Vespasianus Titus Tunnel

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Vespasianus Titus Tunnel
Vespasianus Titus Tunnel is located in Turkey
Vespasianus Titus Tunnel
Shown within Turkey
LocationAntakya, Hatay Province, Turkey
Coordinates36°07′14″N 35°55′19″E / 36.12056°N 35.92194°E / 36.12056; 35.92194Coordinates: 36°07′14″N 35°55′19″E / 36.12056°N 35.92194°E / 36.12056; 35.92194
Site notes
Public accessYes

Vespasianus Titus Tunnel, located in Samandağ, Hatay Province in southern Turkey, is an ancient water tunnel built during the Roman period.[1]

The tunnel is situated nearby Çevlik village in Samandağ district of Hatay Province. It is located at the foot of Nur Mountains about 35 km (22 mi) southwest of Antakya, the historical harbor city Antioch on the Orontes in eastern Mediterranean coast.[1]

The tunnel is part of a water diversion system consisting of a dam, a short approach channel, the first tunnel section, a short intermediary channel, the second tunnel section and a long discharge channel.[1]

The construction of the tunnel was ordered by Roman emperor Vespasian (reigned 69–79 AD) to divert the floodwaters running down the mountain and threatening the harbor. It was built by digging the rocks using manpower only. The construction began in the Vespasian time, continued under his son Titus (r. 79–81 AD) and his successors, completed in the 2nd century, during the reign of Antoninus Pius (r. 138–161). An inscription carved in rock at the entrance of the first tunnel section shows the names of Vespasianus and Titus, and another one at the discharge tunnel the name of Antonius.[1]

World Heritage Site status[edit]

The tunnel was added to the tentative list in the cultural category of UNESCO World Heritage Site on April 15, 2014.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d "Vespasianus Titus Tunnel". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
  2. ^ "Tentative Lists – State Party: Turkey". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-09-21.