National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Ellen Marsvin was a Danish noble and county administrator. She was the mother-in-law of King Christian IV of Denmark, the mother of Kirsten Munk and grandmother of Leonora Christina Ulfeldt, she was born at Landskrona Citadel in Skåne. She was the daughter of the noble and governor Jørgen Marsvin and Karen Gyldenstierne, she was married to Count Ludvig Munk in 1589. Widowed in 1602, she married the governor and noble Knud Rud in 1607, she was widowed for a second time in 1611. In 1615 her only child, married the king. Ellen was made the guardian of her daughter's children with the king and the trustée of the allowances given to her grandchildren and made responsible for their fortune. From 1620 until 1639, she was made administrator of manor of Dalum Kloster on the island of Funen. Marsvin was one of the most successful landowners in Denmark: by her inheritance and connections, she bought and built large estates with great success, was in 1625 one of the richest landowners in Denmark. In 1629, when her daughter was accused of adultery, she introduced the king to his next lover, Vibeke Kruse.
The king respected her for her skill as a businessperson. In 1639, the king grew tired of her persistent demand that he recognize his wife's youngest daughter Dorothea Elisabeth, as his, as a result, he fired her as county administrator. In the middle of the 1640’s, she retired to her manorial estate Ellensborg, the present Holckenhavn on Funen and lived the rest of her life at her estate
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Kirsten Munk was a Danish noble, the second spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark, mother to twelve of his children. Kirsten Munck was the daughter of Ludvig Munck and Ellen Marsvin, members of the wealthy but untitled Danish nobility, her mother, widowed a second time in 1611, was the greatest landowner on Funen. Prior to yielding Kirsten to the evident desires of King Christian, her mother negotiated that, because Kirsten was a member of the nobility and not a commoner, she would become his wife rather than his mistress, that she receive properties in her own name as tokens of the king's honourable intentions. On 31 December 1615, she was married morganatically to the widowed king, but not within a church. In 1627, she was given the title Countess of Schleswig-Holstein. Kirsten bore the king twelve children, among them the Countess Leonora Christina Ulfeldt, she had 12 children. The youngest, Dorothea Elisabeth, was rumoured not to have been the king's child. From the king's death in 1648 to 1652, five of her daughters' husbands were known as the so-called Sons-in-law Party, wielding dominant influence in the Rigsråd.
Kirsten's son Count Valdemar of Schleswig-Holstein, had shown promise, becoming engaged to Tsarevna Irina Mikhailovna Romanova, daughter of Michael I of Russia. The alliance was prevented by Danish objections to Valdemar's conversion to the Russian Orthodox Church, yet the king's disappointment on the betrothal's rupture was believed at the time to have hastened his death. One of Kirsten's daughters, Countess Leonora Christina, distinguished herself by an internationally adventurous life, followed by imprisonment for decades in Denmark's royal dungeon, by the posthumous publication of her memoirs, still well regarded both as Scandinavian prose and as early feminist literature. Despite the turmoil of her parents' marriage and the conflicts between her brothers and brothers-in-law, according to her own writings Leonora Christina's youth and early married years at the Danish royal court were happy; as the king's health declined in 1625, so did his temperament and his marriage. In 1627, Kirsten fell in love with a German cavalry captain in her husband's service, the Rhinegrave Otto Ludwig of Salm-Kyrburg.
The couple are alleged to have had encounters at Funen and Copenhagen. Word came to the king of his wife's affair. After seeing two maids sleeping outside her locked door, he got a footman to engrave the date on a stone and did not have sex with Kirsten again, her last daughter was born 10 months after this and he refused to accept her as legitimate, instead calling her "Miss Leftover". In the end, he formally charged Kirsten with adultery and consorting with a magician in Hamburg, his mother-in-law sought to mitigate the king's indignation–several of her granddaughters were engaged to marry Denmark's leading nobles–by encouraging him to engage in an affair with her daughter's lady-in-waiting, Vibeke Kruse. Although the king did father children with Kruse who became political rivals of Kirsten Munck's children and in-laws, he continued with the divorce and exiled her to Jutland in 1629. Kirsten herself refused to admit her adultery. After an interrogation, she was kept at Stjernholm in Horsens and placed under house arrest in Boller in 1637.
This confinement continued until 1647 owing to Vibeke Kruse's encouragement to the king to remain strict. However, Kirsten was never brought to trial despite repeated threats to that effect from the king and her good relationship with her children and in-laws led to their intercession with the king and the removal of her confinement. On his deathbed in 1648, her husband sent for her, but by the time she arrived he was dead. Kirsten and her children had Vibeke Kruse banished from court, she had her marriage and children confirmed as legitimate, although morganatic. The Sons-in-law Party spoke for her in the council 1648–51, when it fell from power, she supported her son-in-law Corfitz Ulfeldt. Ulfeldt and her daughter Leonora sided with Sweden, Kirsten Munk is alleged to have financed King Charles X of Sweden's invasion and occupation of Denmark, she was given a grand funeral in Odense. The 2018 drama film Christian IV - Den sidste rejse describes the relationship between Christian IV and Kirsten Munk. kvinfo.dk Media related to Kirsten Munk at Wikimedia Commons Kirsten Munk at the website of the Royal Danish Collection
Count Corfits Ulfeldt, Danish statesman, was the son of the chancellor Jacob Ulfeldt. After a careful education abroad, concluding with one year under Cesare Cremonini at Padua, he returned to Denmark in 1629 and won the favor of King Christian IV. In 1634 he was made a Knight of the Order of the Elephant, in 1636 became Councillor of State, in 1637 Governor of Copenhagen, in 1643 Steward of the Realm, he is known and recognized as the most notorious traitor in Danish history. In 1637 Ulfeldt married Leonora Christina, the daughter of King Christian IV of Denmark, she had been betrothed to him from her ninth year. Ulfeldt was the most striking personality at the Danish court in all superficial accomplishments, but his character was marked by ambition and absolute lack of honor or conscience, he was responsible for the disasters of the Swedish war of 1643-45, when the Treaty of Brömsebro was signed there was a violent scene between him and the King, though Ulfeldt's resignation was not accepted.
In December 1646 he was sent as ambassador extraordinary to the Hague, but the results of his embassy by no means corresponded to its costliness, when he returned to Denmark in July 1647 he found the king profoundly irritated. Ulfeldt, supported by the Rigsråd and the nobility, who objected to Christian's fiscal policy, resisted his father-in-law, triumphed completely; as Steward of the Realm he was the virtual ruler of Denmark during the two months which elapsed between the death of Christian IV and the election of Frederick III. Dina was convicted of perjury and executed, but Ulfeldt no longer felt secure at Copenhagen, on the day after the execution he secretly left Denmark with his family. After living for a time in concealment at Amsterdam, Ulfeldt moved to Stralsund in Swedish Pomerania. In 1657, King Charles X of Sweden invaded Denmark. In July 1657 Ulfeldt responded to the King's invitation to enter his service. Sweden was Denmark's deadliest foe. Ulfeldt's purpose was twofold: humiliate his monarch and secure a personal fortune.
He persuaded the commandant of Nakskov to surrender to Charles X, did his best to convince his countrymen that resistance was useless. He loaned the Swedish king a fortune to finance the war with money that, it is believed, was embezzled from the Danish state; as one of the Swedish negotiators at the Treaty of Taastrup, he was instrumental in assuring the humiliation of his native land. Ulfeldt's treason was rewarded by Charles X of Sweden with ennoblement as the Count of Sölvesborg in Blekinge, he was soon discovered, in May 1659 was sentenced to death. On 7 July the Swedish regents amnestied him, he returned to Copenhagen to try to make his peace with his lawful sovereign, who promptly imprisoned him and his wife. In the summer of 1660 they were conveyed to Hammershus as prisoners of state, their captivity was severe to brutal and they were released in September 1661 in the most degrading conditions. The fallen magnate henceforth dreamed of nothing but revenge, in the course of 1662, during his residence at Bruges, he offered the Danish crown to the Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, proposing to raise a rebellion in Denmark for that purpose.
Frederick William betrayed Ulfeldt's treason to Frederick III, the Danish government at once impeached the traitor. He escaped from the country, but the sentence was carried out on his effigy. During a new flight he died February 1664 in a boat on the Rhine not far from Basel; the circumstances of his death or his final resting place are not known. To posterity Corfits Ulfeldt has stood as the prototype of a traitor in Danish history. In addition, modern historians have been liable to view him as a mentally unstable man whose lust for power ended in megalomania and insanity. In contrast his wife Leonora Christina has been admired because of her long time as a prisoner after his death, she spent twenty-one years in confinement in the royal dungeon, Blåtårn, prior to her release during 1685. Jammers Minde is an autobiography completed in 1674 by Leonora Christina, it was first translated into English as Memoirs of Leonora Christina. Steffen Heiberg Enhjørningen Corfitz Ulfeldt ISBN 87-00-54936-3 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Ulfeldt, Korfits". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. Leonora Christina Ulfeldt. Memoirs of Leonora Christina: Daughter of Christian IV. of Denmark. Library of Alexandria. ISBN 978-1-4655-1373-1. Leonora Christina. Jammers Minde. Gyldendal A/S. ISBN 978-87-02-07970-8