Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, the 15th-largest in the world, is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC. Cairo has the oldest and largest film and music industries in the Middle East, as well as the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, Al-Azhar University. Many international media and organizations have regional headquarters in the city.
With a population of over 9 million spread over 3,085 square kilometers, Cairo is by far the largest city in Egypt. An additional 9.5 million inhabitants live in close proximity to the city. Cairo, like many other megacities, suffers from high levels of traffic. Cairo's metro, one of two in Africa, ranks among the fifteen busiest in the world, with over 1 billion annual passenger rides; the economy of Cairo was ranked first in the Middle East in 2005, 43rd globally on Foreign Policy's 2010 Global Cities Index. Egyptians refer to Cairo as Maṣr, the Egyptian Arabic name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's importance for the country, its official name al-Qāhirah means "the Vanquisher" or "the Conqueror" due to the fact that the planet Mars, an-Najm al-Qāhir, was rising at the time when the city was founded also in reference to the much awaited arrival of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz who reached Cairo in 973 from Mahdia, the old Fatimid capital. The location of the ancient city of Heliopolis is the suburb of Ain Shams.
The Coptic name of the city is Kashromi which means "man breaker", akin to Arabic al-Qāhirah . Sometimes the city is informally referred to as Kayro by people from Alexandria; the area around present-day Cairo Memphis, the old capital of Egypt, had long been a focal point of Ancient Egypt due to its strategic location just upstream from the Nile Delta. However, the origins of the modern city are traced back to a series of settlements in the first millennium. Around the turn of the 4th century, as Memphis was continuing to decline in importance, the Romans established a fortress town along the east bank of the Nile; this fortress, known as Babylon, was the nucleus of the Roman and the Byzantine city and is the oldest structure in the city today. It is situated at the nucleus of the Coptic Orthodox community, which separated from the Roman and Byzantine churches in the late 4th century. Many of Cairo's oldest Coptic churches, including the Hanging Church, are located along the fortress walls in a section of the city known as Coptic Cairo.
Following the Muslim conquest in 640 AD, the conqueror Amr ibn As settled to the north of the Babylon in an area that became known as al-Fustat. A tented camp Fustat became a permanent settlement and the first capital of Islamic Egypt. In 750, following the overthrow of the Umayyad caliphate by the Abbasids, the new rulers created their own settlement to the northeast of Fustat which became their capital; this was known as al-Askar. A rebellion in 869 by Ahmad ibn Tulun led to the abandonment of Al Askar and the building of another settlement, which became the seat of government; this was al-Qatta ` closer to the river. Al Qatta'i was centred around a ceremonial mosque, now known as the Mosque of ibn Tulun. In 905, the Abbasids re-asserted control of the country and their governor returned to Fustat, razing al-Qatta'i to the ground. Since 1860s, Cairo expanded west as far as what is called now In 968, the Fatimids were led by general Jawhar al-Siqilli to establish a new capital for the Fatimid dynasty.
Egypt was conquered from their base in Ifriqiya and a new fortified city northeast of Fustat was established. It took four years to build the city known as al-Manṣūriyyah, to serve as the new capital of the caliphate. During that time, Jawhar commissioned the construction of the al-Azhar Mosque by order of the Caliph, which developed into the third-oldest university in the world. Cairo would become a centre of learning, with the library of Cairo containing hundreds of thousands of books; when Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in Tunisia in 973, he gave the city its present name, al-Qāhiratu. For nearly 200 years after Cairo was established, the administrative centre of Egypt remained in Fustat. However, in 1168 the Fatimids under the leadership of vizier Shawar set fire to Fustat to prevent Cairo's capture by the Crusaders. Egypt's capital was permanently moved to Cairo, expanded to include the ruins of Fustat and the previous capitals of
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P
Rajmund Kupareo was a Croatian Roman Catholic priest, theological writer, composer and editor. He wrote in Croatian, Czech and Spanish, he spent most productive years of his life working in Chile as a professor of aesthetics and axiology in Santiago de Chile. Rajmund Kupareo was born on 16 November 1914 in Vrboska, the island of Hvar, a descendant of an old noble family, he entered the Order of the Preachers in Dubrovnik in 1930 and was ordained priest in Split in 1937. He studied philosophy and languages in Dubrovnik, Olomouc, Santiago de Chile and Washington, D. C.. During World War II, Kupareo was the editor-in-chief of Gospina krunica, a Catholic monthly magazine in Zagreb, he managed the Dominican publishing house Istina, which published a translation of The Story of a Soul by Saint Thérèse of Lisieux, Razmišljanja o krunici, translated by Aloysius Stepinac, the Archbishop of Zagreb. The arrival of communist troops in the spring of 1945 hindered his project to publish all the sermons and speeches delivered by Stepinac from 1934–44, in which the Archbishop had condemned racism and intolerance, emphasized the right of the Croatian people to have their own state.
After entering Zagreb, the communists destroyed the entire edition of 10.000 books in the printing-house. Only one copy was saved and Stepinac used it at his trial to show there was no freedom of press in Tito's Yugoslavia, he left Croatia on 2 January 1947, did not return until 10 June 1971. He took refuge first in the Czech Republic, afterwards in the Netherlands and Spain. In 1950, he found his place in Chile, he spent his most productive years as a professor of aesthetics and axiology in Santiago de Chile and served as the dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and the vice-rector of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. He founded the Institute of Aesthetics and the School of Journalism in Santiago de Chile, as well as initiator and editor of several publications; as the official representative of the university, he traveled through North and South America and the Middle East. He suffered a stroke on 14 May 1970, he returned to Croatia to die but recovered to a certain degree and led a secluded and simple life in the Dominican priory in Zagreb.
Despite his frail condition, he continued his scientific work. In 1985 he became a member of Academia Chilena de la Lengua of the Instituto de Chile, the Chilean Academy of Arts and Letters. After the democratic changes in Croatia he became a member of the Croatian Writers Association. In 1985, he was promoted a foreign member of Academia Chilena de la Lengua. Kupareo published 25 different volumes of his writings: nine treatises on aesthetics and 14 books of poetry, novels and plays, his poetry is compiled in the anthology Svjetloznak. After his death two more poems were found in manuscript form and published in the daily newspaper Vjesnik on 6 June 1998, he authored significant number of compositions of religious and secular character: manuscripts of polyphonic motets and a few operettas to his own lyrics, are kept in Dominican priories’ archives in Croatia and Italy. Among others, he put to music O Spem Miram, the famous prayer to St Dominic, while he was in Las Caldas de Besayu priory in 1949.
His stories on World War II and the lives of Dominicans, priests and emigrants in Latin and North America: Balada iz Magallanesa are published in 1978. In 1939. is published his novel: U morskoj kući, followed with novels Jedinac and Sunovrati. He wrote two children's plays: Magnificat and Sliepo srdce and three plays: Muka Kristova, Uskrsnuće and Porođenje; these last three were published together under the title Prebivao je među nama. Starting with his Chilean period, he wrote several book on aesthetics: Ars et moralis, El Valor del Arte – Axiología estética, Creationes Humanas, I, La Poesia, Creationes Humanas, II, El Drama, Umjetnik i zagonetka života, Govor umjetnosti, Čovjek i umjetnost and Um i umjetnost. Croatian literature Dominicans Petar Marija Radelj, "Witness to the First Beauty", 27 November 2014. Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile: Kupareo, catalogo.bcn.cl. Radoslav Ivelić Kusanović "El hombre en la estética del dr. Raimundo Kupareo", Radoslav Ivelić Kusanović, 3 February 2013.
"KUPAREO, RAJMUND, NOVELISTA, BÁSNÍK, DRAMATIK, KOMPONISTA, ESTÉT", Czech Dominican Province, 29 November 2014
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Josip "Joža" Horvat was a Croatian writer. He was the author of many novels, short stories, screenplays and radio dramas, translated into at least nine languages, including Russian and Esperanto. Horvat was born at the time in Zala County in Hungary. During World War II he fought in Yugoslav Partisans, which inspired the novel Mačak pod šljemom which had a somewhat ironical view of the partisan movement, adapted both into a feature film and a miniseries; the screenplay Ciguli Miguli, critical of bureaucracy brought him into disfavour with the Communist party authorities, on which occasion he turned to sailing. In mid-1960s Horvat and his family sailed the world in the sailing yacht Besa, his travel journal Besa–brodski dnevnik became a best-seller; the second trip around the world was marked by tragedy: Horvat’s older son, who stayed back, died in a traffic accident in 1973, his younger son drowned in Venezuela in 1975. After a period of deep crisis Horvat published two acclaimed novels inspired by these events, Operacija "Stonoga", about a search for a lost island in the Atlantic, Waitapu, about a Pacific Islander boy who decides to sail across a taboo line.
His last work is a memoir titled Svjedok prolaznosti. Horvat attended the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb and served as a secretary of Matica hrvatska
Sathya Sai Baba
Sathya Sai Baba was an Indian guru and a spiritual leader. He claimed to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi. Sai Baba's purported materialisations of vibhuti and other small objects such as rings and watches, were a source of both fame and controversy; some have analyzed them as being mere sleight of hand. Innumerable reports of miraculous healings, clairvoyance and alleged omnipotence and omniscience have been attributed to Sai Baba by both devotees and non-devotees; the Sathya Sai Organisation, founded by Sai Baba "to enable its members to undertake service activities as a means to spiritual advancement", has over 1,200 Sathya Sai Centres in 126 countries. Through this organisation, Sai Baba established a network of free hospitals, drinking water projects, auditoriums and schools. Everything known about Sai Baba's early life stems from the biography that grew around him, narratives that hold special meaning to his devotees and are considered by them to be evidence of his divine nature.
According to these sources, Sathya Narayana Raju was born to Meesaraganda Eashwaramma and Peddavenkama Raju Ratnakaram in the village of Puttaparthi, to a Raju family, in what was the Madras Presidency of British India. His birth, which his mother Eashwaramma asserted was by miraculous conception, was said to be heralded by miracles. Sai Baba's siblings included elder brother Ratnakaram Seshama Raju, sisters Venkamma and Parvathamma, younger brother Janakiramaiah; as a child, he was described as "unusually intelligent" and charitable, though not academically inclined, as his interests were of a more spiritual nature. He was uncommonly talented in devotional music and drama. From a young age, he was alleged to have been capable of materialising objects such as food and sweets out of thin air. On 8 March 1940, while living with his elder brother Seshama Raju in Uravakonda, a small town near Puttaparthi, 14 year old Sathya was stung by a scorpion, he lost consciousness for several hours and in the next few days underwent a noticeable change in behaviour.
There were "symptoms of laughing and weeping and silence." It is claimed that "he began to sing Sanskrit verses, a language of which it is alleged he had no prior knowledge." Doctors concluded his behaviour to be hysteria. Concerned, his parents brought Sathya back home to Puttaparthi and took him to many priests and exorcists. One of the exorcists at Kadiri, a town near Puttaparthi, went to the extent of torturing him with the aim of curing him. On 23 May 1940, Sathya called household members and materialised sugar candy and flowers for them, his father became furious at seeing this. He took a stick and threatened to beat him if Sathya did not reveal who he was, the young Sathya responded calmly and "I am Sai Baba", a reference to Sai Baba of Shirdi; this was the first time he proclaimed himself to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi—a saint who became famous in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Maharashtra and had died eight years before Sathya was born. In 1944, a mandir for Sai Baba's devotees was built near the village of Puttaparthi.
It is now referred to as the "old mandir". The construction of Prashanthi Nilayam, the current ashram, began in 1948 and was completed in 1950. In 1954, Sai Baba established a small free general hospital in the village of Puttaparthi, he won fame for the ability to heal. In 1957 Sai Baba went on a North Indian temple tour. In 1963, it was asserted that Sai Baba suffered a stroke and four severe heart attacks, which left him paralysed on one side; these events culminated in an event where he healed himself in front of the thousands of people gathered in Prashanthi Nilayam who were praying for his recovery. On recovering, Sai Baba announced that he would one day next be reborn as an incarnation named Prema Sai Baba in the neighbouring state of Karnataka, he stated, "I am Shiva-Sakthi, born in the gotra of Bharadwaja, according to a boon won by that sage from Siva and Sakthi. Siva was born in the gotra of that sage as Sai Baba of Shirdi, he stated he would be born again eight years after his death at the age of 96, but died at the age of 84.
On 29 June 1968, Sai Baba made his only overseas trip, to Uganda. In Nairobi, he spoke of his personal mission: "I have come to light the lamp of Love in your hearts, to see that it shines day by day with added lustre. I have not come on behalf of any exclusive religion. I have not come on a mission of publicity for a sect or creed or cause, nor have I come to collect followers for a doctrine. I have no plan to attract devotees into my fold or any fold. I have come to tell you of this unitary faith, this spiritual principle, this path of Love, this virtue of Love, this duty of Love, this obligation of Love." In 1968, he established the Sathyam Mandir in Mumbai. In 1973, he established the Shivam Mandir in Hyderabad. On 19 January 1981, in Chennai, he inaugurated the Sundaram Mandir. In a 1993 incident, four intruders armed with knives entered his bedroom, either as an assassination attempt or as part of a power struggle between his followers. Sai Baba was unharmed. During the scuffle and the police response, the intruders and two of Sai Baba's attendants were killed.
The official inv