Sorte Hest is the oldest building in the Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It used to be an inn, located well outside the limits of the fortified city, standing on the Vestre Landevej leading in. It provided accommodation for travellers as well as citizens who failed to enter the city before the city gates were locked at sunset, today it houses a bakery and café as well as apartments. The Black Horse was one out of four known as Horses located along the western access road to Copenhagen. Closest to the city stood the Green Horse, followed the White Horse, the Yellow Horse and farthest out, on the border to Frederiksberg, in between these inns were even more establishments catering for travellers. Competition was thus fierce and at some point both the Green and White Horses closed, the Yellow Horse, with four pavilions and two bowling courses, only survived because it went into tobacco manufacturing. Part of the area between the Vestre Landevej and Frederiksberg Allé was laid out as fields and a horse-driven mill was constructed for the processing of tobacco into snus.
Other exotic produce cultivated on the estate included peaches, apricots, in the mid-19th century the property was acquired by a couple of akvavit manufacturers who had realized that real estate was a much more lucrative business. They became rich from selling off the land in parcels to developers to use for the construction of apartment buildings. Further out on Vesterbro, the Black Horse had been an inn since the 17th century, first known as the Golden Lion, the current building was constructed in 1771. The closest neighbour, on the side of the road, was the execution site at Vester Fælled. It was here that the Counts Johann Friedrich Struensee and Enevold Brandt were put on display on the breaking wheel. Well into the 20th century the Black Horse continued to serve as an inn, in 1986, the building was occupied by the Danish Squatters Movement and remained their premier stronghold in Copenhagen, until they were evicted by the police on 2 February 1990. The building was scheduled for demolition, but after local opposition these plans were abandoned
Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Enghave Brygge is a waterfront area in the Souterhn Docklands of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Teglholmen to the south and Kalvebod Brygge to the north, currently an abandoned industrial site, a plan for its redevelopment was adopted in July 2013. The most prominent landmark in the area is the H. C, the land is owned by NPV A/S, JM Danmark samt By & Havn. The plan for the area has created by Juul Frost Arkitekter, Gröning Arkitekter. The area will comprise 2,400 apartments and about 37.800 square metres of commercial and retail space. A central element in the plan is the creation of a 700 metres long canal, Enghave Canal, the buildings along the water will be located on 11 individual islands. A greenspace will mark the transition to H. C, Enghave Brygge will be a station on the planned South Harbour Line of the Copenhagen Metro. Bridges will connect Enghave Brygge to Teglholmen to the south and across the harbor to the part of Islands Brygge
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The collection is built around the collection of Carl Jacobsen. However, the museum is noted for its collection of painting that includes an extensive collection of French impressionists and Post-impressionists as well as Danish Golden Age paintings. The museums collection includes all the sculptures of Degas, including the series of dancers. Numerous works by Norwegian-Danish sculptor Stephan Sinding are featured prominently in various sections of the museum, Carl Jacobsen was a dedicated art collector. He was particularly interested in art, but over the years he acquired a considerable collection of French. When his private villa in 1882 was extended with a winter garden, the same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was expanded on a number of occasions to meet the need for space for his steadily growing collections. In spite of the extensions, it was finally clear the existing premises were inadequate.
On 8 March 1888 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection to the Danish State, Jacobsen was displeased with the location which he found to be too far from the city centre and he had reservations about the proximity of Tivoli which he found common. Instead he wanted a building on the new city hall square. It was Carl Jacobsen who chose the name for the museum, with inspiration from Ludwig Is Glyptothek in Munich, the moat around the radan was filled and the new museum opened first on 1 May 1897. At first it only included Jacobsens modern collection with French and Danish works from the 18th century, in January 1899 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection of Antique art to the museum which made an expansion necessary. It was designed by Hack Kampmann while Dahlerup designed a garden which connected the new wing to the old building. In 1996 the museum was again extended, this time with an infill constructed in one of its courtyards to the design of Henning Larsen. In 2006, the building underwent a major renovation programme under the direction of Danish architects Dissing + Weitling. the building is often noted for its elegance in its own right and the synthesis it creates with the works of art.
The Dahlerup Wing, the oldest part of the museum, is a lavish historicist building, the façade is in red brick with polished granite columns in a Venetian renaissance style. It houses the French and Danish collections, the Kampmann Wing is a more simple, neo-classical building, built as a series of galleries around a central auditorium used for lectures, small concerts and poetry readings
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the part by surrounding alien territory. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is partly surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. The Azeri exclave of Naxçıvan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country, pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves.
Many pene-exclaves partially border their own territorial waters, a pene-enclave can exist entirely on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A commonly cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a part of Vorarlberg, Austria. The word enclave is French and first appeared in the century as a derivative of the verb enclaver. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land, the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526. Later, the term began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, parishes. This French word eventually entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept although local terms have continued to be used, in India, the word pocket is often used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were usually called detachments or detached parts, in English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars.
The word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a extension of the concept of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons, in particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, and these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states. Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory, over time enclaves have tended to be eliminated. This exchange thus effectively de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all, the residents in these enclaves had complained of being effectively stateless