Ernest Hogan was the first African-American entertainer to produce and star in a Broadway show and helped to popularize the musical genre of ragtime. A native of Bowling Green, Kentucky, as a teenager Hogan worked in traveling minstrel shows as a dancer and comedian. In 1895 Hogan composed several popular songs, including "La Pas Ma La" and "All Coons Look Alike to Me"; the success of this last song created many derogatory imitations, known as "coon songs" because of their use of racist and stereotypical images of black people. While Hogan was considered one of the most talented performers and comedians of his day, his contribution to the racist "coon song" craze haunted him. Before his death, he stated, he was born Ernest Reuben Crowders, in the Shake Rag District of Bowling Green, Kentucky, in 1865. Little to nothing is known about his childhood, but as a teenager, he traveled with a minstrel troupe called the Georgia Graduate, where he performed as a dancer and comedian. During this time he changed his name to Hogan because "Irish performers were in vogue."
He would claim that he took the name to honor a Judge Hogan of Bowling Green, for whom his mother had worked as a cook. A few years after changing his name to Hogan, Ernest starting finding success in solo acts in New York City. Hogan performed in blackface during this time, as he sometimes did in his career. Ernest Hogan was believed to have been married twice, he was first wed to a youthful singer named Mattie Wilkes. She was a popular soprano, performing in vaudeville shows with him. Hogan was reportedly married to a woman named Louise, who helped him organize concerts in the early 1900s; the specific dates of these marriages are not known. It was during this time that Hogan created a comedy dance called the "pasmala", which consisted of a walk forward with three steps back. In 1895, he wrote and composed a song based on this dance called "La Pas Ma La"; the song's chorus was: Hand upon yo' head, let your mind roll back, back back and look at the stars Stand up rightly, dance it brightly That's the Pas Ma La.
Hogan followed this song with the hit "All Coons Look Alike to Me". Hogan was evidently not the originator of the song's lyrics, having appropriated them after hearing a pianist in a Chicago salon playing a song titled "All Pimps Look Alike to Me". Hogan changed the words substituting the word "coon" for "pimp" and added a cakewalk syncopation to the music, which he had heard being played in back rooms and cafes; the song sold over a million copies. Hogan's use of the racial slur "coon" in the song infuriated many African Americans; some black performers made a point of removing the word "coon" from the song. In addition, the success of this song created many imitations, which became known as "coon songs" because of their use of racist and stereotypical images of blacks. In Hogan's years he evidently felt shame and a sense of "race betrayal" for the song; the controversy over the song has, to some degree, caused Hogan to be overlooked as one of the originators of ragtime, called the first American musical genre.
Hogan's songs were among the first published ragtime songs and the first to use the term "rag" in their sheet music copy. While Hogan made no claims to having created ragtime, fellow black musician Tom Fletcher said Hogan was the "first to put on paper the kind of rhythm, being played by non-reading musicians." When the ragtime championship was held as part of the 1900 World Competition in New York, semifinalists played Hogan's "All Coons Look Alike to Me" to prove their skill. As Hogan said shortly before he died, song caused a lot of trouble in and out of show business, but it was good for show business because at the time money was short in all walks of life. With the publication of that song, a new musical rhythm was given to the people, its popularity grew and it sold like wildfire... That one song opened the way for a lot of white songwriters. Finding the rhythm so great, they stuck to it... and now you get hit songs without the word'coon.' Ragtime was the rhythm played in such places. The ragtime players were the boys who played just by ear their own creations of music which would have been lost to the world if I had not put it on paper."
In January 1908, Hogan collapsed onstage in New York and again in Boston while performing in "The Oyster Man." Forced to leave the show, Hogan spent the remainder of his life failing to recuperate. He died from tuberculosis in Lakewood, New Jersey, on May 20, 1909. African-American music African-American musical theater Coon song Ragtime
Arthur Collins (singer)
Arthur Francis Collins was an American baritone, one of the most prolific and beloved of pioneer recording artists, regarded in his day as "King of the Ragtime Singers". He was born in Philadelphia and moved with his family to Barnegat, New Jersey around 1879 and as a teenager worked as a volunteer lifesaver on the Jersey shore, beginning an enthusiasm for sailing that became a lifelong pursuit. However, his fine baritone voice – heard in church and in local concert appearances – convinced Collins' family to send him back to Philadelphia for formal training. After concluding his studies, Collins spent some 15 years touring with various stock companies and appearing in summer opera in St. Louis. None of these ventures turned out any long term prospects for Collins, when he married actress and singer Anna Leah Connelly in 1895 Collins swore off show business and decided to study for a career in bookkeeping. Taking occasional roles for extra money, Collins appeared in a production given by the DeWolf Hopper Opera Company in 1898, talent scouts for Edison Records requested Collins audition which, according to his wife, took place on May 16, 1898.
Within a few years, Collins proved one of the most productive and successful singers in the record business, in his long career between 1898 and 1926 he worked for every record company active in the United States. He specialized in what were called coon songs, popular African-American dialect numbers associated with vaudeville and minstrel shows. Collins utilized an array of vocal effects and caricature voices which gave the impression that there were multiple persons at the horn on his recordings, though it was just Collins. Towards making that end of it more effective, Collins began to work in a duo format with tenor Joe Natus in 1901 and both sang in an Edison group called the Big Four Quartet, it is assumed that Collins first came into contact with tenor Byron G. Harlan within the context of the Big Four Quartet, from until the end of Collins' career in the early 1920s, Harlan was Collins's duet partner. Collins & Harlan were the most famous and popular male duo on early records. In 1909, Collins joined John H. Meyer, Henry Burr, Albert Campbell in the Peerless Quartet, a successful barbershop music group which toured as the Record Makers, as the Eight Popular Victor Artists.
However, by 1917 bass Frank Croxton began to replace Collins on some records, a situation that became permanent by mid-1919 as Collins did not get along with Burr, who served as the group's manager. During a personal appearance at the Princess Theater in Medina, Ohio on October 20, 1921, Collins was badly injured when he fell through an open trap door. While he recovered well enough to resume his singing and recording career, his health began to decline afterward and in 1926, Collins retired, relocating to Florida with his wife, he died at the age of 69 in Tice, Florida on August 3, 1933. Arthur Collins recorded hundreds of songs, in many cases he recorded the same song multiple times for various recording outfits, his signature song was The Preacher and the Bear, which he first recorded in 1905. His rendition dispersed among a variety of releases, constitutes the most popular non-operatic record made during the first decade of the twentieth century. Collins was still recording the number in 1922, a 1908 remake of the piece for Victor remained in their catalog until 1941.
His recording sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc, only the second one presented. Collins lived up to his reputation as the "King of Ragtime Singers" and recorded more ragtime songs than any other singer during the era when ragtime was at its peak of popularity. Collins recorded some of Bert Williams's songs before Williams did, recorded some numbers associated with Williams that the latter never waxed. Collins and Harlan made best-selling records of tunes old and new that remain well cherished and iconic in the twenty-first century, such as "Waiting for the Robert E. Lee", "Alexander's Ragtime Band", "Lily of the Valley", "The Old Grey Mare". Collins survived into the early years of the Jazz Age, he and Harlan recorded the earliest record known to mention jazz, "That Funny Jas Band from Dixieland". Collins' solo recordings as well as Collins and Harlan recordings are viewed as desirable by collectors the early ones, such enthusiasm about their output dates back to at least the 1940s.
Given the age of these recordings and their specialized frame of interest, few of them were reissued in the LP era. 1898 "Happy Days in Dixie" "Zizzy ze zum zum"1899 "All Coons Look Alike to Me" "When You Ain't Got No More Money" † "Hello! Ma Baby"† "I'd Leave My Happy Home For You" † "I Guess I'll Have To Telegraph My Baby" † "Kiss Me, Honey Do" † "Mandy Lee"† – #5 song of 1900 † "My Josephine" 1900 "Ma Tiger Lily" – #3 song of 1900 † "My Sunflower Sue" with The Metropolitan Orchestra, Victor's house orchestra "You're Talking Rag Time" "I Ain't Seen No Messenger Boy"1901 "Ain't Dat a Shame" "Coon, Coon" "Every Darky Had A Raglan On" "I Dreams About You"1902 "Any Old Place I Can Hang My Hat Is Home Sweet Home To Me" "Bill Bailey, Won't You Please Come Home" – #2 song of 1902 † "Down Where the Wurzburger Flows" † "Helen Gonne" "Just Kiss Yourself Goodbye" "Under the Bamboo Tree" †1903 "Any Rags?"– #4 song of 1903 † "Good-bye, Eliza Jane" † "I'm A Jonah Man" "I Wonder Why Bill Bailey Don't Come Home"1904 "The Preacher And The Bear"† – #1 song of 1905 and Co
Leonard Garfield Spencer was an early American recording artist. He began recording for the Columbia Phonograph Company, in 1889 or 1890. Between 1892 and 1897 he recorded extensively for the New Jersey Phonograph Company and its successor the United States Phonograph Company, he specialized in vaudeville sketches and comic songs, but sang sentimental ballads popular at the time. He returned to Columbia in 1898 for an exclusive contract began recording for Berliner Gramophone records in 1899 and continued with Victor and Columbia as discs became the dominant format in the early 1900s, he began performing with banjoist Vess L. Ossman in 1901 and with Ada Jones in 1905, he is best remembered today for his vaudeville-style comic sketches, such as the "Arkansaw Traveler", combining clever turns of phrase, ironic elocutionary delivery, sound effects and music to create colorful dialogues featuring itinerant Southerners, circus barkers, Irish, Jewish or Black Americans. As the popularity of Len's style of humor waned in the latter part of the decade, he opened a booking agency called "Len Spencer's Lyceum" in New York.
He died of a heart attack while working at the Lyceum on December 15, 1914. Some of his most popular recordings include: "Ta-Ra-Ra-Boom Der E" "The Old Folks at Home" "Little Alabama Coon" "Dat New Bully" "A Hot Time in the Old Town" "Hello! Ma Baby" "Ma Tiger Lily" "Arkansaw Traveler" "Peaches and Cream", with Ada Jones Ada Jones Works by Len Spencer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Len Spencer at Internet Archive Len Spencer cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library. Discography of Len Spencer on Victor Records from the Encyclopedic Discography of Victor Recordings A 1947 biography of Spencer in Jim Walsh's "Favorite Pioneer Recording Artists", a 1958 update with corrections
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
The classical guitar is a member of the guitar family used in classical music. An acoustic wooden string instrument with strings made of gut or nylon, it is a precursor of the acoustic and electric guitars which use metal strings; the name guitar comes from Persian language. Tar is the name of an Iranian instrument that could be the primary form of guitar. Classical guitars are derived from the Spanish vihuela and gittern in the fifteenth and sixteenth century, which evolved into the seventeenth and eighteenth century Baroque guitar and the modern classical guitar in the mid nineteenth century. For a right-handed player, the traditional classical guitar has twelve frets clear of the body and is properly held on the left leg, so that the hand that plucks or strums the strings does so near the back of the sound hole; the modern steel string guitar, on the other hand has fourteen frets clear of the body and is played off the hip. The phrase "classical guitar" may refer to either of two concepts other than the instrument itself: the instrumental finger technique common to classical guitar—individual strings plucked with the fingernails or fingertips.
The instrument's classical music repertoireThe term modern classical guitar is sometimes used to distinguish the classical guitar from older forms of guitar, which are in their broadest sense called classical, or more early guitars. Examples of early guitars include the six-string early romantic guitar, the earlier baroque guitars with five courses; the materials and the methods of classical guitar construction may vary, but the typical shape is either modern classical guitar or that historic classical guitar similar to the early romantic guitars of France and Italy. Classical guitar strings once made of gut are now made of such polymers as nylon, with fine wire wound about the acoustically lower strings. A guitar family tree may be identified; the flamenco guitar derives from the modern classical, but has differences in material and sound. Today's modern classical guitar was established by the late designs of the 19th-century Spanish luthier, Antonio Torres Jurado; the classical guitar has a long history and one is able to distinguish various: instruments repertoire Both instrument and repertoire can be viewed from a combination of various perspectives: Historical Baroque guitar – 1600 to 1750 CE Early romantic guitars – 1750 to 1850 CE Modern classical guitarsGeographical Spanish guitars and French guitars, etc.
Cultural Baroque court music, 19th century opera and its influences, 19th century folk songs, Latin American music While "classical guitar" is today associated with the modern classical guitar design, there is an increasing interest in early guitars. The musicologist and author Graham Wade writes: Nowadays it is customary to play this repertoire on reproductions of instruments authentically modelled on concepts of musicological research with appropriate adjustments to techniques and overall interpretation, thus over recent decades we have become accustomed to specialist artists with expertise in the art of vihuela, Baroque guitar, 19th-century guitar, etc. Different types of guitars have different sound aesthetics, e.g. different colour-spectrum characteristics, different response, etc. These differences are due to differences in construction. There is a historical parallel between musical styles and the style of "sound aesthetic" of the musical instruments used, for example: Robert de Visée played a baroque guitar with a different sound aesthetic from the guitars used by Mauro Giuliani and Luigi Legnani – they used 19th century guitars.
These guitars in turn sound different from the Torres models used by Segovia that are suited for interpretations of romantic-modern works such as Moreno Torroba. When considering the guitar from a historical perspective, the musical instrument used is as important as the musical language and style of the particular period; as an example: It is impossible to play a informed de Visee or Corbetta on a modern classical guitar. The reason is that the baroque guitar used courses, which are two strings close together, that are plucked together; this gives baroque guitars an unmistakable sound characteristic and tonal texture, an integral part of an interpretation. Additionally the sound aesthetic of the baroque guitar is different from modern classical type guitars, as is shown below. Today's use of Torres and post-Torres type guitars for repertoire of all periods is sometimes critically viewed: Torres and post-Torres style modern guitars have a thick and strong tone suitable for modern-era repertoire.
However, they are considered to emphasize the fundamental too for earlier repertoire (Classical/Romantic: Carulli, Giuliani, Mertz....
Fairmont is a city in and the county seat of Martin County, United States. The population was 10,666 at the 2010 census. Fairmont was platted in 1857; the city was so named on account of its elevated town site. A post office has been in operation at Fairmont since 1858. Fairmont was incorporated as a city in 1902. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.92 square miles, of which 15.04 square miles is land and 1.88 square miles is water. The city of Fairmont itself has been built around a chain of five lakes: Lake George, Sisseton Lake, Budd Lake, Hall Lake, Amber Lake. All except Amber Lake are connected by channels and are used extensively for recreational boating and fishing. Interstate 90 and Minnesota State Highway 15 are two of the main routes in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 10,666 people, 4,812 households, 2,816 families residing in the city. The population density was 709.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,251 housing units at an average density of 349.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.9% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.3% of the population. There were 4,812 households of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 45.5 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,962 families residing in the city; the population density was 747.5 people per square mile. There were 5,036 housing units at an average density of 345.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 96.1% White, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. There were 4,702 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,709, the median income for a family was $46,637. Males had a median income of $31,365 versus $22,447 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $18,658. About 8.0% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. Fairmont has been home to Fairmont Railway Motors, now part of Harsco Corporation, for a century; the company pioneered motorized railway section cars road-rail technologies as well as track maintenance machinery that revolutionized and mechanized rail track engineering. Its 100th anniversary celebration was held in the summer of 2009. Fairmont products are exported around the world, although the dominant product, railroad speeders, is now in the hands of railway enthusiasts who operate them for fun, such as the North American Railcar Operators Association and the Australian Society of Section Car Operators, Inc. Fairmont is home to the U. S. headquarters of Avery Weigh-Tronix, one of the world's largest suppliers of weighing solutions. The Fairmont Sentinel, cited as the most conservative newspaper in Minnesota in issue 1065 of Rolling Stone, is published here.
The largest employer in Fairmont is part of the Mayo Health System. Prior to 1992, Fairmont had been home to a major regional frozen food canning operation. Longtime owned by the Stokely-Van Camp company, the plant fell under the United Foods International umbrella after United Foods' 1982 $50 million buy-out of Van Camp's frozen vegetable division. Before closing in December 1992, the Fairmont plant was one three frozen vegetable processing plants producing product for the United Foods family of canned vegetables for sale throughout the United States. According to Fairmont's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Local area schools Fairmont Junior/Senior High School Fairmont Elementary School St. John Vianney Catholic School, K-6 St Paul Lutheran School, K-8 Higher education Minnesota West Community College Presentation College-Fairmont Campus Kelly D. Holstine, Education Minnesota's 2018 Minnesota Teacher of the Year Jay Maynard, the internet celebrity known as "Tron-Guy".
Paul Willson, actor best known for his role as Paul in Cheers and Bob Porter in Office Space David Obray, U. S. Department of the Army, 2008-2009 Soldier of the Year Fairmont Information Fairmont Sentinel Fairmont Area Schools Fairmont Opera House Martin County Historical Society KFMC radio