Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
First Communion is a ceremony in some Christian traditions during which a person first receives the Eucharist. It is most common in the Latin Church tradition of the Catholic Church, as well as in many parts of the Lutheran Church and Anglican Communion. In churches that celebrate First Communion, it occurs between the ages of seven and thirteen acting as a rite of passage. Catholics believe this event to be important, as the Eucharist occupies a central role in Catholic theology and practice. First Communion is not celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox churches, the Oriental Orthodox churches, or the Assyrian Church of the East, as they practice infant communion; some Anglicans allow infant communion, while others require the previous reception of confirmation during the teenage years. Celebration of this ceremony is less elaborate in many Protestant churches. Catholics and some Protestants believe that Christ is present in the Eucharist, although only Catholics and some Anglo-Catholics of the Anglican Communion believe this is through transubstantiation.
Other denominations have varying understandings, ranging from the Eucharist being a symbolic meal to a meal of remembering Christ's last supper. The sacrament of First Communion is an important tradition for Catholic individuals. For Catholics, Holy Communion is the third of seven sacraments received, it occurs only after receiving Baptism, once the person has reached the age of reason. First confession must precede the reception of the Eucharist; this order of the sacraments is practiced universally by all Latin rite Catholics. In 1910, Pope Pius X issued the decree Quam singulari, which changed the age at which First Communion is taken to 7 years old. Local standards had been 10 or 12 or 14 years old. Byzantine Catholics celebrate the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion on the same day as an infant's baptism. Traditions of celebration surrounding First Communion include large family gatherings and parties to celebrate the event; the first communicant wears special clothing. The clothing is white to symbolize purity, but not in all cultures.
A girl wears a fancy dress and a veil attached to a chaplet of flowers or some other hair ornament. In other communities, girls wear dresses passed down to them from sisters or mothers, or simply their school uniforms with the veil or wreath. Boys may wear a suit and tie, their Sunday best, or national dress, with embroidered arm bands worn on the left arm and white gloves. In many Latin American countries, boys wear military-style dress uniforms with gold braid aiguillettes. In Switzerland, both boys and girls wear plain white robes with brown wooden crosses around their necks. In Spain, Luxembourg and Guam, girls are dressed up as little brides, although this has been replaced by albs in recent times. In Scotland, boys traditionally wear kilts and other traditional Scottish dress which accompany the kilt. In the Philippines, First Communion services occur on or around the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, with boys donning either the Barong Tagalog or semi-formal Western dress, girls a plain white dress and sometimes a veil.
Gifts of a religious nature are given, such as rosaries, prayer books, religious statues and holy cards. Monetary gifts are common. Many families have formal professional photographs taken in addition to candid snapshots in order to commemorate the event; some churches arrange for a professional photographer after the ceremony. During the communist era, initiation into the pioneer movement in communist countries that had large Catholic populations was an overt attempt to supplant the Catholic ritual. In all cases, a child at the age of seven to ten is initiated as a member of a group within which the individuals share certain values and culture. Communion and the developmentally disabled Confirmation Parish register Quam singulari A Letter from the Vatican: First Penance, First Communion Catholic Encyclopedia: Communion of Children
Anointing of the sick
Anointing of the sick, known by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" for the benefit of a sick person. It is practiced by denominations. Anointing of the sick was a customary practice in many civilizations, including among the ancient Greeks and early Jewish communities; the use of oil for healing purposes is referred to in the writings of Hippocrates. Anointing of the sick should be distinguished from other religious anointings that occur in relation to other sacraments, in particular baptism and ordination, in the coronation of a monarch. Since 1972, the Roman Catholic Church uses the name "Anointing of the Sick" both in the English translations issued by the Holy See of its official documents in Latin and in the English official documents of Episcopal conferences, it does not, of course, forbid the use of other names, for example the more archaic term "Unction of the Sick" or the term "Extreme Unction". Cardinal Walter Kasper used the latter term in his intervention at the 2005 Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.
However, the Church declared that "'Extreme unction'... may and more fittingly be called'anointing of the sick'", has itself adopted the latter term, while not outlawing the former. This is to emphasize that the sacrament is available, recommended, to all those suffering from any serious illness, to dispel the common misconception that it is for those at or near the point of death. Extreme Unction was the usual name for the sacrament in the West from the late twelfth century until 1972, was thus used at the Council of Trent and in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Peter Lombard is the first writer known to have used the term, which did not become the usual name in the West till towards the end of the twelfth century, never became current in the East; the word "extreme" indicated either that it was the last of the sacramental unctions or because at that time it was administered only when a patient was in extremis. Other names used in the West include the unction or blessing of consecrated oil, the unction of God, the office of the unction.
Among some Protestant bodies, who do not consider it a sacrament, but instead as a practice suggested rather than commanded by Scripture, it is called anointing with oil. In the Greek Church the sacrament is called Euchelaion. Other names are used, such as ἅγιον ἔλαιον, ἡγιασμένον ἔλαιον, χρῖσις or χρῖσμα; the Community of Christ uses the term administration to the sick. The term "last rites" refers to administration to a dying person not only of this sacrament but of Penance and Holy Communion, the last of which, when administered in such circumstances, is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for the journey"; the normal order of administration is: first Penance. The chief biblical text concerning the rite is James 5:14–15: "Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. Matthew 10:8, Luke 10:8–9 and Mark 6:13 are quoted in this context; the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Coptic and Old Catholic Churches consider this anointing to be a sacrament.
Other Christians too, in particular Anglicans and some Protestant and other Christian communities use a rite of anointing the sick, without classifying it as a sacrament. In the Churches mentioned here by name, the oil used is blessed for this purpose. An extensive account of the teaching of the Catholic Church on Anointing of the Sick is given in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1499–1532. Anointing of the Sick is one of the seven Sacraments recognized by the Catholic Church, is associated with not only bodily healing but forgiveness of sins. Only ordained priests can administer it, "any priest may carry the holy oil with him, so that in a case of necessity he can administer the sacrament of anointing of the sick." The Catholic Church sees the effects of the sacrament. As the sacrament of Marriage gives grace for the married state, the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick gives grace for the state into which people enter through sickness. Through the sacrament a gift of the Holy Spirit is given, that renews confidence and faith in God and strengthens against temptations to discouragement and anguish at the thought of death and the struggle of death.
The special grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has as its effects: the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church. The duly blessed oil used in the sacrament is, as laid down in the Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum, pressed from olives or from other plants, it is blessed by the bishop of the
Communion under both kinds
Communion under both kinds in Christianity is the reception under both "species" of the Eucharist. In reference to the Eucharist as a sacrifice, Communion under both kinds belongs at least to the integrity and essence, of the rite, may not be omitted without violating the precept of Christ: "Do this for a commemoration of me"; this is mentioned implicitly by the Council of Trent, the General Instruction of the Roman Missal states that the people "...should share the cup when it is permitted. Communion is a clearer sign of sharing in the sacrifice, being celebrated." In modern Catholic practice in Europe and much of the English-speaking world, Ireland excluded, Communion is offered under both kinds when receiving at Mass. However, Catholicism teaches that Christ is sacramentally present under each species, therefore if a person receives only one species, Christ is present and nothing is lacking. In the Early Church, Communion was ordinarily received under both kinds; that such was the practice mentioned by Paul in I Corinthians 11:28.
But side by side in the Early Church there existed the custom of communicating in certain cases under one kind alone e.g. when people took home some of the Eucharist after Sunday worship and communicated during the week and when the Eucharist was brought to the sick. By the Middle Ages, the Church had become, like most of European society hierarchical. There was much stress on being holy when receiving Communion, a heightened appreciation of the sufferings of Christ; this meant that all who approached the altar were to be as pure as possible, led to the exclusion of the laity from administering the Eucharist, reserving the practice to the clergy. It is difficult to say when the practice of offering the chalice to the people stopped, but it may be presumed that this was part of the way in which Church authorities sought to prevent anything disrespectful happening to the Eucharist; this practice was challenged by the Bohemian reformer, Jacob of Mies, who in 1414 began to offer Communion under both kinds to his congregation.
The matter was reviewed by the 13th Session of the Council of Constance, in 1415. This became the most emblematic issue of the Hussite Wars, which resulted in the permission of the communion under both kinds for Utraquists in Bohemia in 1433. In the following century, this was challenged again by the Protestant Reformers, including Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli; the Council of Trent referred to the pope the question whether the petition of the Holy Roman Emperor to have the use of the chalice allowed in his dominions be granted. However, his concession was withdrawn in the following year. In the 20th century, Catholic liturgical reformers began to press for a return to Communion under both kinds, citing the practice of the church before the thirteenth century. There were spirited debates over the issue at the Second Vatican Council, resulting in a compromise; the following text was issued by the bishops. Regular use of Communion under both kinds requires the permission of the bishop, but bishops in many countries have given blanket authorisation to administer Holy Communion in this way.
In the United States, the Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life showed that by 1989 less than half of the parishes in its survey offered the chalice to their congregations. The Eastern Orthodox Church has practised communion under both kinds. Both the clergy and the people receive in both kinds. Communion of only the Eucharistic Bread is seen as imperfect by the Orthodox churches, who do not follow this practice in extremis. During the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, when it comes time for Holy Communion, the Lamb is first broken into four pieces: one portion is placed whole into the chalice; the clergy will each receive first the Body of Christ, taking it in their hands, sip from the chalice. After the communion of the clergy, the portions of the consecrated Lamb for the faithful are cut into tiny portions and placed in the chalice; when the faithful come forward to receive Communion, they cross their hands over their chest, the priest gives them both the Body and Blood of Christ from the chalice, using a spoon.
In this manner, everyone receives in both kinds, but no one takes either the consecrated Bread or the Chalice in their hands, thus reducing the possibility of crumbs accidentally being dropped or any of the Blood of Christ being spilt on the floor. When the priest takes Holy Communion to the sick, he transfers a portion to a vessel, worn around the neck. Inside the vessel are compartments for a gilded box to contain the Mysteries, a tiny chalice, a bottle for wine, a small gilded spoon and often
The last rites, in Roman Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to an individual of the faith, when possible, shortly before death. The last rites go by various names, they may be terminally ill. What in the judgment of the Roman Catholic Church are properly described as the Last Rites are Viaticum, the ritual prayers of Commendation of the Dying, Prayers for the Dead. Of these, only Viaticum is a sacrament; the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has been postponed until someone is near death, so much so that, in spite of the fact that in all celebrations of this sacrament, the liturgy prays for recovery of the health of the sick person if that would be conducive to his salvation, Anointing of the Sick has been thought to be for the dying and has been called Extreme Unction. If administered to someone, not just ill but near death, Anointing of the Sick is accompanied by celebration of the sacraments of Penance and Viaticum. In such cases, the normal order of administration is: first Penance Anointing Viaticum.
Although these three sacraments are not, in the proper sense, the Last Rites, they are sometimes mistakenly spoken of as such. The Eucharist given as Viaticum is the only sacrament associated with dying: "The celebration of the Eucharist as Viaticum is the sacrament proper to the dying Christian". In the Roman Ritual's Pastoral Care of the Sick: Rites of Anointing and Viaticum, Viaticum is the only sacrament dealt with in Part II: Pastoral Care of the Dying. Within that part, the chapter on Viaticum is followed by two more chapters, one on Commendation of the Dying, with short texts from the Bible, a special form of the litany of the saints, other prayers, the other on Prayers for the Dead. A final chapter provides Rites for Exceptional Circumstances, the Continuous Rite of Penance and Viaticum, Rite for Emergencies, Christian Initiation for the Dying; the last of these concerns the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation to those who have not received them. In addition, the priest has authority to bestow a blessing in the name of the Pope on the dying person, to which a plenary indulgence is attached.
People awaiting execution would receive Confession and Viaticum, but not Anointing of the Sick, since their impending death is not on account of an illness. In the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite, the last rites consist of the Sacred Mysteries of Confession and the reception of Holy Communion. Following these sacraments, when a person dies, there are a series of prayers known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul From the Body; this consists of a blessing by the priest, the usual beginning, after the Lord's Prayer, Psalm 50. A Canon to the Theotokos is chanted, entitled, "On behalf of a man whose soul is departing, who cannot speak"; this is an elongated poem speaking in the person of the one, dying, asking for forgiveness of sin, the mercy of God, the intercession of the saints. The rite is concluded by three prayers said by the priest, the last one being said "at the departure of the soul."There is an alternative rite known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul from the Body When a Man has Suffered for a Long Time.
The outline of this rite is the same as above, except that Psalm 70 and Psalm 143 precede Psalm 50, the words of the canon and the prayers are different. The rubric in the Book of Needs states, "With respect to the Services said at the parting of the soul, we note that if time does not permit to read the whole Canon customarily just one of the prayers, found at the end of the Canon, is read by the Priest at the moment of the parting of the soul from the body."As soon as the person has died the priest begins The Office After the Departure of the Soul From the Body. In the Orthodox Church Holy Unction is not considered to be a part of a person's preparation for death, but is administered to any Orthodox Christian, ill, physically or spiritually, to ask for God's mercy and forgiveness of sin. There is an abbreviated form of Holy Unction to be performed for a person in imminent danger of death, which does not replace the full rite in other cases. Anointing Deathbed confession Excommunication http://www.usccb.org/beliefs-and-teachings/how-we-teach/catechesis/upload/Sacramental-Catechesis-11-19-12.pdf Extreme Unction article in The Catholic Encyclopedia Preparation for Death article in The Catholic Encyclopedia Higgins, Jethro.
"Last Rites and the Anointing of the Sick". Oregon Catholic Press. Retrieved 2018-07-27
Anglican eucharistic theology
Anglican eucharistic theology is diverse in practice, reflecting the comprehensiveness of Anglicanism. Its sources include prayer book rubrics, writings on sacramental theology by Anglican divines, the regulations and orientations of ecclesiastical provinces; the principal source material is the Book of Common Prayer its eucharistic prayers and Article XXVIII of the Thirty-Nine Articles. Article XXVIII comprises the foundational Anglican doctrinal statement about the Eucharist, although its interpretation varies among churches of the Anglican Communion and in different traditions of churchmanship such as Anglo-Catholicism and Evangelical Anglicanism. Anglican eucharistic theologies universally affirm the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, though Evangelical Anglicans believe that this is a pneumatic presence, while those of an Anglo-Catholic churchmanship believe this is a corporeal presence. In the former interpretation, those who receive the form or sign of the body and blood in faith, receive the spiritual body and blood of Christ.
Those who receive the form or sign without faith, or for those who are wicked, Christ is not present spiritually and they consume only the physical signs of this holy presence, which further adds to their wickedness – in accordance with Article XXIX. In the latter interpretation, there exists the corporeal presence of Christ in the Eucharist, although the precise manner of how that presence is made manifest is a mystery of faith. To explain the manner of Christ's presence, some high-church Anglicans, teach the philosophical explanation of consubstantiation, associated with the English Lollards and erroneously with Martin Luther, though Luther and the Lutheran churches explicitly rejected the doctrine of consubstatiation and promulgated their dogma of the sacramental union. A major leader in the Anglo-Catholic Oxford Movement, Edward Pusey, championed the view of consubstantiation. With the Eucharist, as with other aspects of theology, Anglicans are directed by the principle of lex orandi, lex credendi which means "the law of prayer is the law of belief".
In other words, sacramental theology as it pertains to the Eucharist is sufficiently and articulated by the Book of Common Prayer of a given jurisdiction. As defined by the 16th-century Anglican theologian Richard Hooker, the sacraments are said to be "visible signs of invisible grace", it thus has the effect of conveying sanctification in the individual participating in the sacrament. According to this, in the Eucharist the outward and visible sign is "bread and wine" and the "thing signified", the "body and blood of Christ", which are taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's supper. Sacraments have both matter. Form is the physical liturgical action, while the matter refers to material objects used. In an Anglican Eucharist the form is contained in the rite and its rubrics, as articulated in the authorised prayer books of the ecclesiastical province. Central to the rite is the eucharistic prayer or "Great Thanksgiving". For the vast majority of Anglicans, the Eucharist, is the central act of gathered worship, the appointed means by which Christ can become present to his church.
For the majority of Anglicans this event constitutes the renewal of the Body of Christ as the Church through the reception of the Body of Christ as the Blessed Sacrament, his spiritual body and blood. In this sacrament, Christ is both incorporated; as such, the eucharistic action looks backward as a memorial of Christ's sacrifice, forward as a foretaste of the heavenly banquet and to the present as an incarnation of Christ in the lives of the community and of individual believers. Anglican doctrine concerning the eucharist is contained in Article XXVIII - Of the Lord's Supper and XXIX - Of the Wicked which eat not the Body of Christ of the Thirty-Nine Articles; the Catechism of the Church of England, the foundational church of the Anglican Communion, is found in the Book of Common Prayer and states that, as with other sacraments, the eucharist is "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means whereby we receive the same, a pledge to assure us thereof."
The outward sign, in this instance, is the wine. Because of the various theological movements which have influenced Anglicanism throughout history, there is no one sacramental theory accepted by all Anglicans. Early Anglican theologians, such as Thomas Cranmer and Richard Hooker, held to a sacramental theology similar to John Calvin. Cranmer's belief was Calvinist and virtualism, as shown by Peter Brooks in 1965. Hooker's was a more nuanced combination of receptionism and real presence but agnostic as to what the elements were in themselves but insistent that "the sacrament is a true and a real participation of Christ, who thereby imparteth himself in his whole entire Person as a Mystical Head..." He brushes aside transubstantiation and consubstantiation and urges people to meditate in silence and less to dispute the manner'how.' The views were congenial for centuries to the majority of Anglicans. The 19th-century Oxford Movement sought to give the Eucharist a more prominent place and upheld belief in the real presence of Christ in the sacrament.
Anglicans now hold a variety of sacramenta
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is used in the Catholic Church and Anglican churches, as well as some Lutheran churches, Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches; some Protestants employ terms such as worship service, rather than the word Mass.. For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity, including Eastern Catholic Churches, other terms such as Divine Liturgy, Holy Qurbana, Badarak are used instead; the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, was sometimes glossed as sendnes; the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est. However, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i.e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Fortescue cites older, "fanciful" etymological explanations, notably a latinization of Hebrew matzâh "unleavened bread.
The French historian Du Cange in 1678 reported "various opinions on the origin" of the noun missa "mass", including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology. Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, while Rupert of Deutz derives it from a "dismissal" of the "enmities, between God and men"; the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as "the source and summit of the Christian life", to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary; the ordered celebrant is understood to act in persona Christi, as he imitates the words and gestures of Jesus Christ at the Last Supper. By virtue of the mediation of the Holy Spirit, said to be present in the apostolic church, through the words proffered by the celebrant, similar to the Word of God the Son, there takes place a transubstantiation of: the wine into the Precious Blood, the sacramental bread into the Holy Body of Jesus Christ.
Hence, Roman Catholic and Orthodox believe that the Holy Trinity is in the host, celebrated during the Holy Mass and in the previous context of the Christian consecrations. The Holy Mass renews, makes alive at any time the innocent sacrifice of Jesus Christ, as He is "the Holy One of God", thus the unique door of salvation for the human sins; the term "Mass" is used only in the Roman Rite, while the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches use the analogous term "Divine Liturgy" and other Eastern Catholic Churches have terms such as Holy Qurbana. Although similar in outward appearance to the Anglican Mass or Lutheran Mass, the Catholic Church distinguishes between its own Mass and theirs on the basis of what it views as the validity of the orders of their clergy, as a result, does not ordinarily permit intercommunion between members of these Churches. In a 1993 letter to Bishop Johannes Hanselmann of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, Cardinal Ratzinger affirmed that "a theology oriented to the concept of succession, such as that which holds in the Catholic and in the Orthodox church, need not in any way deny the salvation-granting presence of the Lord in a Lutheran Lord's Supper."
The Decree on Ecumenism, produced by Vatican II in 1964, records that the Catholic Church notes its understanding that when other faith groups "commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory."Within the fixed structure outlined below, specific to the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, the Scripture readings, the antiphons sung or recited during the entrance procession or communion, certain other prayers vary each day according to the liturgical calendar. The priest enters, with a deacon, if there is one, altar servers. After making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence; this concludes with the priest's prayer of absolution, however, lacks the efficacy of the Sacrament of Penance. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, an ancient praise, if appropriate for the liturgical season; the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer.
On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide; the first reading is sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament from one of the Pauline e