A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc
Det Ny Teater
Det Ny Teater is an established theatre in Copenhagen, first opened in 1908. It is based in a building which spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej in Copenhagen's theatre district on the border between Vesterbro and Frederiksberg. With more than 12,000 m2 it is one of Denmark's largest theaters, it has two stages, the main auditorium which seats more than 1,000 and Sceneriet, a smaller theatre established in the cellar in 1994. The site of the theatre a worn down apartment block, was in the spring of 1902 acquired by a development company, which had plans to build a large theatre and in the same time to open a passage between Gammel Kongevej and the new Vesterbro Passage, now part of Vesterbrogade, the backbone in a westward expansion of Copenhagen's city centre. Bona engaged Viggo Lindstrøm in the project as artistic consultant, he had been resident actor and director at Folketeatret but resigned after a fashionable controversy with its director, in 1906 the company applied the Ministry of Justice for a license for the theatre's operation.
The application was rejected by Peter Adler Alberti, the minister of Justice due to a link with Folketeatret's director, but after personal intervention from King Frederik, the license was granted. In March 1907, Bona commissioned the architect Lorenz Gudme to draw up a project, he had worked for Ove Petersen, responsible for both the Royal Theatre, in collaboration with Vilhelm Dahlerup, the Dagmar Theatre. His proposal was accepted and the fundaments were laid on 14 August 1907. Shortly after construction start, a disagreement occurred between Bona and Gudme, fired from the project, instead completed by Ludvig Andersen; when the theatre was inaugurated on 19 September 1908 it was the second largest theatre in the country and the construction price had been approx. DKK 1,200,000 and DKK 600,000 for the site. Lindstrøm, the theatre's first director, had declared himself willing to set up everything at his new theatre, the second largest in Copenhagen, but the opening performance, Pierre Berton's Den skønne Marseillanerinde, an extravaganza about Napoleon with a young cast featuring such stars as Poul Reumert, Asta Nielsen and Clara Wieth, became exemplar of the repertoire during the first three decades.
Lindstrøm himself left the theatre after just three years due to an insignificant debts. He was succeeded in the post by the actor Ivar Schmidt who held the post from 1911 to 1937, accompanied by actors such as Else-Marie, Berthe Qvistgaard, Ellen Gottschalch, Ib Schønberg and Osvald Helmuth; the director from 1944 to 1966 was Peer Gregaard and he changed the repertoire from with a combination of classics and contemporary Danish and European drama. During this era, Det Ny Teater came to challenge the Royal Danish Theatre as the leading theatrical stage in Denmark. In the 1960s it became evident; the writer Knud Poulsen was appointed director in 1969 and by 1971 the theatre faced closure but was saved when the county and Ministry of Culture stepped in and compensated for reduced ticket prices. This marked the beginning of a crisis for the theatre which reflected the general adversities for the industry and, in 1976, led to the introduction of a general regime for subsidizing theatrical productions.
In 1991, when the theatre, by in a poor state of neglect, lost its support, it had to close indefinitely. The owners succeeded in raising funds for a thorough renovation. Bent Mejding was the driving force behind the restoration of the theater, which he and Niels-Bo Valbro reopened as a venue for operetta and musicals with a production of Die Fledermaus in 1994. Since the theatre has produced a number of large productions, the most successful of which and audience-wise, has been Phantom of the Opera, which ran from 2000 to 2002; the theatre building spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej and has a facade front on both sides. The complex includes the surrounding buildings; the theatre is loosely modelled on the Paris Opera, but is built in a mixture of styles, combining elements such as classical trompe-l'œil effects and Greek capitals side by side with art deco features. Built in reinforced concrete, it was the first building in Denmark to use the Hennebique system, due to added strength, allowed the theatre to be the first in Denmark to have balconies without supporting pillars.
The theatre was the first in Denmark to feature a revolving stage. Other state-of-the-art features were an advanced sprinkler system in case of fire on stage, showers installed for the actors on every floor. For the audience there were comfortable family boxes, an elegant marble staircase and a large inviting foyer; the renovation in 1994 received the Europa Nostra award from the European Union. Since the renovation, the theatre has two stages; the large auditorium seats app. 1,000 while the small one, built in the cellar in connection with the 1994 renovation, seats an audience of 250 to 300. The main repertoire is still musicals; the theatre plays host to a variety of other events and is available on hire. Culture of Denmark Official website
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road which follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south. The area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet; the southern part of the area, south of Bernstoffsgade, is to the west bounded by an extensive railway terrain, a section of, now under redevelopment into a linear park with scattered buildings and a super bikeway, which will provide a greenway between the city centre and the South Harbour. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district, it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the railway terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land; the coast south of Copenhagen was known as Kalvebod Beach.
The first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Rampart's Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. Tømmergraven was dug out. A little further to the south, Copenhagen's first gasworks known as Vestre Gasværk, opened on the beach in 1857; the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds, it was designed by DSB's head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901. It was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968; the new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks' access to the harbor. The Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project; the Western Gasworks closed on 8 June 1927 and the site was used for construction of the White Meat District, a modern expansion of the old meat-packing district, established next to the Haymarket in 1820. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s.
Beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredit's Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineer's House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was subsequently built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, on the other side of the street. A new plaza was created in front of the building; the Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013. It consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the disused part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg; the plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, flank the beginning of the greenway.
The surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson; the greenway continues across the roof of the former goods station, converted into a home for the Danish National Archives by PLH Architects. The raised promenade continues to Tivoli Hotel and Congress Centre; the complex is designed by Kim Utzon Architects and comprises a conference venue with room for 4,000 people and two hotels. The Tivoli Hotel is under expansion. Stages will continue it southwards to Dybølsbro station and all the way to the South Harbour; the terraced landscape that surrounds the SEB buildings were designed by Stig L. Andersson; the area north of Kalvebod West, on the other side of Bernstoffsgade, is known as the Rysensteen Quarter, although the name is little used today. The neighbourhood is bounded on the other sides by Tietgensgade to the northwest, separating it from Tivoli Gardens, H. C. Andersens Boulevard to the northeast and Hemnrosgade to the south, separating it from Kalvebod Brygge; the most notable landmarks in the area are Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek and the Copenhagen Police Headquarters.
The former Vestre Elværk power station and Vestre Hospital both front Tietgensgade. A former factory building on Anker Heegaards Gade has been converted into residences for MPs who live in the provinces; the nearest railway station is Copenhagen Central Station. The now demolished coal bridge across Kalvebod Brygge is seen at 0:32:25 in the 1975 Olsen-banden film The Olsen Gang on the Track. Kalvebod Brygge is used as a location in many of the other Olsen Gang films. Frederiks Brygge
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the harbour front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars and restaurants; the canal harbours many historical wooden ships. Nyhavn was constructed by King Christian V from 1670 to 1673, dug by Swedish prisoners of war from the Dano-Swedish War 1658–1660, it is a gateway from the sea to the old inner city at Kongens Nytorv, where ships handled cargo and fishermens' catch. It was notorious for beer and prostitution. Danish author Hans Christian Andersen lived at Nyhavn for some 18 years; the first bridge across Nyhavn opened on 6 February 1875. It was a temporary wooden footbridge, it was replaced by the current bridge in 1912. As ocean-going ships grew larger, Nyhavn was taken over by internal Danish small vessel freight traffic. After World War II land transport took over this role and small vessel traffic disappeared from the Port of Copenhagen, leaving Nyhavn deserted of ships.
In the mid-1960s, the Nyhavn Society was founded with the aim of revitalising the area. In 1977, Nyhavn was inaugurated as a veteran ship and museum harbour by Copenhagen’s Lord Mayor Egon Weidekamp. In 1980 Nyhavn quay was pedestrianised. Since it has become a popular spot for tourists and locals alike, serving the function of a square according to architects Jan Gehl and Lars Gemzøe; the northern side of Nyhavn is lined by brightly coloured townhouses built with wood and plaster. The oldest house, at No. 9, dates from 1681. Between 1845 and 1864, Hans Christian Andersen lived at No. 67, where a memorial plaque now stands. From 1871-1875 Andersen lived at Nyhavn 18, which houses an Andersen-themed souvenir shop; the southern side of Nyhavn has lavish mansions lining the canal, including Charlottenborg Palace at the corner of Kongens Nytorv. Nyhavn Veteran Ship and Museum Harbour, occupying the inner section of Nyhavn, between the Nyhavn Bridge and Kongens Nytorv, is lined with old ships. From the foundation of the heritage harbour in 1977, the south side of the canal has been reserved for museum ships owned by the Danish National Museum, which received a donation of restored ships from A. P. Møller, while the northern side of the canal was put at the disposal of the Nyhavn Society and owned, still usable wooden ships.
Harbor ships include: Lightvessel XVII Gedser Rev – lightvessel built in Odense in 1895, in operation until 1972 acquired by the National Museum and now serving as a museum ship. Svalan af Nyhavn – galease built in Jungfrusund in 1924 Anna Møller – galease built in Randers in 1906 MA-RI – purpose-built smuggling ship built in 1920. Mira – two-masted schooner built in Fåborg in 1898, considered one of the finest ships of the Danish small vessel traffic of the time. For many years it transported chalk from Stevns; the first ship on the north side of Nyhavn, coming from Kongens Nytorv. The Boat Theatre - a lighter-type barge built in Copenhagen in 1898, since 1972 operated as a theatre boat; the great Memorial Anchor at the end of Nyhavn, where it meets Kongens Nytorv, is a monument commemorating the more than 1,700 Danish officers and sailors in service for the Navy, merchant fleet or Allied Forces, who sacrificed their lives during World War II. The Anchor was inaugurated in 1951, replacing a temporary wooden cross erected on the spot in 1945, has a plaque with a monogram of King Frederik VII on it.
The Memorial Anchor is from 1872 and was used on the Frigate Fyn, docked at Holmen Naval Base during the Second World War. Every year on May 5 – Denmark’s Liberation day 1945 – an official ceremony is held to honour and commemorate the fallen at the Memorial Anchor. Along its northern, sunnier side, Nyhavn is lined with restaurants facing the harbor. Nyhavn serves as a hub of canal tours. Kongens Nytorv metro station is located at the end of Nyhavn, though situated at the far end of the namesake square outside Magasin du Nord; the station is served by both lines M2 of the Copenhagen Metro. The Copenhagen Harbour Buses has a stop at the mouth of Nyhavn. All four routes of the harbour buses, Routes 901, 902, 903 and 904, stop at the bus stop next to the Royal Playhouse. In 2016 the Inner Harbor Bridge connecting Nyhavn and Christianshavn was opened after years of setbacks and delays; the 180 m cycling and pedestrian drawbridge has been nicknamed the Kissing Bridge because its contour resembles two tongues meeting.
Nyhavn has been seen in numerous Danish films. It is for instance used as a location in a number of Olsen-banden films, for instance at 0:25:44 in The Olsen Gang on the Track and at 0:28:56 in the 1977 Olsen Gang film The Olsen Gang Outta Sight; the Memorial Anchor is seen at 1:16:57 in The Olsen Gang Sees Red.. Nyhavn has been featured in a number of international films; the closing scenes of Ingmar Bergman's A Lesson in Love takes place in Nyhavn. In the 1957 British-American action film Hidden Fear, Nyhavn is used as a central location. In the 1960 Alfred Hitchcock spy film Torn Curtain, on the way to DDR, is told to contact a used book seller at Kanalgade 1 which turns out to be Nyhavn when his fiancée visits the address. In the 1963 German film Das Feuers
Valdemarsgade is a street in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Vesterbrogade in the north to Sønder Boulevard in the south, intersecting Istedgade and Dybølsgade on the way. St. Matthew's Church, Vesterbro's oldest and largest church, is located in the street. Most of the street is lined with five-storey, late 18th-century apartment block but its northern end stands out from the surrounding neighbourhood with its low, detached buildings with small front gardens. One of the properties, De Suhrske Friboliger, is listed on the Danish registry of protected buildings and places; the land where Valdemarsgade was established was part of the Western Common. St. Johns Hospital was built on the coast at the southern end of present-day Valdemarsgade in the 17th century. Colloquially known as the Plaque House, it housed a combination of psychiatric and disabled patients. St. John's Cemetery was located a little further indland in the area between Valdemarsgade and Enghavevej; the city's gallows was located in this area.
St. John's Hospital was moved in 1769. A property at the northern end of present-day Valdemarsgade was in 1731 owned by Royal Kitchen Inspector and Poultry Purveyor Christoffer Nelling and was grazed by geese. In the 1780s, royal agent Johannes Christopher Amberg and konferensråd Jessenius Clasen established a tobacco farm at the site, to produce tobacco for the tobacco factory Friheden but the enterprise went bankrupt. In 1799, justitsråd, War Commissioner Heinrich Christian Kilde bought the estate. Kilde used the property as a summer residence; the house was a half-timbered building. Kilde acauired more land in the 1800s and 1810s. Henriette Lund, a niece of Søren Kierkegaard, describes the garden in her posthumously published memoirs, she spent five summers on the estate in the period 1836-1840. Actor at the Royal Danish Theatre Peter William Jerndorff, who grew up on the estate, has described it in his memoirs; the family moved "out to Vesterbro" after his parents rented the first floor in 1844 and lived there until 1852.
The property was purchased by ropemaker and developer Hans Rasmussen Thrane in 1850. He had plans to create a new road with "beautiful places for people of the upper classes who had their businesses inside the city", he commissioned a masterplan for the development but sold the estate to Captain-Lieutenant Jens Langemarck in 1852 before it was ready. In 1857, the property was acquired by a consortium consisting of timber trader Emil Zeuthen Svitzer and captain Johan Carl Eduard Lorentzen and master timber and architect Jacob Beierholm Wenzel. Lorentzen was Jerndorff's father-in-law. Svitzer and Lorentzen demolished Kilde's house; the new street was established in 1858. Together with Dannebrogsgade and Oehlenschlægersgade, it was the first side streets of Vesterbrogade to be established. Svitzer proposed that it should be named Fortungade but the City Council decided to name it Valdemarsgade after Valdemar the Great; the west side of the street was soon built over with villas. The east side of the street was not built over until the second helf of the 1870s.
It was only the northern end of Valdemarsgade, built over with villas for wealthy citizens. The section south of Mathæusgade was built over with five-storey apartment blocks. A boom barrier was installed at Mathæusgade to keep the private part of the street free of through traffic. Suhr's Friboliger was built in 1876–78 at the initiative of Ole Berendt Suhr to provide affordable accommodation for needy merchants and their widows; the complex was designed by Ludvig Fenger who designed St. Mathew's Church, it consists of three detached wings surrounding a central courtyard. The Suhr family's coat of arms is seen above the door on one of the buildings. Tømmerlaugets Stiftelse was built by the Carpenters' Guild in 1880; the building was designed by Ludvig Vold with inspiration from Gisselfeldt. It was sold in 1922. No, 15 was built for Vesterbros KFUM, the local branch of the YMCA: It now houses Teatret Zeppelin, a theatre specializing in productions for children and families. Bo. 17 is a residential building from 1885.
Kong Christian IX's og Dronning Louises Jubilæumsasyl was founded on 16 November 1888 by the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society. The building was inaugurated on 11 August 1894 to design by Ludvig Knudsen. Børneuniversitetet, situated on the other side of the street, is a school that practices alternative teaching methods. Viktoriagade Source Source
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his original brewery in the district in 1847; the first brewing took place on November 11, 1847, production took place continuously until October 30, 2008, when production was moved to Fredericia in Jutland. The Jacobsen House Brewery produces specialty beers; the entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen. The area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens; the buildings have served a wide array of original functions, some of which are not associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum. After the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district.
A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets and small squares. It will feature ten slim towers; the planned district will aim at an active urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival. Carlsberg lies at the junction of four districts, it is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north and Kongens Enghave to the south. The area to the west of Carlsberg is dominated by extensive areas of greenspace with Søndermarken-Frederiksberg Park to the northwest and Vestre Cemetery just across the rail tracks, to the southwest, making up a combined area of 120 hectares of parkland. In search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsen's brewery located at the current site after receiving a license from the King. Construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsberg's main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853.
In 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with an annexed brewery, leased by J. C. Jacobsen's son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father. In 1876, J. C. Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Laboratory. In 1880 J. C. Jacobsen terminated his son's lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises. With his father's consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsberg's name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg. In 1887 J. C. Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery. Over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building and in 1901 the distinctive Elephant Gate as well as the Ny Carlsberg Brew House. In 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership; the breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were formally merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries.
Carl Jacobsen heads the breweries as well as the foundation until his death in 1914. Notable buildings include the Boiler House from 1827 and the Hanging Gardens. In July 2006 Carlsberg decided to decommission the brewery in Valby and concentrate the brewery's production activities in Denmark at their other brewery, located in Fredericia. Only the headquarters and the small specialty brewery Jacobsen would remain at the historical site in Valby. Instead the former grounds were to be redeveloped by Carlsberg Properties with success developing the former Tuborg Brewery site in Hellerup into a new district known as Tuborg Havn. In late 2006, an international architecture competition was launched. In May 2007, the small Danish architectural practice Entasis was chosen as winner of the competition among 220 entries; as planned, production at the Valby Brewery ceased in late 2008. In February 2009 the district plan for the area was approved by the City; the Carlsberg district contains numerous historic buildings relating to the areas history as an important industrial site.
Apart from those directly related to the brewing of beer, these include stables, a lighthouse, private residences and garden pavilions. In 2008 13 building complexes and a garden were protected; the Elephant Gate & Tower is designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup and was built in 1901. The tower is the Carlsberg district's most famous landmark and takes its name from four granite elephants which flank the gate and carries the tower on their backs, it is inspired by Obelisk on Piazza della Minerva in Rome. The tower, which has a floor area of only 115 sqm, is built in ornamented tiles, it served as a water tower and herb silo. The Dipylon or Double Gate was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup and was built in 1892. Dipylon being Greek for'double gate', the Dipylon Gate is a double-arched Gateway marking the Vesterbro-side entrance to Ny Carlsberg; the building used to serve a dual purpose as a Clock tower. The clock has artwork by Stephan Sinding; the arches have a granite cladding. Above them there is i diagonal pattern in red tiles.
On one side of the building, a frieze depicts nine persons in decorative tilework. They include Pierre Flasse, his wife Madrissa, his son and heir Ainsley as well as some key employees; the Brewhouse (Danish
Amagertorv, today part of the Strøget pedestrian zone, is described as the most central square in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Second only to Gammeltorv, it is one of the oldest, taking its name from the Amager farmers who in the Middle Ages came into town to sell their produce at the site. Now the square is a central junction in the heart of Copenhagen, dominated by its Stork Fountain and a number of buildings, the oldest of which dates back to 1616. In opposite directions, Strøget extends towards Kongens Nytorv and the City Hall Square, the two largest squares in Copenhagen, to the northwest Købmagergade leads to Nørreport, the busiest railway station in Denmark, to the southeast Højbro Plads connects to Slotsholmen across Højbro Bridge, from there onwards to Christianshavn and Amager on the other side of the harbour; the paving was designed by Bjørn Nørgaard. It consists of a pattern of pentagonal granite stones in five colours. Amagertorv dates back to the Middle Ages when Copenhagen was a small fishing village called Havn, the site was the main corridor between the village and the beach.
In 1449 it is referred to in 1472 the name Amagertorv first appears. The name derives from the Amager farmers. In the 16th and 17th century the square became a setting of festivals and chivalrous tournaments. In the same time, Amagertorv continued to be the premier marketplace of the city and from 28 July 1684 all sale of fresh produce was to take place in the square. From 1656 the city's leading inn was located on the square. Few buildings on the square survivied the Copenhagen Fire of 1795; the adjoining Højbro Plads was established after the fire. In 1868 the market activities were moved to Christianshavn. In 1894, the Stork Fountain was constructed, it was a present to Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Louise in connection with their silver wedding. In 1962, the square was closed to traffic with the establishment of the Strøget pedestrian zone; the Church of the Holy Ghost, located at the western end of the square, is the oldest surviving church in Copenhagen. The Mathias Hansen House was built in 1616 from 1622 the Mayor of Copenhagen.
Of the Dutch Renaissance style, the house is built in red bricks with sandstone decorations, has a Dutch gable and a copper roof. The copper drainpipes are decorated with dragon's heads; the building was restored in 1898 by Professor Hans Jørgen Holm. The gateway is flanked by two cannon barrels used to protect the gate from entering carts. No. 9 was built 1798-1800: for linen merchant J. A. Bechmann; the original shop front at street level was altered in 1830 and again in 1870. The tobacco company W. Ø. Larsen has a small pipe museum in the building; the Ole Haslund House is an example of late-19th century Historicism. The current design is from 1867; the windows have mullions executed as small Hermes figures carrying Ionic capitals. Klostergården at No. 29 is a former convent. The building is from 1798-00 where it replaced a house designed by Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, destroyed in the Great Fire of 1795; the convent was founded in 1759. Løve Apotek, Copenhagen's first pharmacy, was based at the site from 1620 to 1969.
The current building was built for the pharmacy in 1907-1908 to design by Victor Chr. Brandstrup, it replaced a building by C. F. Harsdorff; the Illum department store has been located on the corner of Strøget and Købmagergade since the 1890s. The Illum Furniture Store is located at Amagertorv. Royal Copenhagen has a flagship in the historic building at No. 6. Amagertorv is used as a location in the films Ud i den kolde sne, Manden på Svanegården m Romantik på sengekanten and Mafiaen - det er osse mig. Gråbrødretorv Gammel Strand Tyskemannegade Source