Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Emma, Lady Hamilton
Emma, Lady Hamilton was an English model and actress, best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of the portrait artist, George Romney. She was born Amy Lyon in Swan Cottage, Ness near Neston, England, the daughter of Henry Lyon, a blacksmith who died when she was two months old, she was raised by her mother, the former Mary Kidd, grandmother, Sarah Kidd, at Hawarden, received no formal education. She went by the name of Emma Hart. Mary Lyon, left with a 2-month-old daughter after her husband had died in somewhat mysterious circumstances, returned to her family home across the Dee, where her mother Sarah Kidd helped to raise Emma, forming a bond which they maintained throughout their lives. With her grandmother struggling to make ends meet at the age of 60, after Mary went to London in 1777, Emma began work, aged 12, as a maid at the Hawarden home of Doctor Honoratus Leigh Thomas, a surgeon working in Chester. Only a few months she was unemployed again and took the stage coach to London in autumn 1777, where she started work for the Budd family in Chatham Place, Blackfriars and met a maid called Jane Powell, who wanted to be an actress.
Emma joined in with Jane's rehearsals for various tragic roles. Pretty and ambitious, Emma started work at the Drury Lane theatre in Covent Garden, as maid to various actresses, among them Mary Robinson. Emma next worked as a model and dancer at the "Goddess of Health" for James Graham, a Scottish "quack" doctor; the establishment's greatest attraction was a bed through which electricity was passed, giving paying patrons mild shocks. This aided conception, many infertile couples paid high prices to try it. At fifteen, Emma met Sir Harry Fetherstonhaugh, who hired her for several months as hostess and entertainer at a lengthy stag party at Fetherstonhaugh's Uppark country estate in the South Downs, she is said to have entertained Harry and his friends by dancing in the nude on the dining room table. Fetherstonhaugh took Emma there as a mistress, but ignored her in favour of drinking and hunting with his friends. Emma soon formed a friendship with one of the guests, the dull but sincere Honourable Charles Francis Greville, second son of the Earl of Warwick and a member of Parliament for Warwick.
It was about this time. Fetherstonhaugh was furious at Emma appealed to Greville. Greville took her on condition that the child was fostered out. Once the child was born, she was removed to be raised by her great-grandmother at Hawarden for her first three years, subsequently deposited with Mr John Blackburn and his wife in Manchester; as a young woman, Emma's daughter saw her mother reasonably but when Emma fell into debt, her daughter worked abroad as a companion or governess. Greville kept Emma in a small house at Edgware Row, Paddington Green, at this time a village on the rural outskirts of London. Emma was at Greville's mercy and acceded to his requests to change her name to "Mrs Emma Hart", to dress in modest outfits in subdued colours and eschew a social life, he arranged for Emma's mother in her thirties, who had by now taken on the name of Cadogan to live with her as housekeeper and chaperone. Greville taught her to enunciate more elegantly, after a while, started to invite some of his friends to meet her.
Seeing an opportunity to make some money by taking a cut of sales, Greville sent her to sit for his friend, the painter George Romney, looking for a new model and muse. It was that Emma became the subject of many of Romney's most famous portraits, soon became London's biggest celebrity. In fact, so began Romney's lifelong obsession with her, sketching her nude and clothed in many poses that he used to create paintings in her absence. Through the popularity of Romney's work and of his striking-looking young model, Emma became well known in society circles, under the name of "Emma Hart", she was witty, intelligent, a quick learner, elegant and, as paintings of her attest beautiful. Romney was fascinated by her looks and ability to adapt to the ideals of the age. Romney and other artists painted her in many guises, foreshadowing her "attitudes". In 1783, Greville needed to find a rich wife to replenish his finances, found a fit in the form of eighteen-year-old heiress Henrietta Middleton. Emma would be a problem, as he disliked being known as her lover, his prospective wife would not accept him as a suitor if he lived with Emma Hart.
To be rid of Emma, Greville persuaded his uncle, younger brother of his mother, Sir William Hamilton, British Envoy to Naples, to take her off his hands. Greville's marriage would be useful to Sir William, as it relieved him of having Greville as a poor relation. To promote his plan, Greville suggested to Sir William that Emma would make a pleasing mistress, assuring him that, once married to Henrietta Middleton, he would come and fetch Emma back. Sir William 55 and newly widowed, had arrived back in London for the first time in over five years. Emma's famous beauty was by well known to Sir William, so much so that he agreed to pay the expenses for her journey to ensure her speedy arrival. A great collector of antiquitie
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
William Hamilton (diplomat)
Sir William Hamilton, was a British diplomat, antiquarian and vulcanologist. After a short period as a Member of Parliament, he served as British Ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples from 1764 to 1800, he studied the volcanoes Vesuvius and Etna, becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society and recipient of the Copley Medal. His second wife was Emma Hamilton, famed as Horatio Nelson's mistress. Hamilton was born on 13 December 1730 in either London or at Park Place, the fourth son of Lord Archibald Hamilton, governor of Jamaica, seventh son of William Douglas-Hamilton, Earl of Selkirk by the 3rd Duchess of Hamilton, Lady Jane Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 6th Earl of Abercorn, his mother was a favourite, a mistress, of the Prince of Wales and William grew up with his son George III, who would call him his "foster brother". At age nine, he went to Westminster School, where he made lifelong friends of Frederick Hervey and David Murray. Hamilton used to say that he was born with a thousand pounds.
So, six weeks after his sixteenth birthday, he was commissioned into the 3rd Foot Guards as an ensign. He spent some time with the regiment in the Netherlands, advanced to lieutenant in 1753. In September 1757 he was present as aide-de-camp to General Henry Seymour Conway at the abortive attack on Rochefort; the following year he left the Army, after having married Catherine Barlow, the daughter of Hugh Barlow, Member of Parliament for Pembroke Boroughs. The couple shared a love of music, the marriage, which lasted until Catherine's death on 25 August 1782, was a happy one. There were no children; when Catherine's father died in 1763 she inherited his estates in Wales and these provided the Hamiltons with a steady income. In 1761 Hamilton entered Parliament as Member for Midhurst; when he heard that the ambassador to the court of Naples, Sir James Gray, was to be promoted to Madrid, Hamilton expressed an interest in the position, was duly appointed in 1764. Hamilton arrived in Naples on 17 November 1764 with the official title of Envoy Extraordinary to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and would remain as ambassador to the court of Ferdinand and Maria Carolina until 1800, although from November 1798 he was based in Palermo, the court having moved there when Naples was threatened by the French Army.
As ambassador, Hamilton was expected to send reports back to the Secretary of State every ten days or so, to promote Britain's commercial interests in Naples, to keep open house for English travellers to Naples. These official duties left him plenty of time to pursue his interests in art and music, as well as developing new interests in volcanoes and earthquakes. Catherine, who had never enjoyed good health, began to recover in the mild climate of Naples, their main residence was the Palazzo Sessa, where they hosted official functions and where Hamilton housed his growing collection of paintings and antiquities. Hamilton began collecting Greek vases and other antiquities as soon as he arrived in Naples, obtaining them from dealers or other collectors, or opening tombs himself. In 1766–67 he published a volume of engravings of his collection entitled Collection of Etruscan and Roman antiquities from the cabinet of the Honble. Wm. Hamilton, His Britannick Maiesty's envoy extraordinary at the Court of Naples.
The text was written by d'Hancarville with contributions by Johann Winckelmann. A further three volumes were produced in 1769–76. During his first leave in 1771 Hamilton arranged the sale of his collection to the British Museum for £8,410. Josiah Wedgwood the potter drew inspiration from the reproductions in Hamilton's volumes. During this first leave, in January 1772, Hamilton became a Knight of the Order of the Bath and the following month was elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. In 1777, during his second leave to England, he became a member of the Society of Dilettanti; when Hamilton returned to England for a third period of leave, in 1783–84, he brought with him a Roman glass vase, which had once belonged to the Barberini family and which became known as the Portland Vase. Hamilton had sold it to the Duchess of Portland; the cameo work on the vase again served as inspiration to Josiah Wedgwood, this time for his jasperware. The vase was bought by the British Museum, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1792.
In 1798, as Hamilton was about to leave Naples, he packed up his art collection and a second vase collection and sent them back to England. A small part of the second vase collection went down with HMS Colossus off the Scilly Isles; the surviving part of the second collection was catalogued for sale at auction at Christie's when at the eleventh hour Thomas Hope stepped in and purchased the collection of South Italian vases. Soon after Hamilton arrived in Naples, Mount Vesuvius began to show signs of activity and in the summer of 1766 he sent an account of an eruption, together with drawings and samples of salts and sulphurs, to the Royal Society in London. On the strength of this paper he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In the autumn of 1767 there was an greater eruption and again Hamilton sent a report to the Royal Society; the two papers were published as an article in the Society's journal Philosophical Transactions. The Royal Society awarded him the Copley Medal in 1770 for his paper, "An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna"
Vertu was a British-based manufacturer and retailer of luxury handmade mobile phones, established by Finnish mobile-phone manufacturer Nokia in 1998. In October 2012, Nokia sold Vertu to private equity group EQT VI for an unspecified amount, but retained a 10% share. By the end of 2013, the company had around 350,000 customers, phones were on sale in 500 retail outlets, including 70 run by the company. In 2015, it was announced that EQT had sold its share of Vertu to Godin Holdings, a Hong Kong-based holding company. In 2017, the company collapsed after plans to save it failed and went out of business in early July 2017, leaving its residual staff of 200 unpaid and unemployed. After going bankrupt, Godin Holdings in 2017 sold to Baferton Ltd. a Cyprus-based Turkish company. According to The Economist, the concept was to market phones explicitly as fashion accessories, with the idea "if you can spend $20,000 on a watch, why not on a mobile phone?" Vertu is the brainchild of former chief designer at Nokia.
He proposed and presented the luxury concept to Nokia's board, who accepted it in late 1998. At the time Nokia released their first luxury phone, the 8850; the resulting products called "Vertu" were announced in Paris in 2002, part of a separate subsidiary called Vertu owned by Nokia. Vertu phones, or "'mobile communications instruments" were made in its factories in Church Crookham, England. Handsets were sold through an emphasis on craftsmanship and service, rather than mobile phone functions; the business was based in the United Kingdom with offices in New York City, Moscow, Hong Kong and Singapore. In November 2015, Massimiliano Pogliani was replaced by Billy Crotty as Vertu's CEO, who in turn was replaced by Gordon Watson three months later. Vertu was launched on 21 January 2002 and the first collection available that year; the flagship model "Signature" was launched in 2003. Its key pad contains nearly 5 carats of ruby bearings. Other models include Constellation Classic, Constellation Ayxta, among others.
Ascent phones are designed to be lightweight and durable, made of aluminium or titanium with vulcanised rubber and leather. The Classics are small handsets. Ayxtas are flip phones that come in numerous colours. In 2006, Vertu released the Aerius Bluetooth Headset designed by Jacob Jensen Design; the Constellation Quest is the first smartphone by Vertu, equipped with a full QWERTY keyboard made from sapphire sculpted keys. Announced in October 2010, it is styled to the Nokia E72 and runs the Symbian S60 operating system, it was priced from £5,000 to £17,300. This was followed by Constellation in the company's first touchscreen model. In February 2013, the Vertu Ti was the first Vertu handset after Nokia's sale, uses the Android mobile operating system instead of Symbian; this was followed in June 2014, by Signature Touch. The Signature Touch's price ranged from $10,300/€7,900 for the base model to over $50,000/€44,000 for the Pure Jet Red Gold. Vertu made limited edition handsets in collaboration with Ferrari, Bentley.
The 2017 version of the Vertu constellation was the last Vertu handset before the company collapsed in 2017. Vertu has since emerged from bankruptcy and introduced the Aster P smartphone in October 2018 at an event in Beijing. Vertu phones have been described as "tasteless trash" by Wired magazine, "technologically modest" by the Financial Times, they are described as bling. Goldvish Gresso Bellperre International Official website