This article is about artificial seismic sources. For natural seismic sources, see earthquake and related articles. A seismic source is a device that generates controlled seismic energy used to perform both reflection and refraction seismic surveys. A seismic source can be simple, such as dynamite, or it can use more sophisticated technology, such as a specialized air gun. Seismic sources can provide single pulses or continuous sweeps of energy, generating seismic waves, which travel through a medium such as water or layers of rocks; some of the waves reflect and refract and are recorded by receivers, such as geophones or hydrophones. Seismic sources may be used to investigate shallow subsoil structure, for engineering site characterization, or to study deeper structures, either in the search for petroleum and mineral deposits, or to map subsurface faults or for other scientific investigations; the returning signals from the sources are detected by seismic sensors in known locations relative to the position of the source.
The recorded signals are subjected to specialist processing and interpretation to yield comprehensible information about the subsurface. A seismic source signal has the following characteristics: Generates an impulse signal Band-limited The generated waves are time-varyingThe generalized equation that shows all above properties is: s = β e − α t 2 sin where f m a x is the maximum frequency component of the generated waveform; the most basic seismic source is a sledge hammer, either striking the ground directly, or more striking a metal plate on the ground, known as hammer and plate. Useful for seismic refraction surveys down to about 20 m below surface. Explosives most used as seismic sources are knows as gelatin dynamites; these dynamites are placed into three subcategories, straight gelatins in which nitroglycerin known as glyceryl trinitrate with the chemical formula C3H53 is the active component, ammonia gelatins in which ammonia nitrite with chemical formula NH₄NO₃ as the active component, semi gelatins in which the composition consists of nitroglycerin.
Upon detonation, explosives release large volumes of expanding gas quickly, forcing great pressure to the surroundings in the form of seismic waves. Using explosives as seismic sources has been in practice for decades because of the reliability and energy efficiency they provide; such sources are most used on land and swampy environments because of high thickness in sediments. Typical charge sizes used in the field for reflection surveys are 0.25kg to 100kg for single hole sources, 0.25kg to 250kg or more for multiple hole sources, may reach 2500kg or more for refraction surveys. Though dynamites and other explosives are efficient seismic sources because of their reduced costs, ease of transport in difficult terrains, lack of regular maintenance compared to other sources,the use of explosives is becoming restricted in certain areas, causing decline and increasing popularity for alternative seismic sources. For instance, hexanitrostilbene was the main explosive fill in the thumper mortar round canisters used as part of the Apollo Lunar Active Seismic Experiments.
The explosive charges are placed between 6 and 76 metres below ground, in a hole, drilled with dedicated drilling equipment for this purpose. This type of seismic drilling is referred to as "Shot Hole Drilling". A common drill rig used for "Shot Hole Drilling" is the ARDCO C-1000 drill mounted on an ARDCO K 4X4 buggy; these drill rigs use water or air to assist the drilling. An air gun is used for marine refraction surveys, it consists of one or more pneumatic chambers that are pressurized with compressed air at pressures from 14 to 21 MPa. Air guns are submerged below the water surface, towed behind a ship; when an air gun is fired, a solenoid is triggered, which releases air into a fire chamber which in turn causes a piston to move, thereby allowing the air to escape the main chamber and producing a pulse of acoustic energy. Air gun arrays may consist of up to 48 individual air guns with different size chambers, fired in concert, the aim being to create the optimum initial shock wave followed by the minimum reverberation of the air bubble.
Air guns are made from the highest grades of corrosion resistant stainless steel. Large chambers tend to give low frequency signals, the small chambers give higher frequency signals. A plasma sound source, otherwise called a spark gap sound source, or a sparker, is a means of making a low frequency sonar pulse underwater. For each firing, electric charge is stored in a large high-voltage bank of capacitors, released in an arc across electrodes in the water; the underwater spark discharge produces a high-pressure plasma and vapor bubble, which expands and collapses, making a loud sound. Most of the sound produced is between 200 Hz, useful for both seismic and sonar applications. There are plans to use PSS as a non-lethal weapon against submerged divers. In 1953, the weight dropping thumper technique was introduced as an alternative to dynamite sources. A thumper truck truck is a vehicle-mounted ground impact system which can be used to provide a seismic source. A heavy weight is raised by a hoist at the back of the truck and dropped, gen
In electronics before the development of switch-mode power supplies and the introduction of semiconductor devices operating off low voltage, there was a requirement to generate voltages of about 50 to 250 V DC from vehicle batteries. Electromechanical components known as vibrators were used in a circuit similar to modern solid state inverter circuits to provide a pulsating DC which could be converted to a higher voltage with a transformer and filtered to create higher-voltage DC; this "vibrator" is a relay using closed contacts to supply power to the relay coil, thus breaking the connection, only to be reconnected quickly through the closed contacts. It happens so it vibrates, sounds like a buzzer; this same pulsing contact applies the rising and falling DC voltage to the transformer which can step it up to a higher voltage. The primary use for this type of circuit was to operate vacuum tube radios in vehicles, but it saw use with other mobile electronic devices with a 6 or 12 V accumulator in places with no mains electricity supply such as farms.
These vibrator power supplies became popular in the 1940s, replacing more bulky motor-generator systems for the generation of AC voltages for such applications. Vacuum tubes require plate voltages ranging from about 45 volts to 250 volts in electronic devices such as radios. For portable radios, hearing aids and similar equipment, B batteries were manufactured with various voltage ratings. In order to provide the necessary voltage for a radio from the typical 6 or 12 volt DC supply available in a car or from a farm lighting battery, it was necessary to convert the steady DC supply to a pulsating DC and use a transformer to increase the voltage. Vibrators experienced mechanical malfunctions, being in motion, such as the springs losing tension, the contact points wearing down; as tubes began to be replaced by transistor based electrical systems, the need to generate such high voltages began to diminish. Mechanical vibrators fell out of production near the end of the 20th century, but solid-state electronic vibrators are still manufactured to be backwards compatible with older units.
The vibrator was a device with switch contacts mounted at the ends of flexible metal strips. In operation, these strips are vibrated by an electromagnet, causing the contacts to open and close rapidly; the contacts interrupt the 6 or 12V direct current from the battery to form a stream of pulses which change back and forth from 0 volts to the battery voltage generating a square wave. Unlike a steady direct current, when such a pulsating current is applied to the primary winding of a transformer it will induce an alternating current in the secondary winding, at a pre-determined voltage based on the turn ratio of the windings; this current can be rectified by a thermionic diode or copper-oxide or selenium rectifier, or by an additional set of mechanical contacts. The rectified output is filtered producing a DC voltage much higher than the battery voltage, with some losses dissipated as heat; this arrangement is an electromechanical inverter circuit. The vibrator's primary contacts alternately make and break current supply to the transformer primary.
As it is impossible for the vibrator's contacts to change over instantaneously, the collapsing magnetic field in the core will induce a high voltage in the windings, will cause sparking at the vibrator's contacts. This would erode the contacts quickly, so a snubber capacitor with a high voltage rating is added across the transformer secondary to damp out the unwanted high-voltage "spikes". Since vibrators wore out over time, they were encased in a steel or aluminum "tin can" enclosure with a multi-pin plug at the bottom, so they could be unplugged and replaced without using tools. Vibrators generate a certain amount of audible noise while in operation, which could be heard by passengers in the car while the radio was on. To help contain this sound within the vibrator's enclosure, the inside surface of the can was lined with a thick sound-deadening material, such as foam rubber. Since vibrators were plugged into sockets mounted directly on the radio chassis, the vibration could be mechanically coupled to the chassis, causing it to act as a sounding-board for the noise.
To prevent this, the sound-deadening lining inside the can was sometimes made thick enough to support the vibrator's components by friction alone. The components were connected to the plug pins by flexible wires, to further isolate the vibration from the plug. Mechanical rectifier Multivibrator Switched-mode power supply Chopper Reed relay
A vibrating alert is a feature of communications devices to notify the user of an incoming connection or message. It is common on mobile phones and pagers and supplements the ring tone. Most 21st-century mobile phones are fitted with a vibrating alert. Vibrating alerts are used when a user cannot hear the ring tone or wants a more discreet notification. However, when the device is placed on a hard surface, it can be as loud or louder than a ring tone; the vibrations are produced by a small electric motor connected to an off-center weight. Phantom vibration syndrome Smartwatch Vibrator
The Vibrators are a British punk rock band that formed in 1976. The Vibrators were founded by Ian'Knox' Carnochan, bassist Pat Collier, guitarist John Ellis, drummer John'Eddie' Edwards, they first came to public notice at the 100 Club when they backed Chris Spedding in 1976. On Spedding's recommendation, Mickie Most signed them to his label RAK Records. Most produced their first single, "We Vibrate"; the band backed Spedding on his single, "Pogo Dancing". The Vibrators recorded sessions for John Peel at BBC Radio 1 in October 1976, June 1977, February 1978, they were one of the pioneering punk bands. They headlined in January 1977, supported by The Drones, in February they played twice at the venue. In March 1977 the band supported Iggy Pop on his British tour; that year they backed ex-Mott the Hoople frontman Ian Hunter. The band signed to Epic Records in early 1977, their debut album, Pure Mania was co-produced with Robin Mayhew, the sound engineer for David Bowie's Ziggy Stardust live shows, reached the Top 50 of the UK Albums Chart.
The album is well regarded by some music critics and, 17 years after its release The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music named Pure Mania one of the 50 best punk albums of all time. Their follow-up album, V2, narrowly missed the UK Top 30; the only single to be taken from that album, "Automatic Lover", was the only Vibrators’ single to reach the UK Top 40 where it reached No. 35. It earned the band a TV appearance on the prime-time TV show Top of the Pops; the Vibrators’ final single on Epic, "Judy Says", was released in June 1978. It reached No. 70 in the UK singles chart. Years it was included in Mojo magazine’s list of the best punk rock singles of all time. A lack of further chart activity, with only one UK Top 40 single to their credit, sees the Vibrators join the list of one-hit wonders. During the 1980s, John Ellis recorded with Peter Gabriel, as well as recording and touring with Peter Hammill subsequently The Stranglers joining the latter full-time in the 1990s. Pat Collier went on to work with The Soft Boys, producing their seminal album, Underwater Moonlight, Robyn Hitchcock and mixing some of his solo albums.
Phil Ram went on to form Able Ram and brought out two singles, Disco in Moscow, Hope We Make It, although without any chart success. Phil combined a career in gardening alongside music. Despite numerous line-up changes, The Vibrators are still touring to this date as a three-piece, "Eddie" being the only original member; the band Stiff Little Fingers took its name from the Vibrators' song of the same title. The song was penned by John Ellis, appeared on the Vibrators' debut album, Pure Mania. Second wave punk band The Exploited covered the Vibrators' song "Troops of Tomorrow" and used it as the title track for their 1982 album. A cover of "Troops of Tomorrow" was recorded by the Polish death metal band Vader, released as a bonus track on the band's 2011 album, Welcome to the Morbid Reich; the Vibrators was the main influence on some Brazilian punk rock bands like the Pupilas Dilatadas. Pure Mania # 49 UK Albums Chart V2 # 33 Guilty Alaska 127 - 1984 Fifth Amendment - 1985 Recharged - 1988 Meltdown - 1988 Vicious Circle - 1989 Volume 10 - 1990 Hunting For You - 1994 French Lessons With Correction - 1997 Buzzin' - 1999 Noise Boys - 2000 Energize - 2002 Punk: The Early Years - 2006 Garage Punk - 2009 Pure Punk - 2009 Under The Radar - 2009 On The Guest List - 2013 "Punk Mania: Return To the Roots" - 2014 "Restless" -2017 "Past and into the future" - 2017 "We Vibrate" / "Whips And Furs" "Pogo Dancing" / "The Pose" "Bad Time" / "No Heart" "Baby Baby" / "Into The Future" "London Girls" / "Stiff Little Fingers" "Automatic Lover" / "Destroy" # 35 UK Singles Chart "Judy Says" / "Pure Mania" # 70 "Disco in Mosco" / "Take A Chance" List of British punk bands List of musicians in the first wave of punk music List of Peel sessions List of performers on Top of the Pops Music of the United Kingdom The Vibrators official site Google Plus Nigel Bennett official site The Vibrators at AllMusic The Vibrators on www.punk77.co.uk The Vibrators on Punkmodpop The Vibrators Track Records 2002 profile
A vibrator is a mechanical device to generate vibrations. The vibration is generated by an electric motor with an unbalanced mass on its driveshaft. There are many different types of vibrator, they are components of larger products such as smartphones, vibrating sex toys, or video game controllers with a "rumble" feature. When smartphones and pagers vibrate, the vibrating alert is produced by a small component, built into the phone or pager. Many older, non-electronic buzzers and doorbells contain a component that vibrates for the purpose of producing a sound. Tattoo machines and some types of electric engraving tools contain a mechanism that vibrates a needle or cutting tool. Vibrators are used in many different industrial applications both as components and as individual pieces of equipment. Vibratory feeders and vibrating hoppers are used extensively in the food and chemical industries to move and position bulk material or small component parts; the application of vibration working with the force of gravity can move materials through a process more than other methods.
Vibration is used to position small components so that they can be gripped mechanically by automated equipment as required for assembly etc. Vibrating screens are used to separate bulk materials in a mixture of different sized particles. For example, gravel, river rock and crushed rock, other aggregates are separated by size using vibrating screens. Vibrating compactors are used for soil compaction in foundations for roads and buildings. Concrete vibrators consolidate freshly poured concrete so that trapped air and excess water are released and the concrete settles in place in the formwork. Improper consolidation of concrete can cause product defects, compromise the concrete strength, produce surface blemishes such as bug holes and honeycombing. An internal concrete vibrator is a steel cylinder about the size of the handle of a baseball bat, with a hose or electrical cord attached to one end; the vibrator head is immersed in the wet concrete. External concrete vibrators attach, to the concrete forms.
There are a wide variety of external concrete vibrators available and some vibrator manufacturers have bracket or clamp systems designed to fit the major brands of concrete forms. External concrete vibrators are available in pneumatic or electric power. Vibrating tables or shake tables are sometimes used to test products to determine or demonstrate their ability to withstand vibration. Testing of this type is done in the automotive and defense industries; these machines are capable of producing three different types of vibration profile sine sweep, random vibration, synthesized shock. In all three of these applications, the part under test will be instrumented with one or more accelerometers to measure component response to the vibration input. A sine sweep vibration profile starts vibrating at low frequency and increases in frequency at a set rate; the vibratory amplitude as measured in gs may decrease as well. A sine sweep will find resonant frequencies in the part. A random vibration profile will excite different frequencies along a spectrum at different times.
Significant calculation goes into making sure that all frequencies get excited to within an acceptable tolerance band. A random vibration test suite may range anywhere from 30 seconds up to several hours, it is intended to synthesize the effect of, for example, a car driving over rough terrain or a rocket taking off. A synthesized shock pulse is a short duration high level vibration calculated as a sum of many half-sine waves covering a range of frequencies, it is intended to simulate the effects of an explosion. A shock pulse test lasts less than a second. Vibrating tables can be used in the packaging process in material handling industries to shake or settle a container so it can hold more product
Motörhead is the self-titled debut studio album by the band Motörhead, released on 21 August 1977, on Chiswick Records, one of the first for the label. It is regarded as the band's debut album, though an album was recorded in 1975 for United Artists, shelved, was only released in 1979 after the band had established themselves commercially; this would be the first album to feature what would become the "classic" Motörhead lineup of Lemmy Kilmister, "Fast" Eddie Clarke and Philthy Animal Taylor and their only release under Chiswick, as they were signed to the larger Bronze Records by early 1978. Motörhead hired lead guitarist "Fast" Eddie Clarke in early 1977, he was to serve as the band's second guitarist along with Larry Wallis in what was intended to be a four-piece lineup, but Wallis left shortly after for his own reasons. Sensing that the fledgling band had dim prospects for success, Motörhead decided to disband after playing one final show at the Marquee Club in London that year. Ted Carroll, founder of the upstart Chiswick Records label, knew Lemmy well from his rare 45 Record's store in London which Lemmy was a frequent customer of.
Carroll decided to give the band a break and hosted what was to be their final performance at the Marquee. The decision was made to record the gig; as Clarke recalls in the documentary The Guts and the Glory: It was going to be our farewell gig. I said, Let's get a mobile down at least to record the fuckin' year and a half we've been together and put something on the fuckin' tape, you know? The problem with the Marquee was. Well, out of the question in those days. Feeling that the band had seen its share of adversity, Carroll offered the band two days of studio time at Escape Studios in Kent, England, to record a single with producer John "Speedy" Keen; as Clarke explained to John Robinson of Uncut in 2015, the band finished the gig at the Marquee and drove straight to the studio in Kent for a weekend of recording: That was Friday night, so we had all Saturday and Sunday. We'd been playing these songs for a year, so we thought fuck it, we can do an album. In a few hours we had all the backing tracks down.
Put the vocals down. Bit more speed, put some more guitars on. Few more beers – we were fucking steaming. Come Saturday night, we'd nearly finished it; as biographer Joel McIver recalls in his book Overkill: The Untold Story of Motörhead: As the story goes, by the time Carroll came back to the studio to hear the results, the band had recorded no fewer than 11 tracks. Impressed, he paid for more studio time to allow them to complete an album; the album did well enough to ensure the band would remain together, but it would be their next album, 1979's Overkill, that proved to be their true breakthrough. Due to the limited studio time afforded the band, the decision was made to re-record the unreleased United Artists album in its entirety. In addition, two new self-penned compositions, "White Line Fever" and "Keep Us on the Road", were added, as well as a cover of John Mayall's "Train Kept A-Rollin". Three tracks on the album were composed by Lemmy while he was still a member of Hawkwind, "Motorhead", "Lost Johnny," and "The Watcher," the latter a psychedelic acoustic piece.
Like the band name itself, the song "Motorhead" is a reference to speed – Lemmy's drug of choice at that time- and was coupled with the non-album track "City Kids" for release as 7" and 12" singles. In his autobiography White Line Fever, Lemmy recalls working with producer Speedy Keen and engineer John Burns and the challenges arising from a lack of time: " were speeding out of their heads because they couldn't afford to go to sleep – they didn't have time, they wanted to make an album as much as we did, they mixed twenty-four versions of Motörhead alone!" The band members were less than pleased with the finished product, guitarist Clarke has referred to the album's muddled sound as "pretty dreadful". Four remaining tracks from the session were shelved until 1980, when they were released as the Beer Drinkers and Hell Raisers EP. In his memoir Lemmy noted: "Once again it was cash-in time – for the record labels, at least. I've never recorded more than we need since! But having said that, I don't begrudge Ted Carroll that – he saved my band."
The B-side and the EP tracks were added as bonus material on the CD release. The sleeve artwork featured War-Pig, the fanged face that would become an icon of the band, created by artist Joe Petagno, who had worked with Storm Thorgerson of Hipgnosis and had designed the Swan Song Records logo for Led Zeppelin, it is supposed to be a combination of a bear, a wolf and a dog skull with boar tusks, according to Petagno. The original version had a swastika on the spike of the helmet; the inner sleeve featured old and new photographs of the band and friends by long time friend Motorcycle Irene, who took most of the 70's pictures of Motörhead, plus letters of thanks from Lemmy and Phil. Advertisements for the album and tour bore the words "Achtung! This Band Takes No Prisoners". 21 August 1977 – UK vinyl – Chiswick, WIK2 – First 1000 printed black on silver foil sleeve. With inner sleeve. 10 November 1979 – UK vinyl – Chiswick/EMI, CWK3008 – The first 10,000 copies pressed on white vinyl, with "White vinyl fever" written on cover.
Versions had a gold stamped promo sleeve. 1981 – UK vinyl – Big Beat, WIK 2 – Red "Motörhead" lettering and "Includes inner sleeve with rare pix" written on cover. With inner sleeve. Black and red vinyl editions. Big Beat have issued a Direct Metal Mastered LP edition. One-
Vibrator (sex toy)
A vibrator, sometimes described as a massager, is a sex toy, used on the body to produce pleasurable sexual stimulation. They can be applied to stimulate erogenous zones such as the clitoris, the vulva or vagina, scrotum or anus. Most 2010-era vibrators contain an electric-powered device which throbs. There are many different models of vibrators; some vibrators designed for women stimulate both the clitoris and the vagina, while others are designed for couples to stimulate the genitals of both partners. The electric vibrator was invented in the late 19th century as a medical instrument for pain relief and the treatment of various ailments. English physician and inventor Joseph Mortimer Granville, who developed an early model, asserted his own priority in the invention and has been described as the'father of the modern electromechanical vibrator'. Mortimer Granville's 1883 book Nerve-vibration and excitation as agents in the treatment of functional disorder and organic disease describes the intended use of his vibrator for purposes including pain relief and the treatment of neuralgia, morbid irritability and constipation.
These early vibrators became popular among the medical profession and were used for treating a wide variety of ailments in women and men including hysteria, constipation, amenorrhea and tumors. Vibrators began to be marketed for home use in magazines from around 1900 together with other electrical household goods, for their supposed health and beauty benefits. An early example was the'Vibratile,' an advert which appeared in McClure's magazine in March 1899, offered as a cure for'Neuralgia, Wrinkles'; these advertisements disappeared in the 1920s because of their appearance in pornography, because growing understanding of female sexual function made it no longer tenable for mainstream society to avoid the sexual connotations of the devices. Historian of technology Rachel Maines, in her book The Technology of Orgasm, has argued that the development of the vibrator in the late 19th century was in large part due to the requirements of doctors for an easier way to perform genital massage on women to'hysterical paroxysm', a treatment for the once common medical diagnosis of female hysteria.
Maines writes that this treatment had been recommended since classical antiquity in Europe, including in the Hippocratic corpus and by Galen, continued to be used into the medieval and modern periods, but was not seen as sexual by physicians due to the absence of penetration, was viewed by them as a difficult and tedious task. Maines writes that the first use of the vibrator at the Salpêtrière was on hysterical women, but notes that Joseph Mortimer Granville denied that he had, or would have, used his invention for this purpose. One example of suggestive advertising given is a 1908 advert in National Home Journal for the Bebout hand-powered mechanical vibrator, containing the text "Gentle, soothing and refreshing. Invented by a woman who knows a woman's needs."Other historians disagree with Maines about the historical prevalence of genital massage as a treatment for female hysteria, over the extent to which early vibrating massagers were used for this purpose. The idea that stimulation to orgasm was a standard treatment for female hysteria in ancient and medieval Europe has been disputed on the grounds of being a distortion of the sources, cases of this treatment in the 19th and early 20th centuries, of the use of early vibrators to perform it, have been described as a practice that, if it occurred at all, would have been confined to an limited group.
Maines has said her reported theory should be treated as a hypothesis rather than a fact. In 2018, Hallie Lieberman and Eric Schatzberg published a peer-reviewed article that found "no evidence" to support Maines's claims in the book's citations, they called the wide acceptance of Maines's work "a fundamental failure of academic quality control". The vibrator re-emerged due to the sexual revolution of the 1960s. On June 30, 1966, Jon H. Tavel applied for a patent for the "Cordless Electric Vibrator for Use on the Human Body", ushering in the modern personal vibrator; the patent application referenced an earlier patent dating back to 1938, for a flashlight with a shape that left little doubt as to a possible alternate use. The cordless vibrator was patented on March 28, 1968, was soon followed by such improvements as multi-speed and one-piece construction, which made it cheaper to manufacture and easier to clean. In the 1980s and 1990s vibrators became visible in mainstream public culture after a landmark August 1998 episode of the HBO show Sex and the City, in which the character Charlotte becomes addicted to a rabbit vibrator.
Appearing in a regular segment on the popular US television series The Oprah Winfrey Show in March 2009, Dr. Laura Berman recommended that mothers teach their 15- or 16-year-old daughters the concept of pleasure by getting them a clitoral vibrator. Today, CVS, Kroger, Safeway and Walmart are among major national US chain retailers that include vibrators on store shelves; as of 2013, rechargeable vibrators were beginning to be manufactured to reduce the environmental impact of battery-operated vibrators. Research published in