Plain of Vic
The Plain of Vic is a 30 km long depression located at the eastern end of the Catalan Central Depression in the Osona comarca. It is named after the town of Vic, an important and ancient urban center in this natural region that lies in the midst of the plain. Other significant towns in the plain are Tona; this natural depression carved by river Ter and its tributaries is longer than it is wide and stretches in a N / S direction. It is surrounded by mountains: The Sub-Pyrenees, with Bellmunt mountain towering in the north, the Lluçanès and Moianès high plateaus in the West, the Montseny in the southeast and the Guilleries, located at the apex of the Catalan Transversal Range and the Pre-Coastal Range, in the east; the Plain of Vic was the bed of an ancient sea. It is formed by sedimentary rocks, like carbonatic lutite, from the eocene; the most remarkable characteristic of the landscape in the plain are low, isolated hills known as turons testimoni, "testimonial hills". Fossils are quite abundant in areas of the Plain of Vic.
The plain is subject to a phenomenon of thermal inversion marked in calm weather days during the fall and the winter, by which the surrounding mountain ranges are warmer than the plain. This inversion in temperature reflects in the vegetation; the original vegetation of the plain was oak forest, but little is left owing to continuous human intervention since ancient times. Some ancient oaks have been preserved as a tourist attraction. Vic Tona Catalan Central Depression Sub-Pyrenees Catalan Transversal Range Monitoring groundwater nitrate attenuation in a regional system coupling hydrogeology with multi-isotopic methods: The case of Plana de Vic La Plana de Vic
Ancient Diocese of Narbonne
The former Catholic diocese of Narbonne existed from early Christian times until the French Revolution. It was an archdiocese, with its see at Narbonne, from the year 445, its influence ran over much of south-western France and into Catalonia. During the French Revolution, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the diocese of Narbonne was combined with the dioceses of Carcassone, Saint-Papoul and Mirepoix into the new Diocese of the Aude, with its seat at Narbonne, it included 565 parishes. It was a part of the Métropole du Sud; the territory of the former diocese of Narbonne was merged under the Concordat of 1801 into the diocese of Carcassonne. After the Restoration of the Bourbons following Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, an attempt was made to re-establish the see was defeated in the French Parliament. After nearly a century, a new metropolitan see was created for the Languedoc region, with the elevation of the bishopric of Montpellier to the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop on 8 December 2002.
The diocese of Carcassonne was transferred from the metropolitanate of Toulouse to that of Montpellier, on 14 June 2006 the name of the diocese of Carcassonne was changed to the Diocese of Carcassonne and Narbonne. Toulouse no longer carries the title Toulouse-Narbonne. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 582–584. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list pp. 356. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 199. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 253. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 252. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio.
Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 280. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 301. Sainte-Marthe, Denis de. Gallia Christiana: In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, De provincia Narbonensi. Tomus sextus. Paris: Typographia Regia. Pp. 1–222, Instrumenta, 1–72. De Vic, Cl.. Histoire generale de Languedoc. Tome IV. Toulouse: Edouard Privat. Pp. 243–260.. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: I. Provinces du Sud-Est. Paris: Fontemoing. Second edition Mortet, Victor. Notes historiques et archéologiques sur la cathédrale: le cloitre et le palais archiépiscopal de Narbonne 13e-16e siècles. Toulouse: E. Privat
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation; the Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by proponents of Protestantism, issued key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass, the veneration of saints. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563. Pope Paul III, who convoked the Council, oversaw the first eight sessions, while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions by Pope Pius IV; the consequences of the Council were significant in regards to the Church's liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s.
In 1565, a year after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed and his successor Pius V issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church's primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years. More than three hundred years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council, was convened in 1869. On 15 March 1517, the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe. A few months on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg. Luther's position on ecumenical councils shifted over time, but in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther's theses as heresy, German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences.
German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters. It took a generation for the council to materialise because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, because of ongoing political rivalries between France and Germany and the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean. Under Pope Clement VII, troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, "raping, burning, the like had not been seen since the Vandals". Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses. This, together with the Pontiff's ambivalence between Germany, led to his hesitation. Charles V favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I opposed a general council due to partial support of the Protestant cause within France. In 1532 he agreed to the Nuremberg Religious Peace granting religious liberty to the Protestants, in 1533 he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise between the two theological systems.
This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent. In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X, Martin Luther burned the document and appealed for a general council. In 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France, after Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis and his reply to the University of Cologne, set aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance. Pope Paul III, seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, but had won over various princes in Germany, to its ideas, desired a council.
Yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea. Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to begin on 23 May 1537. Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council; the Smalcald Articles were designed to define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise. The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537, it failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants refused to attend as well. Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the autumn of 1537 to move the council to Vicenza, where participation was poor; the Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 May 1539. Pope Paul III initiated several internal Church reforms while Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants at an imperial diet in Regensburg, to reconcile differences.
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Roman Catholic Diocese of Vic
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Vic is a diocese with its seat in the city of Vic in the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona in Catalonia, Spain. Its cathedral is a basilica dedicated to Saint Peter. A diocese was first established at Vic in the fifth century. After the Islamic conquest of Spain in 711, the diocese was abandoned; the diocese was re-established in 886, shortly after the official re-settlement of the Plain of Vic had begun in 878. According to one theory, the new diocese was a product of the initiative of the Sunyer II, count of Empúries, Teuter, bishop of Girona, to spread their influence westward at the expense of Count Wifred I of Osona, it is more that the see was re-founded with the support of Wifred, who petitioned the archdiocese of Narbonne to accept it as a suffragan. Although Vic was the traditional capital of the County of Osona, the county and the bishopric were not coterminous; the monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, one of the most important in the diocese, lay within the County of Besalú.
So long as the counts of Osona were counts of Barcelona, they appointed viscounts to rule in Osona, these resided at the castle of Cardona in the diocese of Urgell. As a result, the bishops of Vic came to control the city itself, blending public and ecclesiastical power there. There is a surviving charter of King Odo dated 889, in which the king appears to grant the count of Osona to the bishop, but most of the text is of a date and is unreliable; the king did grant the fortress at Artés to the bishop, as well as one third of public revenue in the county. By 911, when the will of Count Wifred II granted a third of the profits of the mints in Osona to the bishop, the latter had replaced the viscount as the most powerful person in the county. During the reign of Louis IV, the bishop of Vic received royal confirmation of his monetary right. In 957, without any authority to do so, the bishop began keeping back all the profits of the mints for the church. Throughout the 10th century the counts of Osona sought to re-settle the west of the county and fortify the frontier.
To this end they granted many frontier castles to the bishop to hold. Basilica of Santa Maria, Igualada Basilica of Santa Maria de la Seu, Manresa Medieval period886–899 Gotmar, first bishop of the restored diocese 899–914 Idalguer 914–947 Jordi 948–957 Guadamir 957–971 Ató 972–993 Frujà 993–1010 Arnulf 1010–1017 Borrell 1017–1046 Oliba 1046–1076 Guillem de Balsareny 1076–1099 Berenguer Seniofred de Lluçà 1099–1101 Guillem Berenguer 1102–1109 Arnau de Malla 1109–1146 Ramon Gaufré 1147–1185 Pere de Redorta 1185–1194 Ramon Xetmar de Castellterçol 1195–1233 Guillem de Taverte...1424–1445 Jordi d'OrnósModern periodBishop Romà Casanova Casanova Bishop Josep Maria Guix Ferreres Bishop Ramon Masnou i Boixeda Bishop Joan Perelló i Pou, M. S. C. Patriarch Francesc Muñoz i Izquierdo Bishop Josep Torras i Bages Bishop Josep Morgades i Gili Bishop Pere Colomer i Mestres Bishop Antoni Lluís Jordà i Soler Bishop Joan-Josep Castanyer i Ribas Bishop Antoni Palau i Térmens Bishop Llucià Casadevall i Duran Bishop Pau Jesús Corcuera i Caserta Bishop Ramon Strauch i Vidal, O.
F. M. Bishop Francesc de Veyan i Mola Bishop Antoni Manuel de Hartalejo López, O. de M. Bishop Bartolomé Sarmentero, O. F. M. Bishop Manuel Muñoz Guil Bishop Ramon de Marimon i de Corbera-Santcliment Bishop Manuel de Santjust Pagès Bishop Antoni Pascual Bishop Jaume Mas Bishop Jaume de Copons i de Tamarit Bishop Brauli Sunyer Bishop Francesc Crespí de Valldaura i Brizuela Bishop Ramon de Senmenat i Lanuza Bishop Gaspar Gil i Miravete de Blancas Bishop Pere de Magarola i Fontanet Bishop Andrés de San Jerónimo, O. S. H. Bishop Antoni Gallart i de Treginer Bishop Onofre de Reard Bishop Francesc Robuster i Sala Bishop Joan Vila Bishop Pere Jaime Bishop Joan Baptista de Cardona Bishop Pere d'Aragó Bishop Bernat de Jossa i de Cardona, O. S. B. Bishop Benet de Tocco, O. S. B. Bishop Braulio Sunyer Archbishop Acisclo Moya de Contreras Bishop Joan de Tormo Bishop Joan d'Enguera, O. P. Notes SourcesFreedman, Paul. Diocese of Vic: Tradition and Regeneration in Medieval Catalonia. Rutgers. External linksGCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy Diocese website Bishops of Vic Diocese website
Wilfred the Hairy
Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy, was Count of Urgell, Barcelona, Besalú and Ausona. On his death in 897, his son, Wilfred Borrell, inherited these Catalan counties, he was responsible for the repopulation of the long-depopulated no-man's land around Vic, the re-establishment of the bishopric of Vic and the foundation of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, where he is buried. Wilfred was the Catalan Count of Barcelona who created the tradition of hereditary passage of titles, his son, Wilfred Borrell, inherited the county without any interruption and held it from 897–911. A number of primitive feudal entities developed in the Marca Hispanica during the 9th century, they were self-sufficient and agrarian, but ruled by a small military elite. The pattern seen in Catalonia is similar to that found in similar border lands or marches elsewhere in Europe. Traditionally the Count of Barcelona was appointed directly by the Carolingian emperor, for example the appointment of Bera in 801; the appointment of heirs could not be taken for granted.
However, with the rise of strong counts such as Sunifred and Wilfred, the weakening of Carolingian royal power, the appointment of heirs become a formality. This trend resulted in the counts becoming de facto independent of the Carolingian crown under Borrell II in 985. Wilfred remained obscure until drawn into the historians' net by Sir Richard Southern, in The Making of the Middle Ages, 1953. Wilfred was of Gothic lineage from the region of Carcassonne. Tradition claims he was born near Prades in the County of Conflent, now Rià, in France. According to legend, he was the son of Wilfred of a county near Prades, his father was murdered by Salomón and Wilfred became his avenger, killing the assassin. After the research done by French monks Dom De Vic and Dom Vaissete, authors of Histoire Générale de Languedoc, he is identified as the son of Sunifred I of Barcelona, count of many counties under Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald. Wilfred's mother may have been named Ermesende. Sunifred may have been the son of Belló, Count of Carcassonne during the reign of Charlemagne, or more his son-in-law.
Thus, as a descendant of Sunifred and his brother, Sunyer I, count of Empúries and Roussillon, Wilfred is considered to be a member of a Bellonid dynasty by Ramon d'Abadal and other historians. The Bellonid lineage lost its power when Sunifred and Sunyer died in 848, but was revived by the appointment of Dela and Sunyer II, sons of Sunyer I, to the countship of Empúries in 862. At an assembly at Attigny in June 870, Charles the Bald made their cousins, Wilfred the Hairy and his brother Miró, counts of Urgell and Cerdanya, Conflent, respectively. For in that year, the poorly-chronicled Solomon, count of Urgell and Conflent, had died. After becoming Count of Urgell and Cerdanya in 870, Wilfred received the counties of Barcelona and Besalú in 878 from the Carolingian king of France, Louis the Stammerer, his reign coincided with the crumbling of Carolingian unity. Wilfred was thus the last count of the Hispanic March appointed by the French king and the first to pass his vast holdings as an inheritance to his sons.
Wilfred came into possession of Barcelona through his service to Charles the Bald against the rebel Bernard of Gothia, Count of Barcelona and numerous other Septimanian counties. Wilfred, Miró, their brother Sunifred, Lindoí, the Viscount of Narbonne, marched against Bernard on behalf of King Charles and his son, Louis the Stammerer. In March and April 878, they defeated the nobles loyal to Bernard, including Sigebuto, Bishop of Narbonne, expelled all partisan priests from the church. At the Council of Troyes in August 878, presided over by Pope John VIII and King Louis II the Stammerer, Wilfred was formally invested as Count of Urgell and Cerdanya, Miró as Count of Conflent, Sunyer as Count of Empúries, Oliba II as Count of Carcassonne. On 11 September 878, Bernard was dispossessed of all his titles. Bernard's former possessions were given to Wilfred and Miró; the counties of Narbonne, Béziers, Agde were separated from that of Barcelona. Sunifred was made Abbot of Arles, Riculf Bishop of Elna, the Bishops of Urgell and Barcelona were confirmed in their sees.
Wilfred ceded Besalú to his brother Radulph. After the investiture of 878, Wilfred's lands stretched from Urgell and Cerdanya in the Pyrenees to Barcelona and Girona on the Mediterranean coast; this was the first time since the reign of his father that these different areas had been united politically and the only other time within the 9th century. The land between these regions—Ripollès, Vall de Lord, Berguedà, Lluçanès, the Plana de Vic, Moianès, Bages—had long been depopulated due to the rebellion of Aissó in 827, but was considered territory belonging to the Count of Barcelona since 820, when it was given to Rampon upon the death of Borrell, the first Count of Urgell and Ausona. Wilfred embarked on the process of repopulating these territories with immigrants from the populated mountain regions—Pallars and Cerdanya—to which people had fled in the two centuries between the collapses of Visigothic and Carolingian authority. Wilfred's plan involved repopulating and subsequently annexing the counties to those he controlle
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan