The Via Egnatia was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. It crossed Illyricum and Thrace, running through territory, now part of modern Albania, North Macedonia and European Turkey as a continuation of Via Appia. Starting at Dyrrachium on the Adriatic Sea, the road followed a difficult route along the river Genusus, over the Candaviae mountains and thence to the highlands around Lake Ohrid, it turned south, following several high mountain passes to reach the northern coastline of the Aegean Sea at Thessalonica. From there it ran through Thrace to the city of Byzantium, it covered a total distance of about 1,120 km. Like other major Roman roads, it was about six metres wide, paved with large polygonal stone slabs or covered with a hard layer of sand; the main literary sources for the construction of the road are Strabo's Geographica and a number of milestones found along the route's length, marking the road for a length of 860 kilometres as far as the border between Macedonia and Thrace.
Bilingual inscriptions on the milestones record that Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, ordered its construction, though the exact date is uncertain. It may have succeeded an earlier military road from Illyria to Byzantium, as described by Polybius and Cicero, which the Romans built over and/or improved; the Via Egnatia was constructed in order to link a chain of Roman colonies stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Bosphorus. The termini of the Via Egnatia and the Via Appia, leading from Rome itself, were directly opposite each other on the east and west shores of the Adriatic Sea; the route, thus gave the colonies of the southern Balkans a direct connection to Rome. It was a vital link to Roman territories further to the east, it was repaired and expanded several times but experienced lengthy periods of neglect due to Rome's civil wars. The road was used by the Apostle Paul on his second missionary journey as he traveled from Philippi to Thessalonica, it played a vital role in several key moments in Roman history: the armies of Julius Caesar and Pompey marched along the Via Egnatia during Caesar's civil war, during the Liberators' civil war Mark Antony and Octavian pursued Cassius and Brutus along the Via Egnatia to their fateful meeting at the Battle of Philippi.
Surviving milestones record that the emperor Trajan undertook extensive repairs of the road prior to his campaign of 113 against the Parthians. However, by the 5th century AD the road had fallen into disuse as a result of violent instability in the region. A 5th-century historian noted that the western sections of the Via Egnatia were in such a poor state that travellers could pass along it. In years, the Via Egnatia was revived as a key road of the Eastern Roman Empire. All Byzantine overland trade with western Europe traveled along the Via Egnatia. During the Crusades, armies traveling to the east by land followed the road to Constantinople before crossing into Asia Minor. In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, control of the road was vital for the survival of the Latin Empire as well as the Byzantine successor states the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. During the first European conquests of Ottoman Turks sol kol was following the Via Egnatia. Today's modern highway, Egnatia Odos, runs in parallel to the Via Egnatia between Thessaloniki and the Turkish border on the Evros river.
Its name means "Via Egnatia" in Greek. Listed from west to east: 1994. "94/692/EC: Commission Decision of 17 May 1994 Concerning the Grant of Assistance from the Cohesion Financial Instrument to the Stage of Project Concerning the Construction of Via Egnatia - Igoumenitsa-Pedini Section - Subsection Vrosina -Pedini in Greece". Official Journal of the European Communities. Legislation. 37, no. 277: 66. Amore, M G, L Bejko, Y Cerova, I Gjipali. 2005. "Archaeological Reports and Notes - Via Egnatia Project: Results of Fieldwork 2002". Journal of Roman Archaeology. 18: 336. Attekum, Marietta van, Holger de Bruin. Via Egnatia on Foot: A Journey into History. Driebergen: Via Egnatia Foundation, 2014. Collart, Paul. 1935. "Une réfection de la « Via Egnatia » sous Trajan". Bulletin De Correspondance Hellénique. 59, no. 1: 395-415. ISSN 0007-4217. Michele Fasolo: La via Egnatia I. Da Apollonia e Dyrrachium ad Herakleia Lynkestidos, Istituto Grafico Editoriale Romano, 2nd ed. Roma 2005. Gunaropulu, Lukrētia, Miltiadēs B.
Chatzopulos. Les milliaires de la voie égnatienne entre Héraclée des Lyncestes et Thessalonique. 1985. Modern Greek. Series: Meletēmata / Kentron Hellēnikēs kai Rōmaïkēs Archaiotētos, 1. OCLC: 159882150. Heywood and Elizabeth Zachariadou; the Via Egnatia in the Ottoman Period: The Menzilhānes of the Ṣol Ḳol in the Late 17th/Early 18th Century. Rethymnon: Crete UP, 1996. Kazazaki, Zoe. Monasteries of the Via Egnatia.:, 1999. ISBN 9603860042. Kollaros, G. A. E. G. Varagouli-Xidaki, A. G. Athanasopoulou-Kollarou, G. S. Xidakis. 1988. "Via Egnatia: A Modern Engineering Approach to an Ancient Highway". The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works and Historical Sites, Rotterdam
Vía de la Plata
The Vía de La Plata or Ruta de la Plata is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that crosses the west of Spain from north to south, connecting Mérida to Astorga. An extended form reaches north to the Bay of Biscay at Gijón; the path is used by AP-66 freeways, as well as by the older N-630 national road. The term Vía de la Plata is thought to use from the modern Spanish word for silver, plata; the name derives from the Arabic word al-balat, which means cobbled paving and described the road as engineered by the Romans. The historical origins of this route are uncertain, it is believed, based on diverse archaeological findings, that the route was used for commercial purposes involving tin. Tin was present in many regions of the Iberian Peninsula including Tartessos; the "Tin Way" was used as an access road, which allowed the Romans to conquer tribes such as the Callaici, the Astures, the Vacceos. Many sources, among them the Antonine Itinerary, describe the route to leave from Emerita Augusta, capital of Lusitania, towards Asturica Augusta through Tarraconensis.
The road contains physical evidence that shows a Roman constructed road, unchanged at various sections. It was conceived and built as a trade route for the exploitation of gold, as mentioned by Pliny the Elder who held high office as Procurator in Hispania Tarraconensis in 73 AD, it ran to Emerita Augusta in southwestern Spain. The road's first official name was Via Delapidata, stretched around 900 km, had a branch that joined with the Via Augusta. After its establishment, the Via Delapidata crossed Hispania from Cádiz, through the Pyrenees, towards Gallia Narbonensis and Rome in the Italian Peninsula; the road passes through Salmantica and Castra Caecilia. The Via Delapidata served as an access road from Hispania Baetica. During the Roman Empire it is known that it was used to connect two main areas of the highest importance at both end, the gold mines of Las Medulas and the copper mines of Rio Tinto; the suitability of the route's layout is demonstrated today. It is used by modern AP-66 freeways as well as by older N-630 national road.
Some stretches, pass through urban areas like Seville, where the Vía de la Plata runs along the Guadalquivir. The Vía de la Plata has become popular as an alternative to the French Way for pilgrims walking, cycling, or riding to Santiago de Compostela. Large sections are less the same as they were two thousand years ago. Camino de Santiago Vía de la Plata route website Guide to walking the Vía de la Plata La Vía de la Plata
The Via Aemilia was a trunk Roman road in the north Italian plain, running from Ariminum, on the Adriatic coast, to Placentia on the river Padus. It was completed in 187 BC; the Via Aemilia connected at Rimini with the Via Flaminia to Rome, completed 33 years earlier. The land today known as northern Italy was known to the ancient Romans during the republican period as Gallia Cisalpina; this is because it was inhabited by Celtic tribes from Gaul, who had colonised the area in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Italia meant the area inhabited by Italic tribes: the border between Italia and Gallia Cisalpina was a line between Pisae and Ariminum. Gallia Cisalpina contained the Pianura padana; this vast country, by far the largest fertile plain in the mountainous peninsula, contained its best agricultural land, offered the Romans the opportunity to expand enormously their population and economic resources by mass colonisation. The Romans subjugated the Gauls of the Pianura Padana in a series of hard-fought campaigns in the late 3rd century BC.
By 220 BC, the Via Flaminia was completed. However, Roman expansion was delayed for some twenty years by the Second Punic War. During the Carthaginian general Hannibal's invasion of Italy, Roman military control of the Pianura Padana was temporarily overthrown. Many of the defeated tribes rebelled and joined forces with Hannibal in the hope of regaining their independence, it was not until 189 BC that the rebel tribes had been pacified sufficiently to allow work on the Via Aemilia to begin. The time-tested Roman method of expansion was to build a brand new road straight through the newly conquered territory, establish a string of colonies, either of civilian settlers or of military veterans along its route; the settlers would be allocated fertile plots from lands confiscated from the defeated native peoples. This was the precise function of the Via Aemilia: its period of construction saw the foundation of Roman colonies along its whole length at Bononia, Mutina and Parma; the Via Aemilia was completed by, named after, the Roman consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 187 BC.
It ran in a straight line, 176 Roman miles NW from Rimini to its termination at Piacenza, passing through the cities of Forlì, Bologna, Modena and Parma. The road ran along the southern edge of the pancake-flat Pianura Padana within sight of the northern foothills of Italy's Apennine mountains, crossing numerous tributary rivers of the Po, notably the Rubicone near Rimini- although it is not certain that this river is the same as the famous Rubicon crossed by Julius Caesar in 49 BC. In the century following the construction of the Via Aemilia, Piacenza became the key Roman road hub in the pianura padana. In 148 BC, the Via Postumia linked Piacenza to Aquileia on the north Adriatic coast. In 109 BC, the consul Marcus Aemilius Scaurus completed the Via Aemilia Scaura to Pisae. At Rimini, the starting point of the Via Aemilia, the road's first bridge still exists, a massive structure spanning the Marecchia River, started by the Emperor Augustus and completed by his successor Tiberius, it still bears its twin dedicatory inscriptions.
At Bologna, milestone 78 was found in the bed of the river Reno. It records Augustus' reconstruction of the Aemilia, in 2 BC, from Rimini as far as the river Trebbia. Remains of the Aemilia bridge over the Reno were found in the 1890s, consisting of parts of the parapets from each side; these were 38.75 feet apart, of Veronese red marble. The bed of the river was found to have risen at least 20 feet since this bridge collapsed in the 9th century. Ruins of some of the other ancient Roman bridges still exist. At Savignano sul Rubicone a Roman bridge survived until it was demolished as as World War II; the current bridge is a reconstruction. The construction of the Via Aemilia launched the intensive Roman colonisation of the Pianura Padana; the vast agricultural potential of this region soon rendered it the most populous and economically important part of Italy, overshadowing Central Italy and the South. The area remains economically preeminent in modern Italy. By the time of the Second Triumvirate, Romanisation of this Celtic country was so complete that the province of Gallia Cisalpina was abolished and its territory incorporated into the heartland province of Italia.
The road gave its name to that part of Gallia Cisalpina. This area was, before the Roman conquest, the territory of the Gallic tribes Boii and Senones, it was commonly referred to as Aemilia by the time the Emperor Augustus assumed sole power. In around 7 BC, when Augustus divided the provincia of Italia into 11 regiones, the area became the eighth regio; this had the official name of Padus, but was changed to Aemilia. The western part of this area is still known as Emilia today; the boundaries of the Roman VIII regio corresponded to those of the modern Italian administrative region of Emilia-Romagna. Its inhabitants are today known as Emiliani; the modern Italian State Road 9 is still called Via Emilia and follows the Roman route over much of its length. Indeed, the modern road in many parts lies direc
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, the Near East. The popularization of this periodization in English has been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity. Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century to, in the East, the early Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Middle Ages placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the edges of the Western Roman Empire; the Roman Empire underwent considerable social and organizational changes starting with the reign of Diocletian, who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western halves ruled by multiple emperors.
Beginning with Constantine the Great, Christianity was made legal in the Empire, a new capital was founded at Constantinople. Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms; the resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman and Christian traditions formed the foundations of the subsequent culture of Europe. The term Spätantike "late antiquity", has been used by German-speaking historians since its popularization by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century, it was given currency in English by the writings of Peter Brown, whose survey The World of Late Antiquity revised the post-Gibbon view of a stale and ossified Classical culture, in favour of a vibrant time of renewals and beginnings, whose The Making of Late Antiquity offered a new paradigm of understanding the changes in Western culture of the time in order to confront Sir Richard Southern's The Making of the Middle Ages.
The continuities between the Roman Empire, as it was reorganized by Diocletian, the Early Middle Ages are stressed by writers who wish to emphasize that the seeds of medieval culture were developing in the Christianized empire, that they continued to do so in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire at least until the coming of Islam. Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the "Roman" tradition. While the usage "Late Antiquity" suggests that the social and cultural priorities of Classical Antiquity endured throughout Europe into the Middle Ages, the usage of "Early Middle Ages" or "Early Byzantine" emphasizes a break with the classical past, the term "Migration Period" tends to de-emphasize the disruptions in the former Western Roman Empire caused by the creation of Germanic kingdoms within her borders beginning with the foedus with the Goths in Aquitania in 418; the general decline of population, technological knowledge and standards of living in Europe during this period became the archetypal example of societal collapse for writers from the Renaissance.
As a result of this decline, the relative scarcity of historical records from Europe in particular, the period from the early fifth century until the Carolingian Renaissance was referred to as the "Dark Ages". This term has been abandoned as a name for a historiographical epoch, being replaced by "Late Antiquity" in the periodization of the late West Roman Empire, the early Byzantine empire and the Early Middle Ages. One of the most important transformations in Late Antiquity was the formation and evolution of the Abrahamic religions: Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism and Islam. A milestone in the rise of Christianity was the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great in 312, as claimed by his Christian panegyrist Eusebius of Caesarea, although the sincerity of his conversion is debated. Constantine confirmed the legalization of the religion through the so-called Edict of Milan in 313, jointly issued with his rival in the East, Licinius. By the late 4th century, Emperor Theodosius the Great had made Christianity the State religion, thereby transforming the Classical Roman world, which Peter Brown characterized as "rustling with the presence of many divine spirits."Constantine I was a key figure in many important events in Christian history, as he convened and attended the first ecumenical council of bishops at Nicaea in 325, subsidized the building of churches and sanctuaries such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, involved himself in questions such as the timing of Christ's resurrection and its relation to the Passover.
The birth of Christian monasticism in the deserts of Egypt in the 3rd century, which operated outside the episcopal authority of the Church, would become so successful that by the 8th century it penetrated the Church and became the primary Christian practice. Monasticism was not the only new Christian movement to appear in late antiquity, although it had the greatest influence. Other movements notable for their unconventional practices include the Grazers, holy men who ate only grass and chained themselves up. Late Antiquity marks the decline of Roman state religion, circumscribed in degrees by edicts inspired by Christian advisors such as Eusebius to 4th century emperors, a period of dynamic religious experimentation and spirituality with many syncretic sects, some formed centuries earl
Bolsena is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Viterbo in northern Lazio on the eastern shore of Lake Bolsena. It is 36 km north-west of Viterbo; the ancient Via Cassia, today's highway SR143, follows the lake shore for some distance, passing through Bolsena. While it is certain that the city is the successor to the ancient Roman town of Volsinii, scholarly opinion is divided as to whether Volsinii was the same as the ancient Etruscan city of Velzna or Velsuna, the other candidate being Orvieto, 20 km NE. George Dennis pointed out; the Roman historian Pliny the Elder said that a bolt from Mars fell on Bolsena, "the richest town in Tuscany" and that the city was burned up by this bolt. The population moved to another site, which Dennis thought was Bolsena; the new city was named after the old, hence Roman Bolsena has an Etruscan name. Dennis suggests a number of crags in the area including Orvieto but does not favor Orvieto on the grounds that it is too far away. A number of Etruscan tombs have been found in the vicinity of Bolsena.
Funerary objects from these tombs are now located in Italy and abroad, including a fine collection in the British Museum. Bolsena is known for a miracle said to have occurred in the Basilica of Santa Cristina in 1263, when a Bohemian priest, in doubt about the doctrine of Transubstantiation, reported bleeding from the host he had consecrated at Mass; the Orvieto Cathedral was built to commemorate the miracle and house the Corporal of Bolsena in a reliquary made by Sienese goldsmith Ugolino di Vieri in 1337-1338. A famed fresco by Raphael and his school in the Vatican Stanze depicts the event; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 21 February 1918 to operate seaplanes during World War I. The base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. Volsinii Bell and Alexandra A. Carpino, eds. 2016. A Companion to the Etruscans. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Haynes, Sybille. 2000. Etruscan civilization: A cultural history. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum.
Pallottino, Massimo. 1978. The Etruscans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Sprenger and Gilda Bartoloni. 1983. The Etruscans: Their history and architecture. Translated by Robert E. Wolf. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Turfa, Jean MacIntosh, ed. 2013. The Etruscan World. Routledge Worlds. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. "Via Francigena - Bolsena". Romeartlover.it. Retrieved 4 April 2009