The equites constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class. A member of the equestrian order was known as an eques. During the Roman kingdom and the 1st century of the Roman Republic, legionary cavalry was recruited from the ranks of the patricians, who were expected to provide six centuriae of cavalry. Around 400 BC, 12 more centuriae of cavalry were established and these included non-patricians. Around 300 BC the Samnite Wars obliged Rome to double the normal annual military levy from two to four legions, doubling the cavalry levy from 600 to 1,200 horses. Legionary cavalry started to recruit wealthier citizens from outside the 18 centuriae; these new recruits came from the first class of commoners in the centuriate organisation and were not granted the same privileges. By the time of the Second Punic War, all the members of the first class of commoners were required to serve as cavalrymen; the presence of equites in the Roman cavalry diminished in the period 200–88 BC as only equites could serve as the army's senior officers.
After c. 88 BC, equites were no longer drafted into the legionary cavalry, although they remained technically liable to such service throughout the principate era. They continued to supply the senior officers of the army throughout the principate. With the exception of the purely hereditary patricians, the equites were defined by a property threshold; the rank was passed from father to son, although members of the order who at the regular quinquennial census no longer met the property requirement were removed from the order's rolls by the Roman censors. In the late republic, the property threshold stood at 50,000 denarii and was doubled to 100,000 by the emperor Augustus – the equivalent to the annual salaries of 450 contemporary legionaries. In the republican period, Roman senators and their offspring became an unofficial elite within the equestrian order; as senators' abilities to engage in commerce was limited by law, the bulk of non-agricultural activities were in the hands of non-senatorial equites.
As well as holding large landed estates, equites came to dominate mining and manufacturing industry. In particular, tax farming companies were all in the hands of equites. Under Augustus, the senatorial elite was given formal status with a higher wealth threshold and superior rank and privileges to ordinary equites. During the principate, equites filled the senior administrative and military posts of the imperial government. There was a clear division between jobs reserved for senators and those reserved for non-senatorial equites, but the career structure of both groups was broadly similar: a period of junior administrative posts in Rome or Italy, followed by a period of military service as a senior army officer, followed by senior administrative or military posts in the provinces. Senators and equites formed a tiny elite of under 10,000 members who monopolised political and economic power in an empire of about 60 million inhabitants. During the 3rd century AD, power shifted from the Italian aristocracy to a class of equites who had earned their membership by distinguished military service rising from the ranks: career military officers from the provinces who displaced the Italian aristocrats in the top military posts, under Diocletian from the top civilian positions also.
This reduced the Italian aristocracy to an idle, but immensely wealthy, group of landowners. During the 4th century, the status of equites was debased to insignificance by excessive grants of the rank. At the same time the ranks of senators were swollen to over 4,000 by the establishment of a second senate in Constantinople and the tripling of the membership of both senates; the senatorial order of the 4th century was thus the equivalent of the equestrian order of the principate. According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by its first king, Romulus, in 753 BC. However, archaeological evidence suggests that Rome did not acquire the character of a unified city-state until ca. 625 BC. Roman tradition relates that the Order of Knights was founded by Romulus, who established a cavalry regiment of 300 men called the Celeres to act as his personal escort, with each of the three Roman "tribes" supplying 100 horse; this cavalry regiment was doubled in size to 600 men by King Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.
That the cavalry was increased to 600 during the regal era is plausible, as in the early republic the cavalry fielded remained 600-strong. However, according to Livy, King Servius Tullius established a further 12 centuriae of equites, a further tripling of the cavalry, but this is anachronistic, as it would have resulted in a contingent of 1,800 horse, incongruously large, compared to the heavy infantry, only 6,000-strong in the late regal period. Instead, the additional 12 centuriae were created at a stage around 400 BC, but these new units were political not military, most designed to admit plebeians to the Order of Knights. Equites were provided with a sum of money by the state to purc
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus known as Suetonius, was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire. His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled De Vita Caesarum, he recorded the earliest accounts of Julius Caesar's epileptic seizures. Other works by Suetonius concern the daily life of Rome, politics and the lives of famous writers, including poets and grammarians. A few of these books have survived, but many have been lost. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus was born about 69 AD, a date deduced from his remarks describing himself as a "young man" twenty years after Nero's death, his place of birth is disputed, but most scholars place it in Hippo Regius, a small north African town in Numidia, in modern-day Algeria. It is certain that Suetonius came from a family of moderate social position, that his father, Suetonius Laetus, was a tribune of equestrian rank in the Thirteenth Legion, that Suetonius was educated when schools of rhetoric flourished in Rome.
Suetonius was letter-writer Pliny the Younger. Pliny describes him as "quiet and studious, a man dedicated to writing." Pliny helped him buy a small property and interceded with the Emperor Trajan to grant Suetonius immunities granted to a father of three, the ius trium liberorum, because his marriage was childless. Through Pliny, Suetonius came into favour with Hadrian. Suetonius may have served on Pliny’s staff when Pliny was Proconsul of Bithynia Pontus between 110 and 112. Under Trajan he served as secretary of studies and director of Imperial archives. Under Hadrian, he became the Emperor's secretary, but Hadrian dismissed Suetonius for the latter's excessive informality with the empress Sabina. He is remembered as the author of De Vita Caesarum—translated as The Life of the Caesars although a more common English title is The Lives of the Twelve Caesars or The Twelve Caesars—his only extant work except for the brief biographies and other fragments noted below; the Twelve Caesars written in Hadrian's time, is a collective biography of the Roman Empire's first leaders, Julius Caesar, Tiberius, Claudius, Galba, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian.
The book was dedicated to his friend Gaius Septicius Clarus, a prefect of the Praetorian Guard in 119. The work tells the tale of each Caesar's life according to a set formula: the descriptions of appearance, family history, a history are given in a consistent order for each Caesar. De Viris Illustribus, to which belong: De Illustribus Grammaticis De Claris Rhetoribus De Poetis De Historicis Peri ton par' Hellesi paidion Peri blasphemion The two last works were written in Greek, they survive in part in the form of extracts in Greek glossaries. The below listed lost works of Suetonius are from the foreword written by Robert Graves in his translation of the Twelve Caesars. Royal Biographies Lives of Famous Whores Roman Manners and Customs The Roman Year The Roman Festivals Roman Dress Greek Games Offices of State On Cicero’s Republic Physical Defects of Mankind Methods of Reckoning Time An Essay on Nature Greek Objurations Grammatical Problems Critical Signs Used in BooksThe introduction to Loeb edition of Suetonius, translated by J. C.
Rolfe, with an introduction by K. R. Bradley, references the Suda with the following titles: On Greek games On Roman spectacles and games On the Roman year On critical signs in books On Cicero's Republic On names and types of clothes On insults On Rome and its customs and mannersThe volume goes on to add other titles not testified within the Suda. On famous courtesans On kings On the institution of offices On physical defects On weather signs On names of seas and rivers On names of windsTwo other titles may be collections of some of the aforelisted: Pratum On various matters Edwards, Catherine Lives of the Caesars. Oxford World’s Classics.. Robert Graves, Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars Donna W. Hurley, Suetonius: The Caesars. J. C. Rolfe, Lives of the Caesars, Volume I. J. C. Rolfe, Lives of the Caesars, Volume II. C. Suetonii Tranquilli De vita Caesarum libros VIII et De grammaticis et rhetoribus librum, ed. Robert A. Kaster. Suetonius on Christians Barry Baldwin, Suetonius: Biographer of the Caesars.
Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert, 1983. Gladhill, Bill. “The Emperor's No Clothes: Suetonius and the Dynamics of Corporeal Ecphrasis.” Classical Antiquity, vol. 31, no. 2, 2012, pp. 315–348. Lounsbury, Richard C; the Arts of Suetonius: An Introduction. Frankfurt: Lang, 1987. Mitchell, Jack “Literary Quotation as Literary Performance in Suetonius.” The Classical Journal, vol. 110, no. 3, 2015, pp. 333–355 Newbold, R. F. “Non-Verbal Communication in Su
A footman or footboy is a male domestic worker. The designation "running footman" derived from the attendants who ran beside or behind the carriages of aristocrats, many of whom were chosen for their physical attributes, they ran alongside the coach to make sure it was not overturned by such obstacles as ditches or tree roots. They would run ahead to prepare the destination place for their lord's arrival; the word was subsequently extended to apply to a household servant, who filled glasses and removed dishes etc. while standing at meals, while the master and guests remained seated. The synonymous term lackey may have a similar etymology; the first footman was the designation given to the highest ranking servant of this class in a given household. The first footman would serve as deputy butler and act as butler in the latter's absence, although some larger houses had an under-butler above the first footman. In a larger household, various footmen might be assigned specific duties, such as the silver specialist.
The footmen performed a range of duties which included serving meals and closing doors, carrying heavy items, or moving furniture for the housemaid to clean behind. The footmen might double as valets for visiting guests. Male servants were paid more than female servants, footmen were something of a luxury and therefore a status symbol among the servant-employing classes, they performed a less essential role than the cook, maid or butler, were part only of the grandest households. Since a footman was for show as much as for use, a tall footman was more prized than a short one, good looks, including well-turned legs, which were shown off by the traditional footman's dress of stockings worn below knee breeches, were an advantage. Footmen were expected to be unmarried and tended to be young. One 19th century footman, William Tayler, kept a diary, published, he was, in fact, married. Once a employed servant in great houses, footmen became much rarer after World War I as fewer households could by afford retinues of servants and retainers.
The position is now a historic one although servants with this designation are still employed in the British Royal Household, wearing a distinctive scarlet livery on state occasions. In Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the Queen of Hearts' Fish Footman delivers a croquet invitation to the Duchess's Frog Footman, which he delivers to the Duchess. George, first footman in service to Sir William McCordle, in the 2001 film Gosford Park, directed by Robert Altman. Thomas Barrow and William Mason serve as first and second footman to Robert Crawley, Earl of Grantham in the Julian Fellowes period drama Downton Abbey; the Only Running Footman EtymologyOnLine
Titus Flavius Sabinus (father of Vespasian)
See Titus Flavius Sabinus for other men of this name. Titus Flavius T. f. Sabinus was the father of the emperor Vespasian. Sabinus was the son of Titus Flavius Petro and his wife and was an eques from Reate in the Sabine region of Italy, he served as a customs official and as a banker in the province of Asia, where he was honoured with statues dedicated "To an Honest Tax-gatherer", as a banker at Aventicum among the Helvetii in Gaul, where he died. With his wife, Vespasia Polla, he had at least two sons, the consul Titus Flavius Sabinus, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the future emperor Vespasian, he may have had an elder son, the father of Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul in AD 69
Vespasian was Roman emperor from 69–79, the fourth, last, in the Year of the Four Emperors. He founded the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian was the first emperor who hailed from an equestrian family, only rose into the senatorial rank as the first member of his family in his lifetime. Vespasian's renown came from his military success. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69; the Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate.
Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian was born in a village north-east of Rome called Falacrinae, his family was undistinguished and lacking in pedigree. His paternal grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, became the first to distinguish himself, rising to the rank of centurion and fighting at Pharsalus for Pompey in 48 BC. Subsequently, he became a debt collector. Petro's son, Titus Flavius Sabinus, worked as a customs official in the province of Asia and became a moneylender on a small scale among the Helvetii.
He gained a reputation as a scrupulous and honest "tax-farmer". Sabinus married up in status, to Vespasia Polla, whose father had risen to the rank of prefect of the camp and whose brother became a Senator. Sabinus and Vespasia had the eldest of whom, a girl, died in infancy; the elder boy, Titus Flavius Sabinus, pursued the cursus honorum. He served in the army as a military tribune in Thrace in 36; the following year he was served in Creta et Cyrenaica. He rose through the ranks of Roman public office, being elected aedile on his second attempt in 39 and praetor on his first attempt in 40, taking the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the Emperor Caligula; the younger boy, seemed far less to be successful not wishing to pursue high public office. He followed in his brother's footsteps. During this period he married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of Flavius Liberalis from Ferentium and the mistress of Statilius Capella, a Roman equestrian from Sabratha in Africa, they had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus and Titus Flavius Domitianus, a daughter, Domitilla.
His wife Domitilla and his daughter Domitilla both died before Vespasian became Emperor in 69. After the death of his wife, Vespasian's longstanding mistress, Antonia Caenis, became his wife in all but formal status, a relationship that continued until she died in 75. In preparation for a praetorship, Vespasian needed two periods of service in the minor magistracies, one military and the other public. Vespasian served in the military in Thracia for about three years. On his return to Rome in about 30 AD, he obtained a post in the vigintivirate, the minor magistracies, most in one of the posts in charge of street cleaning, his early performance was so unsuccessful that Emperor Caligula stuffed handfuls of muck down his toga to correct the uncleaned Roman streets, formally his responsibility. During the period of the ascendancy of Sejanus, there is no record of Vespasian's significant activity in political events. After completion of a term in the vigintivirate, Vespasian was entitled to stand for election as quaestor.
But his lack of political or family influence meant that Vespasian served as quaestor in one of the provincial posts in Crete, rather than as assistant to important men in Rome. Next he needed to gain a praetorship, carrying the Imperium, but non-patricians and the less well-connected had to serve in at least one intermediary post as an aedile or tribune. Vespasian failed at his first attempt to gain an aedileship but was successful in his second attempt, becoming an aedile in 38. Despite his lack of significant family connections or success in office, he achieved praetorship in either 39 or 40, at the youngest age permitted, during a period of political upheaval in the organisation of elections, his longstanding relationship with freedwoman Antonia Caenis, confidential secretary to Antonia Minor and part of the circle of courtiers and servants around the Emperor, may have contributed to his success. Upon the accession of Claudius as emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta, stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus.
In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Bri
Spoleto is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines. It is 29 km N. of Terni, 63 km SE of Perugia. Spoleto was situated on the eastern branch of the Via Flaminia, which forked into two roads at Narni and rejoined at Forum Flaminii, near Foligno. An ancient road ran hence to Nursia; the Ponte Sanguinario of the 1st century BC still exists. The Forum lies under today's marketplace. Located at the head of a large, broad valley, surrounded by mountains, Spoleto has long occupied a strategic geographical position, it appears to have been an important town to the original Umbri tribes, who built walls around their settlement in the 5th century BC, some of which are visible today. The first historical mention of Spoletium is the notice of the foundation of a colony there in 241 BC. After the Battle of Lake Trasimene Spoletium was attacked by Hannibal, repulsed by the inhabitants During the Second Punic War the city was a useful ally to Rome.
It suffered during the civil wars of Gaius Marius and Sulla. The latter, after his victory over Marius, confiscated the territory of Spoletium. From this time forth it was a municipium. Under the empire it seems to have flourished once again, but is not mentioned in history. Martial speaks of its wine. Aemilianus, proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in Moesia, was slain by them here on his way from Rome, after a reign of three or four months. Rescripts of Constantine and Julian are dated from Spoleto; the foundation of the episcopal see dates from the 4th century: early martyrs of Spoleto are legends, but a letter to the bishop Caecilianus, from Pope Liberius in 354 constitutes its first historical mention. Owing to its elevated position Spoleto was an important stronghold during the Vandal and Gothic wars. Under the Lombards, Spoleto became the capital of an independent duchy, the Duchy of Spoleto, its dukes ruled a considerable part of central Italy. In 774 it became part of Holy Roman Empire. Several of its dukes during the late 9th Century, rose to wear the crown of that Empire.
Together with other fiefs, it was bequeathed to Pope Gregory VII by the powerful countess Matilda of Tuscany, but for some time struggled to maintain its independence. In 1155 it was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa. In 1213 it was definitively occupied by Pope Gregory IX. During the absence of the papal court in Avignon, it was prey to the struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines, until in 1354 Cardinal Albornoz brought it once more under the authority of the Papal States. After Napoleon's conquest of Italy, in 1809 Spoleto became capital of the short-lived French department of Trasimène, returning to the Papal States after Napoleon's defeat, within five years. In 1860, after a gallant defence, Spoleto was taken by the troops fighting for the unification of Italy. Giovanni Pontano, founder of the Accademia Pontaniana of Naples, was born here. Another child of Spoleto was Francis Possenti, educated in the Jesuit school and whose father was the Papal assessor, Francis entered the Passionists and became Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows.
The Roman theater rebuilt. The stage is occupied by the former church of St. Agatha housing the National Archaeological Museum. Ponte Sanguinario, a Roman bridge 1st century BCE; the name is traditionally attributed to the persecutions of Christians in the nearby amphiteatre. A restored Roman house with mosaic floors, indicating it was built in the 1st century, overlooked the Forum Square. An inscription by Polla to Emperor Caligula suggests the house was that of Vespasia Polla, the mother of Emperor Vespasian. Roman amphitheater, it was turned into a fortress by Totila in 545 and in Middle Ages times was used for stores and shops, while in the cavea the church of San Gregorio Minore was built. The stones were used to build the Rocca; the Palazzo Comunale. Ponte delle Torri, a striking 13th-century aqueduct on Roman foundations: whether it was first built by the Romans is a point on which scholarly opinion is divided; the majestic Rocca Albornoziana fortress, built in 1359–1370 by the architect Matteo Gattapone of Gubbio for Cardinal Albornoz.
It has six sturdy towers which formed two distinct inner spaces: the Cortile delle Armi, for the troops, the Cortile d'onore for the use of the city's governor. The latter courtyard is surrounded by a two-floor porch; the rooms include the Camera Pinta with noteworthy 15th‑century frescoes. After having resisted many sieges, the Rocca was turned into a jail in 1800 and used as such until the late 20th century. After extensive renovation it was reopened as a museum in 2007; the Palazzo Racani-Arroni has a worn graffito decoration attributed to Giulio Romano. The inner courtyard has a notable fountain. Palazzo della Signoria, housing the city's museum; the majestic Palazzo Vigili includes the Torre dell'Olio, the sole mediaeval city tower remaining in Spoleto. Temple of Clitumnus lies between Spoleto and Trevi Duomo of S. Maria Assunta: Construction of the Duomo begun around 1175 and completed in 1227; the Romanesque edifice contains the tomb of Filippo Lippi, who died in Spoleto in 1469, designed by his son Filippino Lippi.
The church houses a manuscript letter by Saint Francis of Assisi. San Pietro extra Moenia: This church was founded in 4
Roman roads were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies and civilians, the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases; these major roads were stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, were flanked by footpaths and drainage ditches. They were laid along surveyed courses, some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on piled foundations. At the peak of Rome's development, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital, the late Empire's 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great roads; the whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,500 kilometres were stone-paved.
In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia. Livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near Rome, the milestones on them, at times long before the first paved road—the Appian Way. Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the roads referred to were at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. Thus, the Via Gabina is mentioned in about 500 BC. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during the tenure of Augustus, is as follows: "With the exception of some outlying portions, such as Britain north of the Wall and certain provinces east of the Euphrates, the whole Empire was penetrated by these itinera. There is hardly a district to which we might expect a Roman official to be sent, on service either civil or military, where we do not find roads, they reach the Wall in Britain.
A road map of the empire reveals that it was laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads. There were, for instance, some pre-Roman ancient trackways in Britain, such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below; the Laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to about 450 BC, required that any public road be 8 Roman feet wide where straight and twice that width where curved. These were the minimum widths for a via. Actual practices varied from this standard; the Tables command Romans to build public roads and give wayfarers the right to pass over private land where the road is in disrepair. Building roads that would not need frequent repair therefore became an ideological objective, as well as building them as straight as possible in order to build the narrowest roads possible, thus save on material. Roman law defined the right to use a road as liability; the ius eundi established a claim to use an footpath, across private land.
A via combined both types of servitutes, provided it was of the proper width, determined by an arbiter. The default width was the latitudo legitima of 8 feet. Roman law and tradition forbade the use of vehicles except in certain cases. Married women and government officials on business could ride; the Lex Iulia Municipalis restricted commercial carts to night-time access in the city within the walls and within a mile outside the walls. Roman roads varied from simple corduroy roads to paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. According to Ulpian, there were three types of roads: Viae publicae, praetoriae or militares Viae privatae, glareae or agrariae Viae vicinales The first type of road included public high or main roads and maintained at the public expense, with their soil vested in the state; such roads led either to a town, or to a public river, or to another public road.
Siculus Flaccus, who lived under Trajan, calls them viae publicae regalesque, describes their characteristics as follows: They are placed under curatores, repaired by redemptores at the public expense. These roads bear the names of their constructors. Roman roads were named after the censor who had ordered their reconstruction; the same person served afterwards as c