Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics, soft tissue surgery, neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement, fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures are performed by veterinary surgeons. Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some perform additional procedures; the goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in farm animals. In the former, the situation is more close to that with human beings, where the benefit to the patient is the important factor. In the latter, the economic benefit is more important. In the United States and Europe, veterinary surgery is one of 22 veterinary specialties recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation.
Those wishing to become board certified must undergo a one-year clinical internship program followed by three years of intensive training in a residency program under direct supervision of Board Certified Veterinary Surgeons, including performance of a large number of surgical procedures in such categories as abdominal surgery, surgical treatment of angular limb deformities, arthroscopic surgery, surgery of the foot, fracture fixation, ophthalmic surgery, urogenital surgery, upper respiratory surgery, etc. Once the minimum requirements of training are met residents are required to pass a rigorous certification examination before being admitted as members of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons or European College of Veterinary Surgeons Anesthesia in animals has many similarities to human anesthesia, but some differences as well. Local anesthesia is used for wound closure and removal of small tumors. Lidocaine and bupivacaine are the most used local anesthetics used in veterinary medicine.
Sedation without general anesthesia is used for more involved procedures. Sedatives used include acepromazine, midazolam, diazepam and medetomidine. Α2 agonists like xylazine and medetomidine are useful because they can be reversed, xylazine by yohimbine and medetomidine by atipamezole. Xylazine is approved for use in dogs, horses and elk in the United States, while medetomidine is only approved for dogs. Most surgeries in ruminants can be performed with regional anesthesia. General anesthesia is used in animals for major surgery. Animals are premedicated intravenously or intramuscularly with a sedative and anticholinergic agent; the next step is induction with an intravenous drug. Dogs and cats receive thiopental, ketamine with diazepam, tiletamine with zolazepam, and/or propofol. Alfaxalone is a steroid anaesthetic used in many practices in the UK to induce anaesthesia in cats and sometimes dogs, it is different in composition to the now withdrawn Saffan. Horses receive thiopental and guaifenesin.
Following induction, the animal is intubated with an endotracheal tube and maintained on a gas anesthetic. The most common gas anesthetics in use in veterinary medicine are isoflurane and halothane, although desflurane and sevoflurane are becoming more popular due to rapid induction and recovery. Elective procedures are those performed on a non-emergency basis, which do not involve life-threatening conditions; these are in contrast to emergency procedures. One of the most common elective surgical procedures in animals are those that render animals incapable of reproducing. Neutering in animals describes spaying or castration. To spay is to remove the ovaries and the uterus of a female animal. In a dog, this is accomplished through a ventral midline incision into the abdomen. In a cat, this is accomplished either by a ventral midline abdominal incision, or by a flank incision. With an ovariectomy ligatures are placed on the blood vessels above and below the ovary and the organ is removed. With an ovariohysterectomy, the ligaments of the uterus and ovaries are broken down and the blood vessels are ligated and both organs are removed.
The body wall and skin are sutured. To castrate is to remove the testicles of a male animal. Different techniques are used depending on the type of animal, including ligation of the spermatic cord with suture material, placing a rubber band around the cord to restrict blood flow to the testes, or crushing the cord with a specialized instrument like the Burdizzo. Neutering is performed to prevent breeding, prevent unwanted behavior, or decrease risk of future medical problems. Neutering is performed as an emergency procedure to treat certain reproductive diseases, like pyometra and testicular torsion, it is used to treat ovarian and testicular cancer, it is recommended in cases of cryptorchidism to prevent torsion and malignant transformation of the testicles. Please see spaying and neutering for more information on the advantages and dis
The Roman army was the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire. It is thus a term that may span 2,206 years, during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.. The Early Roman army was the armed force of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic. During this period, when warfare chiefly consisted of small-scale plundering raids, it has been suggested that the army followed Etruscan or Greek models of organisation and equipment; the early Roman army was based on an annual levy. The infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the commanding authority during the regal period was the high king; until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, the king assumed the role of commander-in-chief.
However, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The commanding position of the army was given to the consuls, "who were charged both singly and jointly to take care to preserve the Republic from danger"; the term legion is derived from the Latin word legio. At first there were only four legions; these legions were numbered "I" to "IIII", with the fourth being written as such and not "IV". The first legion was seen as the most prestigious; the bulk of the army was made up of citizens. These citizens could not choose the legion. Any man "from ages 16–46 were selected by ballot" and assigned to a legion; until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Rome's army was organised to the Greek phalanx. This was due to Greek influence in Italy "by way of their colonies". Patricia Southern quotes ancient historians Livy and Dionysius in saying that the "phalanx consisted of 3,000 infantry and 300 cavalry"; each man had to provide his equipment in battle. Politically they shared the same ranking system in the Comitia Centuriata.
The Roman army of the mid-Republic was known as the "manipular army" or the "Polybian army" after the Greek historian Polybius, who provides the most detailed extant description of this phase. The Roman army started to have a full-time strength of 150,000 at all times and 3/4 of the rest were levied. During this period, the Romans, while maintaining the levy system, adopted the Samnite manipular organisation for their legions and bound all the other peninsular Italian states into a permanent military alliance; the latter were required to supply the same number of troops to joint forces as the Romans to serve under Roman command. Legions in this phase were always accompanied on campaign by the same number of allied alae, units of the same size as legions. After the 2nd Punic War, the Romans acquired an overseas empire, which necessitated standing forces to fight lengthy wars of conquest and to garrison the newly gained provinces, thus the army's character mutated from a temporary force based on short-term conscription to a standing army in which the conscripts were supplemented by a large number of volunteers willing to serve for much longer than the legal six-year limit.
These volunteers were from the poorest social class, who did not have plots to tend at home and were attracted by the modest military pay and the prospect of a share of war booty. The minimum property requirement for service in the legions, suspended during the 2nd Punic War, was ignored from 201 BC onward in order to recruit sufficient volunteers. Between 150-100 BC, the manipular structure was phased out, the much larger cohort became the main tactical unit. In addition, from the 2nd Punic War onward, Roman armies were always accompanied by units of non-Italian mercenaries, such as Numidian light cavalry, Cretan archers, Balearic slingers, who provided specialist functions that Roman armies had lacked; the Roman army of the late Republic marks the continued transition between the conscription-based citizen-levy of the mid-Republic and the volunteer, professional standing forces of the imperial era. The main literary sources for the army's organisation and tactics in this phase are the works of Julius Caesar, the most notable of a series of warlords who contested for power in this period.
As a result of the Social War, all Italians were granted Roman citizenship, the old allied alae were abolished and their members integrated into the legions. Regular annual conscription remained in force and continued to provide the core of legionary recruitment, but an ever-increasing proportion of recruits were volunteers, who signed up for 16-year terms as opposed to the maximum 6 years for conscripts; the loss of ala cavalry reduced Roman/Italian cavalry by 75%, legions became dependent on allied native horse for cavalry cover. This period saw the large-scale expansion of native forces employed to complement the legions, made up of numeri recruited from tribes within Rome's overseas empire and neighbouring allied tribes. Large numbers of heavy infantry and cavalry were recruited in Spain and Thrace, archers in Thrace and Syria. However, these native units were not integrated with the legions, but retained th
Lambaesis, Lambaisis or Lambaesa, is a Roman archaeological site in Algeria, 11 km southeast of Batna and 27 km west of Timgad, located next to the modern village of Tazoult. The former bishopric is a Latin Catholic titular bishopric. Lambaesa was founded by the Roman military; the camp of the third legion, to which it owes its origin, appears to have been established between AD 123-129, in the time of Roman emperor Hadrian, whose address to his soldiers was found inscribed on a pillar in a second camp to the west of the great camp still extant. However, other evidence suggests; the town is built 622 m above sea level in the plain and on the spurs of the Djebel Asker By AD 166 mention is made of the decurions of a vicus, 10 curiae of which are known by name. Lambaesis was populated by Romanized Berbers and by some Roman colonists with their descendants: Latin was the official and used language. III Augusta was disbanded by Gordian III and the legionaries dispersed among the North African provinces.
But the legion was restored in the AD 250s by Valerianus and Gallienus and from on the legion was known as Augusta Restituta. Its final departure did not take place till after AD 392. Indeed, under Septimius Severus, Numidia was separated from Africa Vetus, governed by an imperial procurator. Under the new organization of the empire by Diocletian, Numidia was divided in two provinces: the north became Numidia Cirtensis, with capital at Cirta, while the south, which included the Aurès Mountains and was threatened by raids, became Numidia Militiana, "Military Numidia", with capital at the legionary base of Lambaesis. Subsequently however, Emperor Constantine the Great reunited the two provinces in a single one, administered from Cirta, now renamed Constantina in his honour, its governor was raised to the rank of consularis in AD 320, the province remained one of the seven provinces of the diocese of Africa until the invasion of the Vandals in AD 428, which began its slow decay, accompanied by desertification.
The province remained under Vandal rule, but was limited to the coastal areas by Berber raids. It was restored to Roman rule after the Vandalic War, when it became part of the new praetorian prefecture of Africa; the Byzantines occupied Lambaesis and vicinity from the sixth century but around AD 683 the Arabs conquered the area, naming what remained of the city Bar-el-Molouk in the 10th century. Lambaesis was an episcopal. For such an important town, its bishopric is absent from the historical record. Lambaesis did not send a representative to the Council of Nicaea nor Chalcedon and is not mentioned by LeQuinn. Saint Cyprian mentions a heretic bishop of Lambaesis, condemned by a local synod of bishops around the year 240; the extinct diocese was nominally restored as a titular bishopric. Revived as Lambaisis, it was renamed Lambaesis in 1925, it has had the following incumbents, of the lowest rank: Jan Dembowski Hieronim Stojnowski Mateo José González Rubio Eduardo Vásquez, Dominican Order Thomas O’Callaghan, O.
P. Jean-Marie-Michel Blois, Paris Foreign Missions Society, as Apostolic Vicar of Southern Manchuria 南滿 and as Apostolic Vicar of Shenyang 瀋陽 promoted first Metropolitan Archbishop of Shenyang 瀋陽 James Moynagh, S. P. S. Vincenzo Maria Jacono Thomas Edward Gill John Stephen Cummins John Joseph Paul Cardinal Marian Jaworski, while Apostolic Administrator of Lviv Metropolitan Archbishop of the same Lviv, President of Episcopal Conference of Ukraine, Apostolic Administrator of Lutsk, Cardinal-Priest of S. Sisto Michel Pierre Marie Mouïsse Carlo Roberto Maria Redaelli, David Prescott Talley, Auxiliary Bishop of Atlanta The remains of the Roman town, more of the Roman camp, in spite of wanton vandalism, are among the most interesting ruins in northern Africa; the ruins are situated on the lower terraces of the Aures Mountains, consist of triumphal arches, aqueducts, vestiges of an amphitheatre, baths and an immense quantity of masonry belonging to private houses. To the north and east lie extensive cemeteries with the stones standing in their original alignments.
Of the temple of Aesculapius only one column is standing, though in the middle of the 19th century its façade was entire. The capitol or temple dedicated to Jupiter and Minerva, cleared of debris, has a portico with eight columns. On level ground about two-thirds of a mile from the centre of the ancient town stands the camp, its site now occupied by the penitentiary an