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Very Large Scale Integration

Large-scale integration is the process of creating an integrated circuit by combining millions of MOS transistors onto a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when MOS integrated circuit chips were adopted, enabling complex semiconductor and telecommunication technologies to be developed; the microprocessor and memory chips are VLSI devices. Before the introduction of VLSI technology, most ICs had a limited set of functions they could perform. An electronic circuit might consist of ROM, RAM and other glue logic. VLSI lets IC designers add all of these into one chip; the history of the transistor dates to the 1920s when several inventors attempted devices that were intended to control current in solid-state diodes and convert them into triodes. Success came after World War II, when the use of silicon and germanium crystals as radar detectors led to improvements in fabrication and theory. Scientists who had worked on radar returned to solid-state device development. With the invention of the first transistor at Bell Labs in 1947, the field of electronics shifted from vacuum tubes to solid-state devices.

With the small transistor at their hands, electrical engineers of the 1950s saw the possibilities of constructing far more advanced circuits. However, as the complexity of circuits grew, problems arose. One problem was the size of the circuit. A complex circuit like a computer was dependent on speed. If the components were large, the wires interconnecting them must be long; the electric signals took time thus slowing the computer. The invention of the integrated circuit by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce solved this problem by making all the components and the chip out of the same block of semiconductor material; the circuits could be made smaller, the manufacturing process could be automated. This led to the idea of integrating all components on a single-crystal silicon wafer, which led to small-scale integration in the early 1960s, medium-scale integration in the late 1960s. Large-scale integration was made possible with the wide adoption of the MOS transistor invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.

Atalla first proposed the concept of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, followed by Kahng in 1961, both noting that the MOS transistor's ease of fabrication made it useful for integrated circuits. General Microelectronics introduced the first commercial MOS integrated circuit in 1964. In the early 1970s, MOS integrated circuit technology allowed the integration of more than 10,000 transistors in a single chip; this paved the way for VLSI in the 1970s and 1980s, with tens of thousands of MOS transistors on a single chip. The first semiconductor chips held two transistors each. Subsequent advances added more transistors, as a consequence, more individual functions or systems were integrated over time; the first integrated circuits held only a few devices as many as ten diodes, transistors and capacitors, making it possible to fabricate one or more logic gates on a single device. Now known retrospectively as small-scale integration, improvements in technique led to devices with hundreds of logic gates, known as medium-scale integration.

Further improvements led to large-scale integration, i.e. systems with at least a thousand logic gates. Current technology has moved far past this mark and today's microprocessors have many millions of gates and billions of individual transistors. At one time, there was an effort to name and calibrate various levels of large-scale integration above VLSI. Terms like ultra-large-scale integration were used, but the huge number of gates and transistors available on common devices has rendered such fine distinctions moot. Terms suggesting greater than VLSI levels of integration are no longer in widespread use. In 2008, billion-transistor processors became commercially available; this became more commonplace as semiconductor fabrication advanced from the then-current generation of 65 nm processes. Current designs, unlike the earliest devices, use extensive design automation and automated logic synthesis to lay out the transistors, enabling higher levels of complexity in the resulting logic functionality.

Certain high-performance logic blocks like the SRAM cell, are still designed by hand to ensure the highest efficiency. Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology originated by Carver Mead and Lynn Conway for saving microchip area by minimizing the interconnect fabrics area; this is obtained by repetitive arrangement of rectangular macro blocks which can be interconnected using wiring by abutment. An example is partitioning the layout of an adder into a row of equal bit slices cells. In complex designs this structuring may be achieved by hierarchical nesting. Structured VLSI design had been popular in the early 1980s, but lost its popularity because of the advent of placement and routing tools wasting a lot of area by routing, tolerated because of the progress of Moore's Law; when introducing the hardware description language KARL in the mid' 1970s, Reiner Hartenstein coined the term "structured VLSI design", echoing Edsger Dijkstra's structured programming approach by procedure nesting to avoid chaotic spaghetti-structured program As microprocessors become more complex due to technology scaling, microprocessor designers have encountered several challenges which force them to think beyond the design plane, look ahead to post-silicon: Process variation – As photolithography techniques get closer to the fundamental laws of optics, achieving high accuracy in doping concentrations and etched wires is becoming more difficult and

David Dudley Field I

David Dudley Field I was an American Congregational clergyman and historical writer. He was born in East Guilford, now Madison, Connecticut on May 20, 1781, the son of Timothy Field, an officer during the American Revolution, he graduated from Yale in 1802, received Doctorate in Divinity degree from Williams College. He held pastorates at Haddam and Stockbridge, Massachusetts, he wrote A History of the Town of Pittsfield, in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, A Statistical Account of the County of Middlesex in Connecticut, The Genealogy of the Brainerd Family, in the United States, with Numerous Sketches of Individuals, Centennial Address with Historical Sketches of Cromwell, Chatham, Middle-Haddam and its Parishes, among other works. He married Submit Dickinson in 1803, daughter of Noah Dickinson, a veteran of the French and Indian War and served in the Continental Army, they both raised nine children. He is buried at the Stockbridge Cemetery in Massachusetts, their children were: David Dudley Field, Jr. was a US Congressman and law reformer.

Emilia Ann Field Brewer, who married missionary Rev. Josiah Brewer Timothy Beals Field Mathew Dickinson Field Jonathan Edwards Field Stephen Johnson Field was an Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court. Cyrus West Field was a business man and industrialist who led the effort to lay the first Atlantic telegraph cable. Henry Martyn Field carried on in the family tradition becoming a author. Mary Elizabeth Field Hyamson, Albert Montefiore. A Dictionary of Universal Biography for All Ages and All People. P. 210 Yale Obituary Record David Dudley Field I at Find a Grave

Idemili South

Idemili South is a Local Government Area in Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. Towns that make up the local government are Akwu-Ukwu, Awka-Etiti, Nnokwa and Nnobi. Here are the list of secondary schools in Idemili South Local Government Area: John Secondary School, Akwu-Ukwu John Science & Technical College, Alor Girls’ Secondary School, Alor Girls’ Secondary School, Awka-Etiti St. Joseph’s Science Seminary school, Awka-Etiti Our Lady’s Secondary School, Nnobi Community Secondary School, Nnobi Community Sec. School, Nnokwa Unity Secondary School, Nnokwa Girls’ Secondary School, Oba Merchant Of Light Sec. School, Oba Boys’ Secondary School, Ojoto Girls’ Secondary School, Ojoto Glory Royal Academy Secondary School, Awka-Etiti Fr Paul's memorial secondary school Awka-Etiti LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN ANAMBRA STATE dated July 21, 2007.

List of M*A*S*H characters

This is a list of characters from the M*A*S*H franchise, covering the various fictional characters appearing in the novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors and its sequels, the 1970 film adaptation of the novel, the television series M*A*S*H, AfterMASH, W*A*L*T*E*R, Trapper John, M. D.. M*A*S*H is a popular media franchise revolving around the staff of the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital as they attempt to maintain sanity during the harshness of the Korean War. Gary Burghoff left the series after episode 8x05 “Goodbye, Radar: Part 2,” and thus billed as “Also Starring” for the first five episodes of Season 8. Captain Benjamin Franklin "Hawkeye" Pierce was played by Donald Sutherland in the film and by Alan Alda on television. Between long sessions of treating wounded patients, he is found making wisecracks, drinking carousing and pulling pranks on the people around him Frank Burns and "Hot Lips" Houlihan. Although just one of an ensemble of characters in author Richard Hooker's MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, in the television series Hawkeye became the center of the M*A*S*H unit's medical activity.

In the television series, he becomes the Chief Surgeon of the unit early in the first season. Pierce was born and raised in New England, most mentioning Crabapple Cove, with a few references to Vermont, he is an only child. His mother is deceased, he is close to his father, who—as mentioned in the episodes—is a doctor. In the film, Hawkeye is married with children, but in the TV series, he is a bachelor and something of a ladies' man, he was given the nickname "Hawkeye" by his father, from the character in the novel The Last of the Mohicans, "the only book my old man read." His birth name is taken from a member of Hooker's own family named Franklin Pierce. He attended Androscoggin College. In the book and the film, Hawkeye had played football in college. After completing his medical residency, he was drafted into the U. S. Army Medical Corps and sent to serve at the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital during the Korean War. Alda said of Pierce, "Some people think he was liberal, but he was a traditional conservative.

I mean, he wanted nothing more than to have people leave him alone so he could enjoy his martini, you know? Government should get out of his liquor cabinet". Pierce has little tolerance for military red tape and customs, feeling they get in the way of his doing his job, has little respect for most Regular Army personnel, he never wears rank insignia on his fatigues, never polishes his combat boots, only wears his Class A uniform when he believes appearance can achieve greater good – but does not wear any of the decorations to which he is entitled. On occasion, he assumes temporary command of the 4077th in the absence or disability of Colonels Blake or Potter; as a surgeon, he does not like the use of firearms and he refuses to carry a sidearm as required by regulations when serving as Officer of the Day. When ordered by Colonel Potter to carry his issue pistol on a trip to an aid station and they are ambushed on the road, he fires it into the air rather than at their attackers. In the series finale, "Goodbye and Amen", Hawkeye experiences a mental breakdown when a Korean woman responds to his frantic demand that she quiet her infant child lest enemy soldiers hear it and discover them, by suffocating it.

In talking to Sidney Freedman he thinks a woman is suffocating a chicken, only to his horror that it was a baby. When the Korean Armistice is announced, he states his intention to return to Crabapple Cove to be a local doctor who has the time to get to know his patients, instead of contending with the endless flow of casualties he faced during his time in Korea, he is depicted doing this in Hooker's two sequels, M*A*S*H Goes to Maine and M*A*S*H Mania. Captain John Francis Xavier McIntyre appears in the novels, the film, the M*A*S*H TV series, the Trapper John, M. D. series. He is one of the main characters in the M*A*S*H TV series during the first three seasons, the central character of the latter series, his nickname comes from an incident in which he was caught having sex with a woman in the lavatory aboard a Boston & Maine Railway train: she claimed in her defense that "he trapped me!" In the book and the film, Trapper John is a graduate of Dartmouth College and serves as thoracic surgeon of the 4077th.

In the film, he has a dry, sardonic deadpan sense of humor, while in the M*A*S*H TV series he is more of a class clown. Trapper spends much of his time on the series engaging in mischief with Hawkeye Pierce, with the two playing practical jokes on majors Frank Burns and "Hot Lips" Houlihan and trying to seduce women. While Trapper expresses great love for his wife and daughters, he fraternizes with the nurses a great deal, with no pretense of fidelity. In the film and Trapper are given equal focus, but in the TV series the character became more of a sidekick to the character of Hawkeye; this frustrated Rogers, in combination with a dispute over the terms of the contract for the fourth season, he quit the show. The character of B. J. Hunnicutt was created to replace him; the character returned to television in 1979 in the medical drama series Trapper John, M. D. Now played by Pernell Roberts, the character is depicted in the then-present day as Chief of Surgery at a San Francisco hospital; this version of the character is in continuity with the film

Movement of the Word of God

The Movement of the Word of God called Work of God the Father, is a pastoral community of disciples, a lay ecclesial movement within the Roman Catholic Church. Is defined itself as "a Catholic Community organized out of the pastoral charism of the Gospel, consecrated to evangelizing the desert of the world and to developing the Civilization of Love on Earth." It is an ecclesial movement of evangelical renewal and of evangelization with diverse types of members and services. It seeks to participate, within the Catholic Church, of the Ecumenism of Love with all the men and women of good will, collaborating with everything, true and just, thus seeking the union of all men and nations over their differences so that all, without distinction can, through Christ, have access to God in the Spirit of his Love." Their fundamental mission is to evangelize, seeking to develop the Civilization of Love through the salvation communities, under Jesus' Lordship over the world. It's an ecclesial Movement of evangelical renewal and evangelization, which finds itself alluded to in the spirit of Paul VI´s document Evangelii Nuntiandi and in the Second Vatican Council, when it states: "Christ the Lord, by the Holy Spirit, at the same time raises up in the Church institutes which take as their own special task the duty of preaching the Gospel, a duty belonging to the whole Church".

In 1976 the first youth prayer groups became aware that their identity arose from the Word of God, sought as lifestyle with the anointing of the Holy Spirit. The inspiration of a short Course of Evangelization, received by the founder of the Movement, Fr. Ricardo Martensen, was a decisive grace for the groups; the "Cursillo I", carried out in January 1976, sealed the identity and founded the spirituality of the Word of God as a lifestyle. This led to the awareness of its identity as The Movement of the Word of God. In 1980, Bishop Fr. Jorge Novak, welcomed the Movement in the diocese of Quilmes and in 1982 he gave the first canonical approval to the Movement and his statutes; the "Cursillo", acted as a bridge between the original charism received in those groups and the newness of The Movement of the Word of God, as a movement of evangelical renewal in the Church. Their identity was ecclesiastically confirmed on, with the definitive canonical approval of the Statutes, received on August 11, 1988.

"By their nature, charisms are communicative, give rise to that'spiritual affinity between persons' and that friendship in Christ, the origin of'movements'. The passage from the original charism to the movement happens through the mysterious attraction that the founder holds for all those who become involved in his spiritual experience"; the Charism of the Movement is: "To announce the Gospel from the Covenant of brotherly love, building disciple communities of salvation, under Jesus' Lordship" The peculiar thing about The Movement of the Word of God is a charism for reading and announcing the Word of God translating it into a significant and testimonial lifestyle. Such an announcement leads to the encounter and the experience of the true and living God of Revelation, who calls to conversion to a life surrendered and reconciled to God, of brotherly love and community covenant among believers. From the beginning, what would be called the charism of the Work arose from grace as a wish to live Jesus' Gospel in present time, with the fidelity of the Acts of the Apostles and the first Christian communities.

This charism is: 1- Evangelizing To announce Jesus kerygma-tically and charismatically as Savior and Lord, to announce the eternal Life of his Gospel. 2- Community building Developing the covenant of brotherly love in the community and of God's universal love for all men and women. From the beginning, the charism was lived as a communicational and dynamic spirituality, fit for urban life. God becomes present when the grace of prayer is shared and in the charity of interpersonal relationships, as well as in the testimony of the atmosphere of brotherly love in the group encounters. 3- Pastoral Priests and laywomen, in communion with the hierarchical Church, work at organizing communities like those in Acts 2:42-47 and 4:32-37, developing full pastoral care over personal and community life in the light of discernment. 4- Civilizing Being a evangelizing charism, it is a civilizing charism that seeks to build up Salvation communities, so as to give origin to civilizing offshoots of a New World, thus serving the needs of society. Website of The Movement of the Word of God Some testimonies of members


Templemore is a town in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is a civil parish in the historical barony of Eliogarty, it is part of the parish of Templemore and Killea in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly. The 2011 Census results show that the town's population decreased by 13.8% from 2,255 in 2006 to 1,943 in 2011. Templemore is the eighth largest town in County Tipperary; the N62 national route connects the town to the main Dublin-Limerick motorway and Roscrea north of the parish. Travelling south, the route connects to Thurles and the main Dublin-Cork motorway; the N62 originates in Athlone. To the east, the R433 connects the town to the M8 at a more northerly point via the villages of Clonmore and the town of Rathdowney in County Laois. Alternatively, the motorway may be accessed via the village of Templetuohy. To the west, the R501, tracking the Devil's Bit mountain range, goes to Borrisoleigh. Templemore railway station is on the Dublin-Cork railway line operated by Iarnród Éireann.

There are direct trains to and from stations like Dublin Heuston railway station, Thurles Cork and Limerick daily The ancient territory of Éile obtained its name from pre-historic inhabitants called the Eli, about whom little is known beyond what may be gathered from legends and traditions. The extent of Éile varied throughout the centuries with the rise and fall of the tribes in occupation. Before the 5th century AD the details of its history which can be gleaned from surviving records and literature are exceedingly meagre and confusing. During this century however Éile appears to have reached its greatest extent, stretching from Croghan Bri Eli to just south of Cashel; the southern part of this territory embraced the baronies of Eliogarty and Ikerrin, a great part of the modern barony of Middle Third, the territory of Ileagh and a portion of the present barony of Kilnamanagh Upper. By the 8th century, the territory of Ancient Éile had broken up into a number of petty kingdoms: the O'Carroll occupied the northern portion, the O'Spillanes held Ileagh, the Eóganacht Chaisil had annexed Middle Third.

The ancient name of the district on which the town now stands was Tuatha Corca Teine. Teine was supposed to have been the son of the King of Connacht, arriving in the district shortly after Saint Patrick. Monastic settlements were located at the site of Teine's fort,'Land of the Monks'. A holy man named Silean is reputed to have accompanied St Patrick and to have established a monastery in the area. There is no townland called Templemore; the townland on which the town is built is Kiltillane. With the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, a powerful Norman family – the Butlers – became the new overlords. Early in the 14th century, they were raised to the Earldom of Ormond; as the holders of the County Palatine of Tipperary, they were entitled to appoint sheriffs and judges, to gather certain classes of revenue that would have been due to the Crown. This privilege was withdrawn in 1715; the family donated a small piece of land to the Abbey of St Thomas in Dublin, about 1200 a large Abbey was built with a moated graveyard, the remains of which are still to be seen in Templemore Demesne known as the "Town Park".

The Blackcastle, as it is locally known, was built in the Town Park in 1450 by James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond. This building and its manor lands were occupied by the Butlers and were leased to the families of Purcell of Loughmore and Morris of Knockagh; the O′Fogarty clan held what is now the barony of Eliogarty, while to the north of them, at least some time were O'Meaghers of Ikerrin. The River Nore, at its position between Roscrea and Templemore, although just a small stream at this point, is taken as the southern limit of Ely O'Carroll territory. Around 1695 the Butlers sold extensive lands to an English family called Carden from Cheshire, who settled in the area and located at Barnane and Fishmoyne. Over the next 200 years, this family was to play a significant part in the development of the town and district which has the nickname of "Carden's Wild Demesne", after the popular 19th century poem. Templemore owes its improved state to the liberality and exertions of the John C. Carden, Bart. under whose auspices the public buildings were erected, by whom the ground on which the town stands was granted at a nominal annual rent.

Following the burning of the Blackcastle, Carden built a new estate. He built a mansion known as the Priory on the edge of the town; the architecture of the Priory was in the style of the Elizabethan era. The Priory was surrounded by a demesne which had a formal garden with paved paths around an artificial lake. Quoting from a contemporary newspaper commentary of 1861, when the Priory was still under construction:The noble Gothic pile of finely chiselled limestone, with its battlements, turrets and extensive façade, spacious arched doorway. There were extensive gardens and a lot of money was spent on them: The house itself consists of sixty rooms, the sum of, we understand £20,000 in round numbers, has been expended so far upon the building, – Upon entering the grand hall, through the massive oaken doorway, replete with medieval decorations, the visitor finds that ‘The Priory’ has been erected in a style of magnificence not g