Domenico Zampieri, known as Domenichino for his shortness, was an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese or Carracci School of painters. Domenichino was born in Bologna, son of a shoemaker, there studied under Denis Calvaert. After quarreling with Calvaert, he left to work in the Accademia degli Incamminati of the Carracci where, because of his small stature, he was nicknamed Domenichino, meaning "little Domenico" in Italian, he left Bologna for Rome in 1602 and became one of the most talented apprentices to emerge from Annibale Carracci's supervision. As a young artist in Rome he lived with his older Bolognese colleagues Albani and Guido Reni, worked alongside Lanfranco, who would become a chief rival. In addition to assisting Annibale with completion of his frescoes in the Galleria Farnese, including A Virgin with a Unicorn, he painted three of his own frescoes in the Loggia del Giardino of the Palazzo Farnese c. 1603–04. With the support of Monsignor Giovanni Battista Agucchi, the maggiordomo to Cardinal Aldobrandini and Gregory XV, Giovanni's brother Cardinal Girolamo Agucchi, Domenichino obtained further commissions in Rome.
His most important project of the first decade was decoration of the Cappella dei Santissimi Fondatori in the medieval basilica of the Abbey of Grottaferrata, some 20 kilometers outside Rome, where Odoardo Farnese was the titular abbot. Meanwhile, he had completed frescoes c. 1604–05 in the church of Sant'Onofrio, feigned stucco decoration of 1606–07 in the Palazzo Mattei, a large scene of The Flagellation of St. Andrew at San Gregorio Magno, painted in competition with a fresco by Reni that faces it, a ceiling with Scenes from the Life of Diana, 1609, in the Villa Odescalchi at Bassano di Sutri. Following Annibale Carracci's death in 1609, the pupils who had followed Annibale's Roman style, including Domenichino and Francesco Albani, were not as successful at gaining the most prestigious commissions as Guido Reni; as Donald Posner stated in his influential thesis, The Roman Style of Annibale Carracci and His School, ‘...it should be stressed that the severe classicism of Annibale’s late style had an immediate life in Rome of only about a lustrum.’ In turn, the Bolognese biographer Malvasia states that'only Guido was put ahead of everyone else, Guido alone proclaimed and well treated, while, on the contrary, was either not recognized or mistreated in the fees he got, so that he was left without commissions and rejected.
Therefore, he was forced to go begging for work, with much effort, through intermediaries, at any price... the same had been true of the Flagellation of Saint Andrew, painted for a hundred and fifty scudi, whereas in the case of the Adoration of the Cross on the opposite wall four hundred scudi had gone to Guido.' One of Domenichino's masterpieces, his frescoes of Scenes of the Life of Saint Cecilia in the Polet Chapel of San Luigi dei Francesi, was commissioned in 1612 and completed in 1615. Concurrently he painted his first, most celebrated, The Last Communion of St. Jerome for the church of San Girolamo della Carità, it subsequently would be judged as being comparable to Raphael's great Transfiguration and as "the best picture in the world". By late 1616, Domenichino had designed the coffered ceiling with The Assumption of the Virgin in Santa Maria in Trastevere. From 1617 until 1621, Domenichino was absent from Rome, working in Bologna and at Fano, where during 1618–19 he frescoed the Nolfi chapel of the Fano Cathedral with Scenes from the Life of the Virgin.
With the election of a Bolognese pope in 1621, Domenichino returned to Rome. Appointed Papal Architect, he nonetheless continued to be most active as a painter, obtaining many commissions for altarpieces in Roman churches, he executed numerous frescoes in Rome during the 1620s: a ceiling in the Palazzo Costaguti. In spite of his activity in Rome, Domenichino decided to leave the city in 1631 to take up the most prestigious, lucrative, commission in Naples, the decoration of the Cappella del Tesoro di San Gennaro of the Naples Cathedral, his Scenes from the Life of San Gennaro occupied him for the rest of his life. He painted four large lunettes, four pendentives, twelve scenes in the soffits of the arches, all in fresco, plus three large altarpieces in oil on copper, he died by poison at the hands of the jealous Cabal of Naples, before completing the fourth altarpiece or the cupola, subsequently frescoed by Lanfranco. At the time of his death, Domenichino's chief assistant was an obscure painter from Assisi, Francesco Raspantino, who inherited his master's studio.
Earlier, Domenichino's principal pupils were Alessandro Fortuna, Giovanni Battista Ruggieri, Antonio Alberti called Barbalonga, Francesco Cozza, Andr
Achain is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Communes of the Moselle department INSEE statistics
Sebastiano Ricci was an Italian painter of the late Baroque school of Venice. About the same age as Piazzetta, an elder contemporary of Tiepolo, he represents a late version of the vigorous and luminous Cortonesque style of grand manner fresco painting, he was born in the son of Andreana and Livio Ricci. In 1671, he was apprenticed to Federico Cervelli of Venice. Others claim. In 1678, a youthful indiscretion led to an unwanted pregnancy, to a greater scandal, when Ricci was accused of attempting to poison the young woman in question to avoid marriage, he was imprisoned, released only after the intervention of a nobleman a Pisani family member. He married the mother of his child in 1691, although this was a stormy union. Following his release he moved to Bologna, where he lived near the Parish of San Michele del Mercato, his painting style there was influenced by Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole. On 28 September 1682 he was contracted by the "Fraternity of Saint John of Florence" to paint a Decapitation of John the Baptist for their oratory.
On 9 December 1685, the Count of San Segundo near Parma commissioned from Ricci the decoration of the Oratory of the Madonna of the Seraglio, which he completed in collaboration of Ferdinando Galli-Bibiena by October 1687, receiving a payment of 4,482 Lira. In 1686, the Duke Ranuccio II Farnese of Parma commissioned s Pietà for a new Capuchin convent. In 1687-8 Ricci decorated the apartments of the Parmense Duchess in Piacenza with canvases recounting the life of the Farnese pope, Paul III. In 1688, Ricci abandoned his wife and daughter, fled from Bologna to Turin with Magdalen, the daughter of the painter Giovanni Peruzzini, he was again imprisoned, nearly executed, but was freed by the intercession of the Duke of Parma. The duke employed him and assigned him a monthly salary of 25 crowns and lodging in the Farnese palace in Rome. In 1692, he was commissioned to copy the Coronation of Charlemagne by Raphael in Vatican City, on behalf of Louis XIV, a task he finished only by 1694; the death of the Duke Ranuccio in December, 1694, his protector, forced Ricci to abandon Rome for Milan, where by November 1695 he completed frescoes in the Ossuary Chapel of the Church of San Bernardino dei Morti.
On 22 June 1697, the Count Giacomo Durini hired him to paint in the Cathedral of Monza. In 1698, he returned to the Venetian republic for a decade. By 24 August 1700, he had frescoed the chapel of the Santissimo Sacramento in the church of Santa Giustina of Padua. In 1701, the Venetian geographer Vincenzo Maria Coronelli commissioned a canvas of the Ascension, inserted into the ceiling of sacristy of the Basilica of the Santi Apostoli in Rome. In 1702, he frescoed the ceiling of the Blue Hall in the Schönbrunn Palace, with the Allegory of the Princely Virtues and Love of Virtue, which illustrated the education and dedication of future emperor Joseph I. In Vienna, Frederick August II, the elector Saxony, requested an Ascension canvas, in part to convince others of the sincerity of his conversion to Catholicism, which allowed him to become the King of Poland. In Venice in 1704 he executed a canvas of San Procolo for the Dome of Bergamo and a Crucifixion for the Florentine church of San Francisco de Macci.
In the summer of 1706, he traveled to Florence, where he completed a work, by many considered his masterpieces. During his Florentine stay he first completed a large fresco series on allegorical and mythological themes for the now-called Marucelli-Fenzi or Palazzo Fenzi. After this work, along with the quadraturista Giuseppe Tonelli, was commissioned by the Grand Duke Ferdinando de' Medici to decorate rooms in the Pitti Palace, where his Venus takes Leave from Adonis contains heavenly depictions that are airier and brighter than prior Florentine fresco series; these works gained him fame and requests from foreign lands and showed the rising influence of Venetian painting into other regions of Italy. He was to influence the Florentine Rococo fresco painter Giovanni Domenico Ferretti. In 1708 he returned to Venice. In 1711, now painting alongside his nephew, Marco Ricci, he painted two canvases: Esther to Assuero and Moses saved from the Nile, for the Taverna Palace, he accepted foreign patronage in London, when he was provided a £770 commission by Lord Burlington for eight canvases, to be completed by him and his nephew Marco, depicting mythological frolics: Cupid and Jove, Bacchus meets Ariadne and Nymphs, Bacchus and Ariadne and Cupid, Diane and Endymion, a Cupid and Flora.
He decorated the chapel at Bulstrode House near Gerrards Cross for Henry Bentinck, 1st Duke of Portland with a cycle of wall-paintings depicting scenes from the life of Christ. George Vertue described the scheme as "a Noble free invention. Great force of lights and shade, with variety & freedom, in the composition of the parts"; the chapel was demolished in the 19th century. Ricci designed stained glass for the Duke of Chandos' chapel at Cannons. By the end of 1716, with his nephew, he left England for Paris, where he met Watteau, submitted his Triumph of the Wisdom over Ignorance in order to gain admission to the Royal French Academy of Painting and Sculpture, granted on 18 May 1718, he returned to Venice in 1718 a wealthy man, bought comfortable lodgings in the Old Procuratory of St. Mark; that same year, the Riccis decorated the villa of Giovanni Francesco Bembo in Belvedere, near Belluno. In 1722 he was one of twelve artists commissioned to contribute a painting on canvas
Lorraine Regional Natural Park
Lorraine Regional Natural Park is a protected area of pastoral countryside in the Grand Est region of northeastern France. The park covers a total area of 205,000 hectares; the parkland spreads between spans three departments. Ancient ruins and modern monuments are common throughout the area; the land was designated a regional natural park in 1974. There are 193 communes within the parkland boundaries. Albestroff • Ancy-sur-Moselle • Andilly • Ansauville • Apremont-la-Forêt • Arnaville • Assenoncourt • Avricourt • Azoudange Bar-le-Duc • Bayonville-sur-Mad • Beaumont • Belles-Forêts • Belleville • Beney-en-Woëvre • Bernecourt • Blanche-Église • Boncourt-sur-Meuse • Bonzée • Bouconville-sur-Madt • Boucq • Bouillonville • Bourdonnay • Broussey-Raulecourt • Bruley • Bruville • Buxières-sous-les-Côtes Chaillon • Chambley-Bussières • Charey • Château-Voué • Combres-sous-les-Côtes Dampvitoux • Desseling • Dieue-sur-Meuse • Dieulouard • Domèvre-en-Haye • Dommartin-la-Chaussée • Dommartin-la-Montagne • Dompierre-aux-Bois • Donnelay • Dornot Écrouves • Les Éparges • Essey-et-Maizerais • Euvezin • Euville Fénétrange • Fey-en-Haye • Flirey • Frémeréville-sous-les-Côtes • Fresnes-en-Woëvre • Fribourg Gelucourt • Génicourt-sur-Meuse • Geville • Gézoncourt • Girauvoisin • Givrycourt • Gondrexange • Gorze • Gravelotte • Griscourt • Grosrouvres • Guéblange-lès-Dieuze • Guermange Hagéville • Hamonville • Hampont • Han-sur-Meuse • Hannonville-sous-les-Côtes • Hannonville-Suzémont • Haraucourt-sur-Seille • Haudiomont • Herbeuville • Heudicourt-sous-les-Côtes Insviller Jaulny • Jezainville • Juvelize Lachaussée • Lacroix-sur-Meuse • Lagarde • Lagney • Lahayville •Lamorville • Laneuveville-derrière-Foug • Languimberg • Lidrezing • Limey-Remenauville • Lindre-Basse • Lironville • Loudrefing • Loupmont • Lucey Maidières • Maizières-lès-Vic • Mamey • Mandres-aux-Quatre-Tours • Manoncourt-en-Woëvre • Manonville • Marbache • Mars-la-Tour • Marsal • Martincourt • Mécrin • Ménil-la-Tour • Metz • Minorville • Mittersheim • Montauville • Morville-les-Vic • Mouilly • Moussey • Moyenvic • Mulcey • Munster Nancy • Nébing • Nonsard-Lamarche • Norroy-lès-Pont-à-Mousson • Novéant-sur-Moselle • Noviant-aux-Prés Obreck • Ommeray • Onville Pagney-derrière-Barine • Pagny-sur-Moselle • Pannes • Pont-sur-Meuse • Prény • Puxieux Rambucourt • Ranzières • Réchicourt-le-Château • Rembercourt-sur-Mad • Rening • Rezonville • Rhodes • Richecourt • Rogéville • Ronvaux • Rorbach-lès-Dieuze • Rosières-en-Haye • Rouvrois-sur-Meuse • Royaumeix • Rupt-en-Woëvre Saint-Julien-les-Gorze • Saint-Julien-sous-les-Côtes • Saint-Maurice-sous-les-Côtes • Saint-Médard • Saint-Remy-la-Calonne • Saizerais • Sanzey • Saulx-lès-Champlon • Seicheprey • Seuzey • Sommedieue • Sotzeling • Sponville Tarquimpol • Thiaucourt • Thillot • Tomblaine • Torcheville • Tremblecourt • Trésauvaux • Trondes • Tronville • Troyon Val-de-Bride • Valbois • Vandelainville • Varneville • Vaux • Vaux-les-Palameix • Vic-sur-Seille • Viéville-en-Haye • Vigneulles-lès-Hattonchâtel • Vignot • Vilcey-sur-Trey • Ville-sur-Yron • Villecey-sur-Mad • Villers-en-Haye • Villers-sous-Prény • Vionville Waville • Wuisse Xammes • Xivray-et-Marvoisin • Xonville Zarbeling • Zommange List of regional natural parks of France Woëvre Official park website
Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat was a French painter, Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Bonnat was born in Bayonne, but from 1846 to 1853 he lived in Madrid, where his father owned a bookshop. While tending his father's shop, he copied engravings of works by the Old Masters, developing a passion for drawing. In Madrid he received his artistic training under Madrazo, he worked in Paris, where he became known as a leading portraitist, never without a commission. His many portraits show the influence of Velázquez, Jusepe de Ribera and other Spanish masters, as well as Titian and Van Dyke, whose works he studied in the Prado. Following the period in Spain Bonnat worked the ateliers of the history painters Paul Delaroche and Leon Cogniet in Paris. Despite repeated attempts, he failed to win the prix de Rome receiving only a second prize. However, a scholarship from his native Bayonne allowed him to spend three years in Rome independently. During his stay in Rome, he became friends with Edgar Degas, Gustave Moreau, Jean-Jacques Henner and the sculptor Henri Chapu.
Bonnat won a medal of honor in Paris in 1869, going on to become one of the leading artists of his day. Bonnat went on to win the Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur and became a professor at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1882. Bonnat was quite popular with American students in Paris. In addition to his native French, he spoke Spanish and Italian and knew English well, to the relief of many monolingual Americans. In May 1905 he succeeded Paul Dubois as director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Julius Kaplan characterised Bonnat as "a liberal teacher who stressed simplicity in art above high academic finish, as well as overall effect rather than detail." Bonnat's emphasis on overall effect on the one hand, rigorous drawing on the other, put him in a middle position with respect to the Impressionists and academic painters like his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1917, Bonnat was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Corresponding member. Bonnat's vivid portraits of contemporary celebrities are his most characteristic works, but his most important works are arguably his powerful religious paintings, such as his Christ on the Cross, Job, St Vincent Taking the Place of Two Galley Slaves, the large Martyrdom of St Denis for the Pantheon in Paris.
However, he received few commissions for religious and historical paintings, most of his output consists of portraits. He produced genre paintings of Italian peasants, a small number of Orientalist scenes; the writers Émile Zola and Théophile Gautier were among Bonnat's supporters. Gautier hailed him as "the antithesis of Bouguereau," because of the stark naturalism and lack of surface finish that characterize Bonnat's work. Bonnat is an academic painter, he was a member of the Institute, one of the only 14 painters who had administrative power over the Academy des Beaux Arts and thereby the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He had friends and connections among the independent artists of his time as well, such as Edgar Degas, whom he met during his stay in Rome and who painted two portraits of Bonnat, Édouard Manet, who shared his predilection for Spanish painting, he taught together with Pierre Puvis de Chavannes in the private atelier he ran before becoming professor at the École. He supported Auguste Rodin's candidacy for the Institut, defended Gustave Courbet's submissions to the salon.
In a gesture of gratitude for the help he had been provided in his youth, Bonnat built a museum in his native city of Bayonne, the Musée Bonnat. Most of the works in the museum are from Bonnat's personal collection of works of art, amassed over a lifetime of travelling around Europe, it includes an exceptionally fine collection of Old Master drawings from Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to Ingres and Géricault. Bonnat died on 8 September 1922 at Monchy-Saint-Éloi; some of Bonnat's more notable students include: John Singer Sargent, Stanhope Forbes, Gustave Caillebotte, Prince Eugen, Duke of Närke, Gustaf Cederström, Laurits Tuxen, P. S. Krøyer, Suzor-Coté, Alfred Philippe Roll, Georges Braque, Thomas Eakins, Raoul Dufy, Jean Béraud, Franklin Brownell, Marius Vasselon, Hubert-Denis Etcheverry, Fred Barnard, Louis Béroud, Paul de la Boulaye, Aloysius O'Kelly, Erik Werenskiold, Edvard Munch, Alphonse Osbert, Henry Siddons Mowbray, Charles Sprague Pearce, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Hyakutake Kaneyuki, Nils Forsberg and Walter Tyndale.
1904: Member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. Musée Bonnat This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bonnat, Léon Joseph Florentin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Cesare Dandini was an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in his native city of Florence. He was the older brother of the painter Vincenzo Dandini, his nephew, Pietro was a pupil of Vincenzo, Pietro's two sons, Ottaviano Dandini and the Jesuit priest Vincenzo worked as painters in Florence. According to the biographer Baldinucci, Cesare first worked under Francesco Curradi Cristofano Allori, Domenico Passignano, he enrolled in 1621 in the Accademia del Disegno. His style has the polish and attention to draughtsmanship and design characteristic of Florentines like Carlo Dolci. Among his pupils were Stefano della Bella, Alessandro Rosi, Antonio Giusti, Giovanni Domenico Ferrucci, Jacopo Giorgi. Grove encyclopedia abstract biography Italian Paintings: Florentine School, a collection catalog containing information about the artist and their works