The Vesper or Vesper Martini is a cocktail, made of gin and Kina Lillet. The drink was named by Ian Fleming in the 1953 James Bond novel Casino Royale. "A dry martini," said. "One. In a deep champagne goblet.""Oui, monsieur.""Just a moment. Three measures of Gordon's, one of vodka, half a measure of Kina Lillet. Shake it well until it's ice-cold add a large thin slice of lemon peel. Got it?""Certainly, monsieur." The barman seemed pleased with the idea."Gosh, that's a drink," said Leiter. Bond laughed. "When I'm...er...concentrating," he explained, "I never have more than one drink before dinner. But I do like that one to be large and strong and cold and well-made. I hate small portions of anything when they taste bad; this drink's my own invention. I'm going to patent it when I can think of a good name."—Ian Fleming, Casino Royale, Chapter 7, "Rouge et Noir'Fleming continues with Bond telling the barman, after taking a long sip, "Excellent... but if you can get a vodka made with grain instead of potatoes, you will find it still better," and adds in an aside, "Mais n'enculons pas des mouches".
Bond in the next chapter, "Pink Lights and Champagne", names it the Vesper. At the time of his first introduction to the beautiful Vesper Lynd, he obtains her name in a perfect interrogation indirecte, "I was born in the evening..on a stormy evening.." and asks to borrow it. A Vesper differs from Bond's usual cocktail of choice, the martini, in that it uses both gin and vodka, Kina Lillet instead of the usual dry vermouth, a lemon peel instead of an olive. Although there is a lot of discussion on the Vesper, it is only ordered by Bond once throughout Fleming's novels – although Bond drinks the Vesper in the film Casino Royale – and by books Bond is ordering regular vodka martinis, though he drinks regular gin martinis. Felix Leiter ordered a Vesper for Bond in the novel Diamonds Are Forever, albeit with Cresta Blanca in place of Kina Lillet, which Bond politely remarks is the "Best Vermouth I tasted." It may be that Fleming decided not to have Bond order a Vesper again due to the way in which Casino Royale ends.
In actuality, the book version of the Vesper was created by Fleming's friend Ivar Bryce. In Bryce's copy of Casino Royale Fleming inscribed "For Ivar, who mixed the first Vesper and said the good word." In his book You Only Live Once, Bryce details that Fleming was first served a Vesper, a drink of a frozen rum concoction with fruit and herbs, at evening drinks by the butler of an elderly couple in Jamaica, the Duncans, the butler commenting, "'Vespers' are served." Vespers or evensong is the sixth of the seven canonical hours of the divine office and are observed at sunset, the'violet hour', Bond's chosen hour of fame for his martini Vesper. However, the cocktail has been misrecorded after mishearing the name in several instances, resulting in its being alternatively named'Vespa'. Since Gordon's Gin was reformulated in 1992 and Kina Lillet was reformulated in 1986, substitutes can be made that attempt to recapture the original flavour of the drink: Lillet Blanc is still available, but had the quinine removed in 1986.
During the mid 20th century Lillet and Kina Lillet were noted as being different products. Cocchi Americano can be used as a substitute to recreate the original recipe, gives a more bitter finish than Lillet Blanc. For a more traditional flavour, 50% vodka is used to bring the alcohol content of the vodka back to 1953 levels, with grain vodka being preferred. Tanqueray, Bombay Sapphire, American Beefeater, or Broker's gin provides the traditional flavour of 47% gin, whereas Gordon's Gin, in the UK domestic market, has been reformulated to 37.5%. Esquire printed the following update of the recipe in 2006: Shake with plenty of cracked ice. 3 oz Tanqueray gin, 1 oz 100-proof Stolichnaya vodka, 1⁄2 oz Lillet Blanc, 1⁄8 teaspoon quinine powder or, in desperation, 2 dashes of bitters. Strain into a chilled cocktail glass and twist a large swatch of thin-cut lemon peel over the top; the recipe concluded, "Shoot somebody evil." Martini Outline of James Bond Wondrich, David. "James Bond Walks Into A Bar... and orders a Vesper, a cocktail.
Here, a remake." Esquire. Retrieved March 1, 2016. "Shaken and Stirred, James Bond Loves His Booze" Time.com. Retrieved November 12, 2008. "Matin" ZimZahm Productions. Retrieved July 6, 2009. Gordon's Gin Lillet
Vesper Lynd is a fictional character featured in Ian Fleming's 1953 James Bond novel Casino Royale. She was portrayed by Ursula Andress in the 1967 James Bond parody, only based on the novel, by Eva Green in the 2006 adaptation. In the novel, the character explains that she was born "on a stormy evening", that her parents named her "Vesper", Latin for "evening". Fleming created a cocktail recipe in the novel that Bond names after her; the "Vesper martini" became popular after the novel's publication, gave rise to the famous "shaken, not stirred" catchphrase immortalised in the Bond films. The actual name for the drink was mentioned on screen for the first time in the 2006 adaptation of Casino Royale. In 1993, journalist Donald McCormick claimed that Fleming based Vesper on the real life of Polish agent Krystyna Skarbek, working for Special Operations Executive. Vesper works at MI6 headquarters as personal assistant to Head of section S, she is lent to Bond, much to his irritation, to assist him in his mission to bankrupt Le Chiffre, the paymaster of a SMERSH-controlled trade union.
She poses as a radio seller, working with Rene Mathis, as Bond's companion to infiltrate the casino in Royale-les-Eaux, in which Le Chiffre gambles. After Bond takes all of Le Chiffre's money in a high-stakes game of baccarat, Vesper is abducted by Le Chiffre's thugs, who nab Bond when he tries to rescue her. Both are rescued after Le Chiffre is murdered by a SMERSH agent, but only after Bond has been tortured. Vesper visits Bond every day in the hospital, the two grow close. After he is released from the hospital, they go on a holiday together and become lovers. Vesper has a terrible secret, however: She is a double agent working for Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and only worked with Bond because she was ordered to see that he did not escape Le Chiffre. Before she met Bond, she had been romantically involved with a Polish RAF operative; this man had been captured by SMERSH, revealed information about Vesper under torture. Hence, SMERSH was using this operative to blackmail Vesper into helping them.
After Le Chiffre's death, she is hopeful that she can have a fresh start with Bond, but she realizes this is impossible when she sees a SMERSH operative with an eye patch, Adolph Gettler, tracking her and Bond's movements. Consumed with guilt and certain that SMERSH will find and kill both of them, she commits suicide, leaving a note admitting her treachery and pledging her love to Bond. Bond copes with the loss by renouncing her as a traitor and going back to work as though nothing has happened, he phones his superiors and informs them of Vesper's treason and death, coldly saying "The bitch is dead." Bond's feelings for Vesper are not extinguished. In Diamonds Are Forever, Bond skips the song "La Vie En Rose" in Tiffany Case's hotel room "because it has memories for him". Furthermore, in the novel Goldfinger, when a drugged Bond believes that he has died and is preparing to enter heaven, he worries about how to introduce Tilly Masterton, who he believes has died along with him, to Vesper. In the 1967 version of Casino Royale, Lynd was portrayed by Ursula Andress, who had portrayed another Bond girl, Honey Ryder, in the 1962 film version of Dr. No.
In this version, which bore little resemblance to the novel, Vesper is depicted as a former secret agent who has since become a multi-millionaire with a penchant for wearing ridiculously extravagant outfits at her office. Bond, now in the position of M at MI6, uses a discount for her past due taxes to bribe her into becoming another 007 agent, to recruit baccarat expert Evelyn Tremble into stopping Le Chiffre. Vesper and Tremble have an affair. However, she betrays Tremble to Le Chiffre and SMERSH, declaring to Tremble, "Never trust a rich spy" before killing him with a machine gun hidden inside a bagpipe, she does this for the same reason she does in the novel, as she remarks that it isn't for money but for love. Though her ultimate fate is not revealed in the film, in the closing credits she is shown as an angel playing a harp, showing her to be one of the "seven James Bonds at Casino Royale" killed by an atomic explosion. In the 2006 film version of Casino Royale, Vesper Lynd is a foreign liaison agent from the HM Treasury's Financial Action Task Force assigned to make sure that Bond adequately manages the funds provided by MI6.
Vesper is skeptical about Bond's ego and at first is unwilling to be his trophy at the poker tournament with Le Chiffre. However, she assists Bond when Lord's Resistance Army leader Steven Obanno attacks him, knocking away a gun out of Obanno's hand and giving Bond the chance to kill him, she afterwards retreats to the shower, feeling that she has blood on her hands from helping to kill Obanno. Bond kisses the "blood" off her hands to comfort her, they return to the casino, his kindness does not prevent her from doing her job, however. Shortly afterwards, she saves Bond's life. Poisoned by Le Chiffre's girlfriend, Bond struggles unsuccessfully to connect a key wire to his aut
NASA's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System. It was founded in 1992 to implement then-NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin's vision of "faster, cheaper" planetary missions. Discovery missions differ from traditional NASA missions where targets and objectives are pre-specified. Instead, these cost-capped missions are proposed and led by a scientist called the Principal Investigator. Proposing teams may include people from industry, small businesses, government laboratories, universities. Proposals are selected through a competitive peer review process. All of the completed Discovery missions are accomplishing ground-breaking science and adding to the body of knowledge about the Solar System. NASA accepts proposals for competitively selected Discovery Program Missions of Opportunity; this provides opportunities to participate in non-NASA missions by providing funding for a science instrument or hardware components of a science instrument or to re-purpose an existing NASA spacecraft.
These opportunities are offered through NASA's Stand Alone Mission of Opportunity program. On January 4, 2017 NASA announced that the next Discovery mission selection included the double-selection of"Lucy", to visit several asteroids and Trojans, and"Psyche", to visit the metal asteroid Psyche, as the thirteenth and fourteenth Discovery missions, respectively. In 1989, the Solar System Exploration Division at NASA Headquarters initiated a series of workshops to define a new strategy for exploration through the year 2000; the panels included a Small Mission Program Group, chartered to devise a rationale for missions that would be low cost and allow focused scientific questions to be addressed in a short time. A fast-paced study for a potential mission was requested and funding arrangements were made in 1990; the new program was called'Discovery' and the panel assessed a number of concepts that could be implemented as low-cost programs, with'Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous' as the first mission to be implemented.
On February 17, 1996, NEAR became the first mission to launch in the Discovery Program. The Mars Pathfinder launched on December 4, 1996, demonstrated a number of innovative and effective approaches to spacecraft and planetary mission design such as the inflated airbags that allowed the Sojourner rover to endure the landing. Note that the two Mars Exploration Rovers and Spirit, were not a part of the Discovery Program, although they did re-use the overall landing system of Mars Pathfinder. Phoenix and MAVEN were in the Mars Scout Program and not the Discovery Program; this provides opportunities to participate in non-NASA missions by providing funding for a science instrument or hardware components of a science instrument, or specific extended mission for spacecraft that may different from its original purpose. Some examples include: ASPERA-3, M3, EPOXI, NExT, Strofio. ASPERA-3, an instrument designed to study the interaction between the solar wind and the atmosphere of Mars, is flying on board the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter.
Launched in June 2003, it has been orbiting Mars since Dec. 2003. The Principal Investigator is David Winningham of Southwest Research Institute. Moon Mineralogy Mapper is a NASA-designed instrument placed on board the ISRO's Chandrayaan orbiter selected in February, 2005. Launched in 2008, it was designed to explore the Moon's mineral composition at high resolution. M3's detection of water on the Moon was announced in Sept. one month after the mission ended. The Principal Investigator was Carle Pieters of Brown University. Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation was selected in July, 2007, it was a series of two new missions for the existing Deep Impact probe following its success at Tempel 1: The Extrasolar Planet Observations and Characterization mission used the Deep Impact high-resolution camera in 2008 to better characterize known giant extrasolar planets orbiting other stars and to search for additional planets in the same system. The Principal Investigator was L. Drake Deming of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
The Deep Impact eXtended Investigation of Comets mission used the Deep Impact mission's spacecraft for a flyby mission to a second comet, Hartley 2. The goal was to take pictures of its nucleus to increase our understanding of the diversity of comets; the flyby of Hartley 2 was successful with closest approach occurring on November 4, 2010. Michael A'Hearn of the University of Maryland was the Principal Investigator. New Exploration of Tempel 1 was selected in July, 2007 together with the EPOXI extension, it was a new mission for the Stardust spacecraft to fly by comet Tempel 1 in 2011 and observe changes since the Deep Impact mission visited it in July 2005. In 2005, Tempel 1 made its closest approach to the Sun changing the surface of the comet; the flyby was completed on February 15, 2011. Joseph Veverka of Cornell University is the Principal Investigator. Strofio is a unique mass spectrometer, part of the SERENA instrument package that will fly on board the European Space Agency's BepiColombo/Mercury Planetary Orbiter spacecraft.
Strofio will study the atoms and molecules that compose Mercury's atmosphere to reveal the composition of the planet's surface. Stefano Livi of Southwest Research Institute is the Principal Investigator. In addition, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has been managed under the Discovery Program since the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program was terminated; however the funding comes in, there is a selection process with two dozen c
Mahoromatic is a Japanese manga series about a female android former soldier, Mahoro. Driven by guilt from her actions during her combat days, she decides to dedicate the rest of her life to serving the son of her late commander as a maid. Mahoro Andou Voiced by: Ayako Kawasumi, she is fast and immensely powerful, is considered to be a formidable opponent by her enemies. Being an android, she has a limited life span. At the beginning of the story, she has just 398 days to live, is given the choice to do anything she wants by VESPER, she chooses to become a maid for Suguru Misato: his father was her superior officer, killed when she killed an alien who had taken him hostage. Mahoro has a sunny disposition and is friendly to just about everyone—she becomes a welcome regular at the market and becomes famous at Suguru's school when it is made known that she is working for him, she quickly becomes an excellent cook, able to emulate and recreate dishes from the best restaurants. She is quite devoted to Suguru, with feelings for him reminiscent of both a doting mother and a shy girlfriend.
She is, however hostile towards anything perverted. A good portion of the story's humour comes from Mahoro chasing after Suguru's secret stash of pornographic magazines which, given her training, she is able to find, she is well known for this attitude from her catch phrase: "Ecchi na no wa ikenai to omoimasu". Mahoro and Shikijo-sensei's dislike of one another stems from the fact that Shikijo is trying to engage in an illicit relationship with Suguru; as such, Mahoro is protective of Suguru when it comes to Shikijo's advances towards him. Mahoro is concerned about appearances, refusing to wear normal clothes given her position as a maid, she is obsessed with her small breasts, some stories deal with her rivalry with Shikijo, as well as her techniques and requests to VESPER for larger breasts. Mahoro retains access to many of her weapons and gadgets from her VESPER days, is able to pull out her gun at any time, she has access to the "silpheed", which when worn on her back allows her to fly, as well as her support mech, Slash.
She is able to call both the Silpheed and Slash at a moment's notice from the badge she wears on her maid uniform. In addition, she has access to a equipped and armed BMW sports convertible and MV Agusta motorcycle. Mahoro was created giving her a true soul and a pure heart. In the series it is revealed that Mahoro is directly connected to the memories of Matthew, who on some occasions supplies Mahoro with advice, she had no family name. Suguru Misato Voiced by: Fujiko Takimoto, he lost both his parents earlier—his mother, years his father. While he believed his father was killed in an accident during a business trip, he was a commander in VESPER and was killed-in-action during the alien war. Although relatives offered to take him in, he lived alone prior to Mahoro's arrival, he is smart and has an IQ of 130. He makes a favorable impression on members of the opposite sex. Suguru had a whole stash of dirty magazines. Although he continues to try to smuggle them in and hide them, Mahoro will find them—leading to comical confrontations between the two.
Suguru uses a whole range of creative tactics to conceal his magazines, is capable of running away fast when being chased. Suguru hired a maid because of the filthy state of his house, he was expecting an older woman, Mahoro's arrival surprised him. At the end of the series Mahoro and Suguru have fallen in love. Minawa Andou Voiced by: Ai Shimizu. Clumsy and anemic, she ends up living with Mahoro and Suguru and going to school under the pretext of being Mahoro's younger sister, she has a habit of apologizing for everything she does if she has done nothing wrong. She claims to be a runaway member of The Management, but is revealed to have been sent to gather information on VESPER's battle android Mahoro after being promised a heart in return. Mahoro, convinces her that the fact that she can cry means she has a heart. Suguru's friend Hamaguchi develops a crush on her, despite her shortcomings, it is insinuated that they form a relationship, it was revealed that Minawa is not an android but a cyborg, her body is in horrible shape due to all the experiments performed on her.
Near the end of the series she leaves earth. At the end of the anime, it is suggested she was healed and is with Hamaguchi, she had no name until one was created by Suguru, so she could pretend to be Mahoro's little sister. Slash Voiced by: Keiichi Noda, he can be summoned at any time by Mahoro. Although he can speak, his mouth never moves except during times. Althoug
Vespertilionidae is a family of micro-bats, of the order Chiroptera, flying insect-eating mammals variously described as the common, vesper, or simple nosed bats. The vespertilionid family is the most diverse and distributed of bat genera, specialised in many forms to occupy a range of habitats and ecological circumstances, it is observed or the subject of research; the facial features of the species are simple, as they rely on vocally emitted echolocation. The tail of the species are enclosed by the lower flight membranes between the legs, Over 300 species are distributed all over the world, on every continent except Antarctica, it owes its name to the genus Vespertilio, which takes its name from a word for bat, derived from the Latin term vesper meaning'evening'. They are allied to the suborder Microchiroptera, the families of microbats separated from the flying foxes and fruit bats of the mega bat group Megachiroptera; the treatments of bat taxonomy have included a placement amongst the Vespertilioniformes, or Yangochiroptera, as suborder Vespertilionoidea.
Molecular data indicate. The family is thought to have originated somewhere in Laurasia North America. A extinct species, Synemporion keana, is known from the Holocene of Hawaii. All species are carnivorous and most are insectivores, exceptions are bats of genera Myotis and Pizonyx that catch fish and the larger Nyctalus species known to capture small passerine birds in flight; the dentition of the family varies between species, the dental formula of the family is: They rely on echolocation to navigate and obtain food, but they lack the elaborate nose appendages of microbats that focus nasal emitted ultrasound. The ultrasound signal is produced orally, many species have large ears to refine the reflected sound to discriminate as information; the vespertilionids employ a range of flight techniques. The wing surface is extended to the lower limbs, the tail of this family is enclosed in an interfemoral membrane; some are slow flying genera, such as Pipistrellus, that manipulate the configuration of their broader wing shape and may give a fluttery appearance as they forage and glean.
Others are specialised as long-winged genera, such as Lasiurus and Nyctalus, that use rapid pursuit to capture insects. The size range family is 3 to 13 cm in body length, they are brown or grey in colour an indiscriminate appearance as an'little brown bat', although some species have fur, brightly colored with reds and yellows all being known. The patterns of the superficial appearance include white patches or stripes that may distinguish some species. Most species roost in caves, although some make use of hollow trees, rocky crevices, animal burrows, or other forms of shelter. Colony sizes vary with some roosting alone, others in groups up to one million individuals. Species native to temperate latitudes hibernate to avoid cooler weather, while a few of the tropical species employ aestivation as a method of evading higher extremes of climate. There are four subfamilies of Vespertilionidae that separate the related taxa and genera of extant and extinct taxa; the subfamilial treatments, based on morphological and ecological comparisons have been recombined since the inclusion of the phylogenetic implications of molecular genetics.
Subfamilies that were once recognized as valid, such as Nyctophilinae, are considered dubious, as molecular evidence suggest they are paraphyletic conditions the arrangements. Within the concept Yangochiroptera, an acknowledged cladistic treatment, the closest relatives to the family are the free-tailed bats of family Molossidae; the monotypic genus Tomopeas, represented by the blunt-eared bat, is acknowledged as the closest link between Vespertilionidae and Molossidae, as it is the most basal member of Molossidae and has intermediate characteristics of both families. The grouping of these subfamilies is the classification published by Geisler. Other authorities raise three subfamilies more: Antrozoinae and Nyctophilinae. Four subfamilies are recognized by Mammal Species of the World, the diverse Vespertilioninae is separated as tribes. Newer or resurrected genera are noted; the genus Cistugo is no longer included following its move to the separate family Cistugidae. Miniopterinae is additionally no longer recognized as a subfamily, as it was elevated to family status.
Family Vespertilionidae subfamily Vespertilioninaetribe Eptesicinigenus Arielulus genus Eptesicus – House bats genus Hesperoptenus – false serotine batstribe Lasiurinigenus Lasiurus – hairy-tailed batstribe Nycticeiinigenus Nycticeinops genus Nycticeius – evening bats genus Rhogeessa – Rhogeessa bats genus Scoteanax genus Scotoecus – house bats genus Scotomanes genus Scotophilus – yellow bats genus Scotorepens – lesser broad-nosed batstribe Nyctophilinigenus Nyctophilus – New Guinean and Australian big-eared bats genus Pharotistribe Pipistrellinigenus Glischropus – thick-thumbed bats genus Nyctalus – noctule bats genus Parastrellus genus Perimyotis genus Pipistrellus – Pipistrelles or Pipistrelle bats genus Scotozoustribe Plecotinigenus Barbastella – barbastelles or barbastelle bats genus Corynorhinus – American lump-nosed bats genu
Rudolf Vesper is a former Olympic wrestler for East Germany. Born in Niehmen, Lower Silesia, Vesper competed for the Unified German team in the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, East Germany in 1968 in Mexico City. Both times, he competed in the men's welterweight division of the Greco-Roman wrestling event; the first time Vesper competed, in 1964, he did not win a medal. However, the second time, in 1968, Vesper won a gold medal in the Greco-Roman wrestling event. Vesper competed for East Germany in the FILA Wrestling World Championships. Upon his first appearance, 1963, in Helsingborg, he came in second in the Greco-Roman event, he competed in the Seniors age group. His second appearance, in 1967, held in Bucharest resulted in a silver medal in the Greco-Roman event, he competed in the 78 kg weight class. "Rudolf Vesper Biography and Statistics". Sports-reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2009-05-03. "Vesper, Rudolf". Wrestling Database. IAT. Retrieved 2009-05-03
Vesper is an unincorporated community in Clatsop County, United States. The Nehalem River flows through the town. Settled in 1876 by William Johnston, a man who would be responsible for the town's first post office and church, Vesper borders Jewell and the Columbia County line. Johnston served as the town's first postmaster. Before 1901, Vesper was isolated from the rest of the county on land; the county expanded wagon roads to the community leading to automobile roads being built in 1908. Nowadays, Oregon Route 202 passes through Vesper. Vesper was settled by William Johnston in 1876 with his family; the name Vesper is applied to Hesperus, Greek mythology's personification for the planet Venus. The reason Johnston selected. Johnston established the first post office in Vesper during the Winter of 1879, he served as the town's first postmaster. By 1895, E. A. Carl had taken over the reins as postmaster. Another contribution to the Vesper community by Johnston was the town's first church, which he built with his family.
Lumber for the church was supplied by the local Douglas-fir trees. The congregation at Emmanuel Episcopal Church was still meeting at the church until the late-1980s; the church stands to this day. The first wagon road connecting Astoria, Oregon with the Nehalem Valley, ending at Vesper was built in 1901; the road was 42 miles long. Those roads were restored after that, including 1908, 1911, 1914; the 1914 reconstruction was the most expensive highway project in the history of Clatsop County at the time with an estimated cost of $542,875. Vesper was host to an early automobile run from Portland, Oregon on July 15, 1915; the 129 mile tour took the duo on Frank L. Parker and C. S. Brown, 13 hours; the first bridge in Vesper, which spanned the Nehalem River, was built in 1914. Clatsop County approved the building of two additional bridges connecting Vesper and Jewell, Oregon three years later; the two steel bridges consisted of a single truss. Presently, Oregon Route 202 goes through the town of Vesper.
Another notable road in the town is Old 77 Vesper Lane, a gravel road built alongside the Nehalem River. Much of Vesper is forested agriculture. During the 1920s, a Vesper resident by the name of H. A. Scullen operated an apiary