hull at one limit of colinear edges, a rhombic dodecahedron as the other limit as 6 edges are degenerated to length zero. The regular dodecahedron represents a special intermediate case where all edges and angles are equal. A tetartoid is a dodecahedron with chiral tetrahedral symmetry. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not regular and the figure has no fivefold symmetry axes. Although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the tetartoid form does.
The name tetartoid comes from the Greek root for one-fourth because it has one fourth of full octahedral symmetry, half of pyritohedral symmetry. The mineral cobaltite can have this symmetry form, its topology can be as a cube with square faces bisected into 2 rectangles like the pyritohedron, the bisection lines are slanted retaining 3-fold rotation at the 8 corners. The following points are vertices of a tetartoid pentagon under tetrahedral symmetry:, it can be seen as a tetrahedron, with edges divided into 3 segments, along with a center point of each triangular face. In Conway polyhedron notation it can be seen as a gyro tetrahedron. A lower symmetry form of the regular dodecahedron can be constructed as the dual of a polyhedra constructed from two triangular anticupola connected base-to-base, called a triangular gyrobianticupo
Platonic solid
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron. It is constructed by congruent regular polygonal faces with the same number of faces meeting at each vertex. Five solids meet these criteria: Geometers have studied the Platonic solids for thousands of years, they are named for the ancient Greek philosopher Plato who hypothesized in his dialogue, the Timaeus, that the classical elements were made of these regular solids. The Platonic solids have been known since antiquity, it has been suggested that certain carved stone balls created by the late Neolithic people of Scotland represent these shapes. The ancient Greeks studied the Platonic solids extensively; some sources credit Pythagoras with their discovery. Other evidence suggests that he may have only been familiar with the tetrahedron and dodecahedron and that the discovery of the octahedron and icosahedron belong to Theaetetus, a contemporary of Plato. In any case, Theaetetus gave a mathematical description of all five and may have been responsible for the first known proof that no other convex regular polyhedra exist.
The Platonic solids are prominent in the philosophy of Plato, their namesake. Plato wrote about them in the dialogue Timaeus c.360 B. C. in which he associated each of the four classical elements with a regular solid. Earth was associated with the cube, air with the octahedron, water with the icosahedron, fire with the tetrahedron. There was intuitive justification for these associations: the heat of fire feels sharp and stabbing. Air is made of the octahedron. Water, the icosahedron, flows out of one's hand when picked up, as if it is made of tiny little balls. By contrast, a nonspherical solid, the hexahedron represents "earth"; these clumsy little solids cause dirt to crumble and break when picked up in stark difference to the smooth flow of water. Moreover, the cube's being the only regular solid that tessellates Euclidean space was believed to cause the solidity of the Earth. Of the fifth Platonic solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks, "...the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven".
Aristotle added a fifth element, aithēr and postulated that the heavens were made of this element, but he had no interest in matching it with Plato's fifth solid. Euclid mathematically described the Platonic solids in the Elements, the last book of, devoted to their properties. Propositions 13–17 in Book XIII describe the construction of the tetrahedron, cube and dodecahedron in that order. For each solid Euclid finds the ratio of the diameter of the circumscribed sphere to the edge length. In Proposition 18 he argues. Andreas Speiser has advocated the view that the construction of the 5 regular solids is the chief goal of the deductive system canonized in the Elements. Much of the information in Book XIII is derived from the work of Theaetetus. In the 16th century, the German astronomer Johannes Kepler attempted to relate the five extraterrestrial planets known at that time to the five Platonic solids. In Mysterium Cosmographicum, published in 1596, Kepler proposed a model of the Solar System in which the five solids were set inside one another and separated by a series of inscribed and circumscribed spheres.
Kepler proposed that the distance relationships between the six planets known at that time could be understood in terms of the five Platonic solids enclosed within a sphere that represented the orbit of Saturn. The six spheres each corresponded to one of the planets; the solids were ordered with the innermost being the octahedron, followed by the icosahedron, dodecahedron and the cube, thereby dictating the structure of the solar system and the distance relationships between the planets by the Platonic solids. In the end, Kepler's original idea had to be abandoned, but out of his research came his three laws of orbital dynamics, the first of, that the orbits of planets are ellipses rather than circles, changing the course of physics and astronomy, he discovered the Kepler solids. In the 20th century, attempts to link Platonic solids to the physical world were expanded to the electron shell model in chemistry by Robert Moon in a theory known as the "Moon model". For Platonic solids centered at the origin, simple Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are given below.
The Greek letter φ is used to represent the golden ratio 1 + √5/2 ≈ 1.6180. The coordinates for the tetrahedron and dodecahedron are given in two orientation sets, each containing half of the sign and position permutation of coordinates; these coordinates reveal certain relationships between the Platonic solids: the vertices of the tetrahedron represent half of those of the cube, as or, one of two sets of 4 vertices in dual positions, as h or. Both tetrahedral positions make the compound stellated octahedron; the coordinates of the icosahedron are related to two alternated sets of coordinates of a nonuniform truncated octahedron, t or called a snub octahedron, as s or, seen in the compound of two icosahedra. Eight of the vertices of the dodecahedron are shared with the cube. Completing all orientat
Great icosahedron
In geometry, the great icosahedron is one of four Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra, with Schläfli symbol and Coxeter-Dynkin diagram of. It is composed of 20 intersecting triangular faces, having five triangles meeting at each vertex in a pentagrammic sequence; the great icosahedron can be constructed analogously to the pentagram, its two-dimensional analogue, via the extension of the -D simplex faces of the core nD polytope until the figure regains regular faces. The grand 600-cell can be seed as its four-dimensional analogue using the same process; the great icosahedron can be constructed a uniform snub, with different colored faces and only tetrahedral symmetry:. This construction can be called a retrosnub tetrahedron or retrosnub tetratetrahedron, similar to the snub tetrahedron symmetry of the icosahedron, as a partial faceting of the truncated octahedron:, it can be constructed with 2 colors of triangles and pyritohedral symmetry as, or, is called a retrosnub octahedron. It shares the same vertex arrangement as the regular convex icosahedron.
It shares the same edge arrangement as the small stellated dodecahedron. A truncation operation applied to the great icosahedron, produces a sequence of uniform polyhedra. Truncating edges down to points produces the great icosidodecahedron as a rectified great icosahedron; the process completes as a birectification, reducing the original faces down to points, producing the great stellated dodecahedron. The truncated great stellated dodecahedron is a degenerate polyhedron, with 20 triangular faces from the truncated vertices, 12 doubled up pentagonal faces as truncations of the original pentagram faces, the latter forming two great dodecahedra inscribed within and sharing the edges of the icosahedron. Wenninger, Magnus. Polyhedron Models. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09859-9. Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald; the fifty-nine icosahedra. Tarquin. ISBN 978-1-899618-32-3. MR 0676126. H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8, 3.6 6.2 Stellating the Platonic solids, pp. 96–104 Eric W. Weisstein, Great icosahedron at MathWorld.
Weisstein, Eric W. "Fifteen stellations of the icosahedron". MathWorld. Uniform polyhedra and duals
Cube
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube is one of the five Platonic solids, it has 6 faces, 12 edges, 8 vertices. The cube is a square parallelepiped, an equilateral cuboid and a right rhombohedron, it is a regular square prism in three orientations, a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron, it has octahedral symmetry. The cube is the only convex polyhedron; the cube has four special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, edges and normal to its vertex figure. The first and third correspond to the B2 Coxeter planes; the cube can be represented as a spherical tiling, projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. For a cube centered at the origin, with edges parallel to the axes and with an edge length of 2, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are while the interior consists of all points with −1 < xi < 1 for all i.
In analytic geometry, a cube's surface with center and edge length of 2a is the locus of all points such that max = a. For a cube of edge length a: As the volume of a cube is the third power of its sides a × a × a, third powers are called cubes, by analogy with squares and second powers. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with a given surface area. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with the same total linear size. For a cube whose circumscribing sphere has radius R, for a given point in its 3-dimensional space with distances di from the cube's eight vertices, we have: ∑ i = 1 8 d i 4 8 + 16 R 4 9 = 2. Doubling the cube, or the Delian problem, was the problem posed by ancient Greek mathematicians of using only a compass and straightedge to start with the length of the edge of a given cube and to construct the length of the edge of a cube with twice the volume of the original cube, they were unable to solve this problem, in 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved it to be impossible because the cube root of 2 is not a constructible number.
The cube has three uniform colorings, named by the colors of the square faces around each vertex: 111, 112, 123. The cube has three classes of symmetry, which can be represented by vertex-transitive coloring the faces; the highest octahedral symmetry Oh has all the faces the same color. The dihedral symmetry D4h comes from the cube being a prism, with all four sides being the same color; the lowest symmetry D2h is a prismatic symmetry, with sides alternating colors, so there are three colors, paired by opposite sides. Each symmetry form has a different Wythoff symbol. A cube has eleven nets: that is, there are eleven ways to flatten a hollow cube by cutting seven edges. To color the cube so that no two adjacent faces have the same color, one would need at least three colors; the cube is the cell of the only regular tiling of three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is unique among the Platonic solids in having faces with an number of sides and it is the only member of that group, a zonohedron; the cube can be cut into six identical square pyramids.
If these square pyramids are attached to the faces of a second cube, a rhombic dodecahedron is obtained. The analogue of a cube in four-dimensional Euclidean space has a special name—a tesseract or hypercube. More properly, a hypercube is the analogue of the cube in n-dimensional Euclidean space and a tesseract is the order-4 hypercube. A hypercube is called a measure polytope. There are analogues of the cube in lower dimensions too: a point in dimension 0, a line segment in one dimension and a square in two dimensions; the quotient of the cube by the antipodal map yields the hemicube. If the original cube has edge length 1, its dual polyhedron has edge length 2 / 2; the cube is a special case in various classes of general polyhedra: The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron. These two together form the stella octangula; the int
Great dodecahedron
In geometry, the great dodecahedron is a Kepler–Poinsot polyhedron, with Schläfli symbol and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram of. It is one of four nonconvex regular polyhedra, it is composed of 12 pentagonal faces, with five pentagons meeting at each vertex, intersecting each other making a pentagrammic path. The discovery of the great dodecahedron is sometimes credited to Louis Poinsot in 1810, though there is a drawing of something similar to a great dodecahedron in the 1568 book Perspectiva Corporum Regularium by Wenzel Jamnitzer; the great dodecahedron can be constructed analogously to the pentagram, its two-dimensional analogue, via the extension of the -D pentagonal polytope faces of the core nD polytope until the figure again closes. It shares the same edge arrangement as the convex regular icosahedron. If only the visible surface is considered, it has the same topology as a triakis icosahedron with concave pyramids rather than convex ones; the excavated dodecahedron can be seen as the same process applied to a regular dodecahedron.
A truncation process applied to the great dodecahedron produces a series of nonconvex uniform polyhedra. Truncating edges down to points produces the dodecadodecahedron as a rectified great dodecahedron; the process completes as a birectification, reducing the original faces down to points, producing the small stellated dodecahedron. This shape was the basis for the Rubik's Cube-like Alexander's Star puzzle; the great dodecahedron provides an easy mnemonic for the binary Golay code Compound of small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron Eric W. Weisstein, Great dodecahedron at MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Three dodecahedron stellations". MathWorld. Uniform polyhedra and duals Metal sculpture of Great Dodecahedron