Burgher arms are coats of arms borne by persons of the burgher social class of continental Europe since the Middle Ages. By definition, the term is alien to British heraldry, although the term burgher arms refers to the bourgeoisie, it is often extended to arms of clergy and even to arms of peasants. In several European countries, the use of armorial bearings was restricted to a social class, e. g. the use of supporters in Great Britain. In other countries, every individual and community has been free to adopt arms and use it as they please, use of coats of arms by burghers and artisans began during the 13th century and in the 14th century some peasants took to using arms. The arms of burghers bore a far wider variety of charges than the arms of nobility like everyday objects, in particular, in burgher arms are met sometimes house marks which are not met in arms of nobility. Most widespread burgher heraldry was and still is in Switzerland and in the Netherlands, in the Netherlands only a small percentage of the existing arms belong to the nobility.
Crest-coronets in burgher arms are correct if the arms were granted by a sovereign. Although assumption of arms always remained free, the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire since Charles IV began to grant arms without raising people to nobiliary status. In the 15th century the authority to grant arms was delegated to “Counts Palatine of the Imperial Court” and this was regarded as luxury everyone was not able to afford. The tilting helmet was prescribed for arms of non-nobles, while the helmet was restricted by the imperial chancellery to the nobility as upholders of the tradition of tourneying. This privilege was shared by people who enjoyed the same standing as the nobility. Custom of the use of the helmet was followed by city patricians. Although the rule of the use of the helmet by burghers was not always obeyed, it has still become the norm in many countries of the German-Nordic heraldic tradition. After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, arms were no longer granted to burghers except in the Kingdom of Saxony, such family heraldry is still alive in Germany and burgher arms are protected by law.
Burgher arms used to be common in France, but they disappeared in the French Revolution, in the end of the 17th century, an attempt was made to list all arms in Armorial général as a device to increase tax revenue. When the attempt failed, in order to force people to pay tax and these arms were never used by their recipients. In France burgher arms are not supposed to have a helmet, burgher arms had a complicated and suppressed history in Portugal. During the reign of King Afonso V, burgher arms were restricted to the use of colours only and this restriction would become irrelevant when King Manuel I forbade the use of arms to those who were not of the Portuguese nobility
A Crown is often an emblem of the sovereign state, a monarchs government, or items endorsed by it, see The Crown. Crowns may be used by some republics, a specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a crown, just a heraldic representation. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, Crowns bearing bird feathers refer to ancient beliefs, according to which the birds had divine qualities like angels communicated with the worlds beyond the sky. In Italy there are rings that show the city walls used symbolically to remember the function that had the walls to protect the city. Thus the crown is a symbol of power and protection received from someone or something or means that the owner of the crown you show guarantees you power, in this case the appearance of the crown follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown such as that of Norway, princely coats of arms display a princely crown and so on right down to the mural crown which is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics.
Other republics may use a so-called peoples crown or omit the use of crowns altogether, the heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the actual appearance of the respective countrys royal and princely crowns. Ships and other units of some navies have a crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships. Squadrons of some air forces have a crown, composed of wings. There is the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, in formal English the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns, used by members of the Royal family and Peers. In the peerage of the United Kingdom, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia. This is placed between the shield and helmet in the manner as a peers coronet. Members of the British Royal Family have coronets on their coats of arms and they are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661 shortly after his return from exile in France and Restoration, and vary depending upon the princes relationship to the Monarch.
Occasionally additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals, in Canadian heraldry, coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, the loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn. Precisely because there are traditions and more variation within some of these. Indeed, there are some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet
A pursuivant or, more correctly, pursuivant of arms, is a junior officer of arms. Most pursuivants are attached to official authorities, such as the College of Arms in London or the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh. In the mediaeval era, many great nobles employed their own officers of arms, there still exist some private pursuivants that are not employed by a government authority. In Scotland, for example, several pursuivants of arms have been appointed by Clan Chiefs and these pursuivants of arms look after matters of heraldic and genealogical importance for clan members. Some Masonic Grand Lodges have a known as the Grand Pursuivant. The office is at the local Masonic lodge level in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, in that jurisdiction it is the Pursuivants duty to guard the door of the lodge, and announce and escort applicants for admission into the lodge. The office is unknown at the local level in Masonic jurisdictions outside Pennsylvania
An achievement, armorial achievement or heraldic achievement in heraldry is a full display of all the heraldic components to which the bearer of a coat of arms is entitled. The word hatchment in its usage is thus identical in meaning. However, in recent years the word hatchment has come to be used almost exclusively to denote funerary hatchment, archived from the original on 20 April 2011. An achievement is a formal display of a coat of arms
Joel Thomas Zimmerman, better known by his stage name deadmau5, is a Canadian record producer and DJ from Toronto, Ontario. Zimmerman produces a variety of styles within the house genre. His tracks have been included in compilation albums, such as the 2007 In Search of Sunrise 6. The February 2008 issue of Mixmags music magazine included a free CD which was titled MixMag Presents, tracks have been included and presented on Armin van Buurens A State of Trance radio show. His debut album, Get Scraped, was released in 2005, Zimmerman has received six Grammy Award nominations for his work. He has worked with other DJs and producers, such as Kaskade, MC Flipside, Rob Swire, on a number of releases, he has partnered with Melleefresh. An early 12 single produced on vinyl titled I Dont Want No Other was released by Joel Zimmerman and Derek Caesar under the group name Dred, a 2006 album titled deadmau5 Circa 1998-2002 was released using the alias Halcyon441. Deadmau5 is a music artist like Marshmello and Daft Punk.
Zimmerman was born in Niagara Falls, Ontario and his mother, Nancy, is a visual artist, and his father, Rodney Thomas Rod Zimmerman, is a General Motors plant worker. He has two siblings and Chris and his ancestry includes German and English. He received his first keyboard for Christmas when he was a teenager and his music career began in the late 1990s, with a chiptune and demoscene movements-influenced sound with the Impulse Tracker. Zimmerman graduated from Westlane Secondary School in Niagara Falls and he worked with an online music licensing company and as a programmer. He adopted the name Deadmau5, which referred to a mouse he found in his computer. In late 2012, a 1995 demo track by Zimmerman called Cant Remember The Name resurfaced on YouTube, Zimmerman released his debut studio album, titled Get Scraped on July 26,2005. Tracks Bored of Canada, Intelstat and I Forget reappear on this album as is, three self-released compilations, Project 56, deadmau5 Circa 1998-2002, and A Little Oblique, were finished in 2006, with Project 56 seeing an official release in February 2008.
In 2006, Zimmerman signed to Play Records and released his studio album, Vexillology. Random Album Title, saw a release in September 2,2008 via Ultra Records in the United States and Ministry of Sound in the United Kingdom. Physical copies of the album were released in November 2008, singles Faxing Berlin on October 25,2006 and Not Exactly on August 27,2007 were released prior to the albums release
Tinctures constitute the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry. The need to define and correctly blazon the various tinctures is therefore one of the most important aspects of heraldic art, the colours and patterns of the heraldic palette are divided into three groups, usually known as metals and furs. In its original sense, tincture refers only to the group referred to as colours. Thus, when consulting various heraldic authorities, care must be taken to determine which meaning each term is given, the basic scheme and rules of applying the heraldic tinctures dates to the formative period of heraldry, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The practice of depicting certain charges as they appear in nature, in the English-speaking world, heraldic terminology is based largely on that of British armory, which in turn is based on Norman French. The metals are or and argent, representing gold and silver, although in practice they are depicted as yellow. Or derives its name from the Latin aurum, gold and it may be depicted using either yellow or metallic gold, at the artists discretion, yellow has no separate existence in heraldry, and is never used to represent any tincture other than or.
Argent is similarly derived from the Latin argentum, notwithstanding the widespread use of white for argent, some heraldic authorities have suggested the existence of white as a distinct heraldic colour. Five colours have been recognized since the earliest days of heraldry and these are, gules, or red, sable, or black, azure, or blue, vert, or green, and purpure, or purple. Two more were eventually acknowledged by most heraldic authorities, sanguine or murrey, a red or mulberry colour, and tenné. Gules is of uncertain derivation, outside of the heraldic context, Sable is named for a type of marten, known for its dark, luxuriant fur. Azure comes through the Arabic lāzaward, from the Persian lāžavard both referring to the mineral lapis lazuli, used to produce blue pigments. Vert is from Latin viridis, the alternative name in French, sinople, is derived from the ancient city of Sinope in Asia Minor, which was famous for its pigments. Purpure is from Latin purpura, in turn from Greek porphyra and this expensive dye, known from antiquity, produced a much redder purple than the modern heraldic colour, and in fact earlier depictions of purpure are far redder than recent ones.
As a heraldic colour, purpure may have originated as a variation of gules. Sanguine or Murrey, from Latin sanguineus, blood red, and Greek morum, although long shunned in the belief that it represented some dishonour on the part of the bearer, it has found some use in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Tenné or tenny, from Latin tannare, to tan, is the second of the so-called stains and it is most often depicted as orange, but sometimes as tawny yellow or brown. In earlier times it was used in continental heraldry
Law of heraldic arms
The law of heraldic arms governs the bearing of arms, that is, the possession, use or display of arms, called coats of arms, coat armour or armorial bearings. Although it is believed that the function of coats of arms was to enable knights to identify each other on the battlefield, they soon acquired wider. They are still used today by countries and private institutions. The earliest writer on the law of arms was Bartolus de Saxoferrato, the officials who administer these matters are called pursuivants, heralds, or kings of arms. The law of arms is part of the law in countries which regulate heraldry, although not part of law in England. Ancestral right means descent in the line from an ancestor who lawfully bore arms. Due authority has, since medieval times, been the Crown or the State. In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, the Crowns prerogative of granting arms is delegated to one of several authorities depending on the country. In England and Northern Ireland, the authority to grant arms is delegated to the Kings of Arms of the College of Arms, in Scotland, this authority is delegated to Lord Lyon King of Arms at his or her own discretion.
In Canada, it is exercised by Canadian Heraldic Authority under the direction of the Governor-General of Canada, in Ireland, unlike the position in the United Kingdom, a grant of arms from an official authority is not a legal prerequisite to the use of arms. For example, heraldic symbols and coats of arms that existed pre-1552 and afterwards belonged to the Gaelic tradition may continue in use, as well as arms without any official basis. In Spain, whilst the power to grant new arms is restricted to the king, as of 2008, there is currently only one, with authority only in the provinces of Castile and León. Armorial bearings are incorporeal and impartible hereditaments and descendable according to the law of arms. In Ireland the granting of arms to Irish citizens or to those who can prove Irish ancestry is considered to be a tradition which is allowed through the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland. This Office was established under the English Crown in 1552 as the Ulster King of Arms and was converted to the Chief Heralds Office after the 1937 Constitution of Ireland, the Office of Chief Herald was given statutory force in the National Cultural Institutions Act 1997.
However some doubts remained as to the effectiveness of the 1997 Act, for example, on 8 May 2006 Senator Brendan Ryan introduced the Genealogy & Heraldry Bill,2006, in Seanad Éireann to this end. In England and Wales, the law of arms is regarded as a part of the laws of England, and these dignities, as they are called, have legal standing. But the law of arms is not part of the common law, in England the exclusive jurisdiction of deciding rights to arms, and claims of descent, is vested in the Court of Chivalry
Ecclesiastical heraldry refers to the use of heraldry within the Christian Church for dioceses and Christian clergy. Initially used to mark documents, ecclesiastical heraldry evolved as a system for identifying people and it is most formalized within the Catholic Church, where most bishops, including the Pope, have a personal coat of arms. Clergy in Anglican, Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches follow similar customs, as do such as schools. Ecclesiastical heraldry differs notably from other heraldry in the use of special insignia around the shield to indicate rank in a church or denomination, the most prominent of these insignia is the low crowned, wide brimmed ecclesiastical hat, commonly the Roman galero. The color and ornamentation of this hat indicate rank, other insignia include the processional cross, the mitre and the crosier. Eastern traditions favor the use of their own style of gear and crosier. The motto and certain shapes of shields are more common in heraldry, while supporters.
The papal coats of arms have their own customs, primarily the Papal Tiara, the keys of Saint Peter. Pope Benedict XVI replaced the use of the Papal Tiara in his coat of arms with a mitre and he was the first pope to do so, despite the fact that Pope Paul VI was the last pope to be crowned with the tiara. The arms of institutions have different traditions, using the mitre and crozier more often than is found in personal arms. The arms used by organizations are called impersonal or corporate arms, the same insignia were used on seals to identify documents. The earliest seals bore a likeness of the owner of the seal, with the shield, over time, the seals were reduced to just the shield. Edward I of England decreed in 1307 that all legal documents required a seal and these seals initially depicted a person, but as secular seals began to depict only a shield, clergy likewise used seals with heraldic insignia. Personal seals of bishops and abbots continued to be used after their deaths, clergy tended to replace military devices with clerical devices.
The shield was retained, but ecclesiastical hats often replaced helmets and coronets, in some religious arms a skull replaces the helmet. The structure of Church heraldry developed significantly in the 17th century when a system for ecclesiastical hats attributed to Pierre Palliot came into use, the Annuario Pontificio ceased publishing the arms of Cardinals and previous Popes after 1969. International custom and national law govern limited aspects of Church heraldry, Archbishop Bruno Heim, a noted ecclesiastical armorist, said Ecclesiastical heraldry is not determined by heraldic considerations alone, but by doctrinal and canonical factors. It not only produces arms denoting members of the ecclesiastical state, in the eyes of the Church it is sufficient to determine who has a right to bear an ecclesiastical coat of arms and under what conditions the different insignia are acquired or lost
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms. The word is used in two related senses, firstly, as the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed. Escutcheon shapes are derived from actual shields used by knights in combat, other shapes are in use, such as the roundel commonly used for arms granted to Aboriginal Canadians by the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Secondly, a shield can itself be a charge within a coat of arms, more often, a smaller shield is placed over the middle of the main shield as a form of marshalling. In either case, the shield is usually given the same shape as the main shield. When there is one such shield, it is sometimes called an inescutcheon. The word escutcheon is derived from Middle English escochon, from Anglo-Norman escuchon, from Vulgar Latin scūtiōn-, from Latin scūtum, from its use in heraldry, escutcheon can be a metaphor for a familys honour. The idiom a blot on the escutcheon is used to mean a stain on somebodys reputation, by about 1250 the shields used in warfare were almost triangular in shape, referred to as heater shields.
That on the monument to the latters grandfather Geoffrey V. This almost equilateral shape is used as a setting for armorials from this classical age of heraldry. In the Tudor era the heraldic escutcheon took the shape of an inverted Tudor arch, continental European designs frequently use the various forms used in jousting, which incorporate mouths used as lance rests into the shields, such escutcheons are known as à bouche. The mouth is correctly shown on the side only, as jousting pitches were designed for right-handed knights. Heraldic examples of English shields à bouche can be seen in the spandrels of the timber roof of Lincolns Inn Hall. In this case the lozenge is without crest or helm, again objects of manly warfare, for the practical purpose of categorisation the lozenge may be treated as a variety of heraldic escutcheon. In general a female was represented by her paternal arms impaled by the arms of her husband on an escutcheon, in modern Canadian heraldry, and certain other modern heraldic jurisdictions, women may be granted their own arms and display these on an escutcheon.
Life peeresses in England display their arms on a lozenge, an oval or cartouche is occasionally used instead of the lozenge for armigerous women. Divorced women may theoretically until remarriage use their ex-husbands arms differenced with a mascle, the lozenge shape of quasi-escutcheon is used for funerary hatchments for both men and women. Pretoria High School for Girls in South Africa is one of the few schools that was granted permission to use the lozenge as part of its coat of arms
A coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring. By one definition, a coronet differs from a crown in that a coronet never has arches, by a slightly different definition, a crown is worn by an emperor, king or queen, a coronet by a nobleman or lady. The word stems from the Old French coronete, a diminutive of coronne, itself from the Latin corona, other than a crown, a coronet shows the rank of the respective noble. Hence, in German and Scandinavian languages there is the term Rangkrone, for equivalents, both physical and emblematic, in other languages and cultures, see under crown. The main use is now actually not on the head but as a symbol in heraldry. In the United Kingdom, a peer wears his or her coronet on one occasion only, for a royal coronation, when it is worn along with coronation robes, equally standardised as a luxurious uniform. In the peerages of the United Kingdom, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, dukes were the first individuals authorised to wear coronets.
Marquesses acquired coronets in the 15th century, earls in the 16th and viscounts, until the barons received coronets in 1661, the coronets of earls and dukes were engraved while those of viscounts were plain. After 1661, viscomital coronets became engraved, while baronial coronets were plain, Coronets may not bear any precious or semi-precious stones. In Canadian heraldry, descendants of the United Empire Loyalists are entitled to use a Loyalist military coronet or Loyalist civil coronet in their arms, Members of the British Royal Family often have coronets on their coats of arms, and may wear actual coronets at coronations. They were made, according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661 and they vary depending upon the princes relationship to the monarch. Occasionally, additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals, the most recent royal warrant concerning coronets was the 19 November 1917 warrant of George V. Rather than a coronet, the heir apparent receives a crown with a single arch, there is evidence to support the wearing of coronets amongst Welsh royalty and nobility, particularly in the Kingdom of Gwynedd.
Llywelyns coronet was for a while kept with the English crown jewels, some distinguished families held no higher title than count or even baron, but were proud of their ancient origin. As an example, the title of Marquis ranks in principle immediately after Duke, titles continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870, and legally survive among their descendants. As a result, the title of duc was actually, as well as nominally, at the top of the scale after the family and foreign princes. Prince, this was not a title in Old Regime France, initially an open crown of fleurs-de-lis, starting with Henri IVs son, the crown is closed with dolphins instead of arches. Fils de France et Petit-Fils de France, open coronet of fleurs-de-lis, prince du Sang, first a coronet alternating fleurs-de-lis and acanthus leaves, e. g. on François de Montpensiers coinage in Dombes, c
A herald, or, more correctly, a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms. The title is applied more broadly to all officers of arms. Heralds were originally sent by monarchs or noblemen to convey messages or proclamations—in this sense being the predecessors of the modern diplomats. In the Hundred Years War, French heralds challenged King Henry V to fight, like other officers of arms, a herald would often wear a surcoat, called a tabard, decorated with the coat of arms of his master. It was possibly due to their role in managing the tournaments of the Late Middle Ages that heralds came to be associated with the regulation of the coats of arms. Heralds have been employed by kings and large landowners, principally as messengers and ambassadors, Heralds were required to organise and referee the contestants at a tournament. This science of heraldry became increasingly important and further regulated over the years, thus the primary job of a herald today is to be an expert in coats of arms.
In the United Kingdom heralds are still called upon at times to read proclamations publicly, there are active official heralds today in several countries, including the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and the Republic of South Africa. In England and Scotland most heralds are full-time employees of the sovereign and are called Heralds of Arms in Ordinary, temporary appointments can be made of Heralds of Arms Extraordinary. These are often appointed for a major state occasions, such as a coronation. In addition, the Canadian Heraldic Authority has created the position of Herald of Arms Emeritus, with which to honor long-serving or distinguished heraldists