Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. All together, there are sixteen known iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, common rust is a form of iron oxide. Iron oxides are used as inexpensive, durable pigments in paints, coatings. Colors commonly available are in the end of the yellow/orange/red/brown/black range. When used as a coloring, it has E number E172. Limonite Iron oxide nanoparticles List of inorganic pigments Information from Nano-Oxides, http, //chemed. chem. purdue. edu/demos/demosheets/12.3. html http, //minerals. usgs. gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/iron_oxide/ CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards de
Vestre Gravlund is a cemetery in the Frogner borough of Oslo, located next to the Borgen metro station. At 243 acres, it is the largest cemetery in Norway and it was inaugurated in September 1902 and contains a crematorium. Gunnar Tolnæs, actor Egil Holst Torkildsen, National Socialist editor, plot 60 contains war graves of 101 British Commonwealth service personnel of World War II. Most were airmen shot down raiding the occupied Oslo Airport at Fornebu, most of the others were killed in air crashes during Allied landings,43 lives being lost on Liberation Day alone. A Cross of Sacrifice was unveiled in 1949, opposite to the cross the citizens of Oslo erected a memorial to Commonwealth servicemen who died on Norwegian soil during that war. The memorial, unveiled in 1960, is in form of a figure of a mourning naked woman
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Some individual elms reached great size and age, however, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry, eight species are endemic to North America, and a smaller number to Europe, the greatest diversity is found in Asia. The classification adopted in the List of elm species, cultivars, a large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries, their currently accepted names can be found in the list List of elm Synonyms and Accepted Names. Botanists who study elms and argue over elm identification and classification are called pteleologists, as part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis and nettles.
The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English elm, the genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalous perfect flowers which are wind-pollinated. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most commonly, doubly serrate margins, usually asymmetric at the base, the fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. All species are tolerant of a range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions. The elm tree can grow to height, often with a split trunk creating a vase-shape profile. Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the half of the 20th century. It derives its name Dutch from the first description of the disease and its cause in the 1920s by the Dutch botanists Bea Schwarz, DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system.
The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves, woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they usually lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance. The second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was identified in Europe in the late 1960s, Elm phloem necrosis is a disease of elm trees that is spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts. This very aggressive disease, with no cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada. It is caused by phytoplasmas which infect the phloem of the tree and death of the phloem effectively girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is caused by a member of the sac fungi affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles. It has reached New Zealand, the disease affects species in the genera Ulmus and Zelkova, therefore it is not specific to the Dutch elm hybrid. The causative agents of DED are ascomycete microfungi, three species are now recognized, Ophiostoma ulmi, which afflicted Europe from 1910, reaching North America on imported timber in 1928. Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, an endemic to the western Himalaya. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, an extremely virulent species from Japan which was first described in Europe, DED is spread in North America by three species of bark beetles, The native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. The European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus, the banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi. In Europe, while S. multistriatus still acts as a vector for infection, it is less effective than the large elm bark beetle. H. rufipes can be a vector for the disease, but is inefficient compared to the other vectors, S.
schevyrewi was found in 2003 in Colorado and Utah. Other reported DED vectors include Scolytus sulcifrons, S. pygmaeus, S. laevis, Pteleobius vittatus, other elm bark beetle species are likely vectors. In an attempt to block the fungus from spreading farther, the tree reacts by plugging its own xylem tissue with gum and tyloses, bladder-like extensions of the xylem cell wall. As the xylem delivers water and nutrients to the rest of the plant, the first sign of infection is usually an upper branch of the tree with leaves starting to wither and yellow in summer, months before the normal autumnal leaf shedding. This progressively spreads to the rest of the tree, with further dieback of branches, the roots die, starved of nutrients from the leaves. Often, not all the roots die, the roots of some species, notably the English elm Ulmus procera, put up suckers which flourish for approximately 15 years, after which they too succumb. Dutch elm disease was first noticed in continental Europe in 1910, the disease was isolated in The Netherlands in 1921 by Bea Schwarz, a pioneering Dutch phytopathologist, and this discovery would lend the disease its name.
Circa 1967, a new, far more virulent strain arrived in Britain on a shipment of rock elm U, the disease is still migrating northwards through Scotland, reaching Edinburgh in the late 1970s, and Inverness in 2006. By 1990, very few mature elms were left in Britain or much of continental Europe, one of the most distinctive English countryside trees, the English elm U. procera Salisb. is particularly susceptible. Thirty years after the outbreak of the epidemic, nearly all these trees, the species still survives in hedgerows, as the roots are not killed and send up root sprouts. These suckers rarely reach more than 5 m tall before succumbing to a new attack of the fungus, established hedges kept low by clipping have remained apparently healthy throughout the nearly 40 years since the onset of the disease in the UK
Holger Jacobsen was a Danish architect. His best known work is Stærekassen, an extension to the Royal Danish Theatre on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen, holger Jacobsen was born on 30 October 1876 in Odense. After his graduation he worked abroad for a couple of years, another source of inspiration was Vilhelm Wanschers lectures on Michelangelo. He described himself as the last Italian in Danish architecture, Jacobsen had his breakthrough with Bispebjerg Crematorium which was built from 1905 to 1906. Another early work was Taastrup New Church which was inspired by the architecture of northern Italy but in its details, in 1925, Jacobsen published a proposal for an extension to the Royal Danish Theatre which had been suffering from lack of space ever since its inauguration in 1874. He was rewarded with the C. F, the building, which became known as the Nesting Box, was met with strong criticism, especially by Poul Henningsen and his consorts in the influential magazine Critical Review. From its opening in 1931, it was challenged in terms of functionality.
His works consists of residential and some office buildings
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. It is the tree known as yew, though with other related trees becoming known, it may now be known as English yew. The word yew is from Proto-Germanic *īwa-, possibly originally a loanword from Gaulish *ivos, compare Irish ēo, Welsh ywen, baccata is Latin for bearing red berries. The word yew as it was originally used seems to refer to the color brown, the yew was known to Theophrastus, who noted its preference for mountain coolness and shade, its evergreen character and its slow growth. Most Romance languages, with the exception of French, kept a version of the Latin word taxus from the same root as toxic. In Slavic languages, the root is preserved, Russian tis, Slovakian tis, Slovenian tisa. In German it is known as Eibe, in Iran, the tree is known as sorkhdār. The common yew was one of the species first described by Linnaeus. It is one of around 30 conifer species in seven genera in the family Taxaceae and it is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–20 metres tall, with a trunk up to 2 metres diameter.
The bark is thin, scaly brown, coming off in small flakes aligned with the stem, the aril is 8–15 millimetres long and wide and open at the end. The arils mature 6 to 9 months after pollination, and with the contained, are eaten by thrushes and other birds. Maturation of the arils is spread over 2 to 3 months, the seeds themselves are poisonous and bitter, but are opened and eaten by some bird species including hawfinches and great tits. The aril is not poisonous, it is gelatinous and very sweet tasting, the male cones are globose, 3–6 millimetres diameter, and shed their pollen in early spring. The yew is mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, Taxus baccata can reach 400 to 600 years of age. Some specimens live longer but the age of yews is often overestimated, ten yews in Britain are believed to predate the 10th century. The potential age of yews is impossible to accurately and is subject to much dispute. There is rarely any wood as old as the tree, while the boughs themselves often become hollow with age.
One characteristic contributing to yews longevity is that it is able to split under the weight of advanced growth without succumbing to disease in the fracture, as do most other trees
Urban open space
In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for parks, green spaces, and other open areas. The landscape of open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. They are commonly open to access, urban open spaces may be privately owned. Areas outside of city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas and urban squares are not always defined as open space in land use planning. The term urban open space can describe many types of open areas, one definition holds that, As the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, synonymous with neither unused land nor park and recreation areas. In almost all instances, the referred to by the term is, in fact. However, there are examples of green space which, though not publicly owned/regulated, are still considered urban open space. This definition implies a level of community interaction and places a focus on public involvement rather than public ownership or stewardship.
Generally considered open to the public, urban open spaces are sometimes privately owned, some examples of such places include higher education campuses, neighborhood/community parks/gardens, and institutional or corporate grounds. These areas still function to provide aesthetic and psychological relief from urban development, most commonly the term is used to reference spaces that are public and green. The benefits that urban open space provides to citizens can be broken into three forms, recreation and aesthetic value. Urban open space is often appreciated for the opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active recreation or passive recreation, time spent in an urban open space for recreation offers a reprieve from the urban environment. The conservation of nature in an environment has direct impact on people for another reason as well. e. As humans live more and more in man-made surroundings – i. e. cities – he risks harming himself by building and acting in ignorance of natural processes.
In a sense, by having the opportunity to be within an urban green space people gain a higher appreciation for the nature around them. As Bill McKibben mentions in his book The End of Nature and he follows in Henry David Thoreaus footsteps when he isolated himself in the Adirondack Mountains in order to get away from society and the overwhelming ideals it carries
Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew. The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality, the cemeteries are Vestre Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery. In Medieval times intramural interment was the rule although outdoor graveyards gradually became more common, in 1666 the Naval Holmens Cemetery was moved from its original location at Church of Holmen to a site outside the Eastern City Gate as the first burial facility to be located outside the city. An outbreak of plague in 1711 which killed an estimated 23,000 citizens put the burial sites under so much pressure that up to five coffins were sometimes buried on top of each other. After some negotiations it was decided to place it outside the Northern City Gate, the new cemetery was inaugurated on 6 November 1760.
It was enclosed by a built by Philip de Lange. Originally the cemetery was intended as a ground for paupers. Simon, der dort Gräber ist, gesprochen habe and he was soon followed by other leading figures from the elite and the cemetery soon developed into the most mondain burial ground of the city. Around that time, excursions to the cemetery with picnic baskets and it is certainly one of the most beautiful graveyards in Europe. The excursions sometimes evolved into rowdy gatherings and legislation was passed to prevent this, a commission established in 1805 issued instructions which prohibited the consumption of food or drink as well as music or any other kind of cheerful behaviour in the cemetery. The gravediggers, who lived on the premises, were to enforce these restrictions, legislation from 1813 prohibited them to sell alcohol to visitors to the cemetery. Despite all these efforts, the peace and quiet was a long time in coming. For particularly grand funerals, crowds of spectators would gather, to reduce numbers of visitors, there was talk of introducing admission fees, but this was never carried out.
The oldest part is Section A and features the graves of Søren Kierkegaard, Section D is dedicated to religious minorities, containing Roman Catholic and Reformed graves as well as Russian graves. Section E is the section which served under Church of Our Lady. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum contains an exhibition space for special exhibitions, a picture workshop for children and young people
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber and its central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column, often made of stone. Sarcophagus – a stone container for a body or coffin, often decorated and perhaps part of a monument, sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment, generally in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgräber or kurgans, a cairn, might be originally a tumulus. A long barrow is a tumulus, usually for numbers of burials. As indicated, tombs are located in or under religious buildings, such as churches. However, they may be found in catacombs, on land or, in the case of early or pre-historic tombs. The tomb of Emperor Nintoku is the largest in the world by area, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
The Commission is responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during World War II. The Commission was founded by Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 named the Imperial War Graves Commission, the change to the present name took place in 1960. The Commission, as part of its mandate, is responsible for commemorating all Commonwealth war dead individually and equally, to this end, the war dead are commemorated by name on a headstone, at an identified site of a burial, or on a memorial. War dead are commemorated uniformly and equally, irrespective of military or civil rank, the Commission is currently responsible for the continued commemoration of 1.7 million deceased Commonwealth military service members in 153 countries. Since its inception, the Commission has constructed approximately 2,500 war cemeteries, the Commission is currently responsible for the care of war dead at over 23,000 separate burial sites and the maintenance of more than 200 memorials worldwide.
The Commission operates through the financial support of the member states, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India. The current President of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is Prince Edward, at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Fabian Ware, a director of the Rio Tinto Company, found that he was too old, at age 45, to join the British Army. He used the influence of Rio Tinto chairman, Viscount Milner, the new Graves Registration Commission had over 31,000 graves of British and Imperial soldiers registered by October 1915 and 50,000 registered by May 1916. When municipal graveyards began to overfill Ware began negotiations with local authorities to acquire land for further cemeteries. Ware began with an agreement with France to build joint British, similar negotiations began with the Belgian government. As reports of the grave registration work became public, the Commission began to receive letters of enquiry, by 1917,17,000 photographs had been dispatched to relatives. In March 1915, the Commission, with the support of the Red Cross, began to dispatch photographic prints, the directorates work was extended beyond the Western Front and into other theatres of war, with units deployed in Greece and Mesopotamia.
As the war continued and others concerned about the fate of the graves in the post-war period. The National Committee for the Care of Soldiers Graves was created with the intention of taking over the work of the Directorate of Graves Registration, the government felt that it was more appropriate to entrust the work to a specially appointed body rather than to any existing government department. By early 1917, a number of members of the committee believed a formal imperial organisation would be needed to care for the graves. With the help of Edward, Prince of Wales, Ware submitted a memorandum to the Imperial War Conference in 1917 suggesting that an imperial organisation be constituted, the Commissions undertakings began in earnest at the end of the First World War. Once land for cemeteries and memorials had been guaranteed, the task of recording the details of the dead could begin. By 1918, some 587,000 graves had been identified, the scale, and associated high number of casualties, of the war produced an entirely new attitude towards the commemoration of war dead