Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Melbourne City Centre
Melbourne City Centre is an area of Melbourne, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria's Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne, it is not to be confused with the larger local government area of the City of Melbourne. It is the core central activities district of Melbourne's inner suburbs and the major central business district of Greater Melbourne's metropolitan area, is a major financial centre in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region; the Hoddle Grid in the City Centre is home to Melbourne's famed alleyways and arcades and is renowned for its distinct blend of contemporary and Victorian architecture as well as expansive parks and gardens which surround its edges. The City Centre is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia. In recent times, it has been placed alongside New York City and Berlin as one of the world's great street art meccas, designated a "City of Literature" by UNESCO in its Creative Cities Network.
In April 1835, John Batman, a prominent grazier and a member of the Geelong and Dutigalla Association, sailed from Launceston on the island of Van Diemen's Land, aboard the schooner Rebecca, in search of fresh grazing land in the south-east of the Colony of New South Wales. He sailed across Bass Strait, into the bay of Port Phillip, arrived at the mouth of the Yarra River in May. After exploring the surrounding area, he met with the elders of the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wurundjeri of the Kulin nation alliance, negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres which became known as Batman's Treaty; the transaction, believed to have taken place on the bank of Merri Creek, consisted of an offering of: blankets, mirrors and other such items. The last sentence of Batman's journal entry on this day became famous as the founding charter of the settlement. So the boat went up the large river. And, I am glad to state about six miles up found the river all good water and deep; this will be the place for a village.
— Journal of John Batman. Upon returning to Van Diemen's Land, Batman's treaty was deemed invalid by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, under the Proclamation of Governor Bourke in August 1835, it was the belief of Governor Bourke, as well as the Governor of Van Diemen's Land, Sir George Arthur, that the Aboriginal people did not have any official claims to the lands of the Australian continent. The proclamation formally declared, under the doctrine of terra nullius, that The Crown owned the whole of the Australian continent and that only it alone could sell and distribute land, it therefore voided any contracts or treaties made without the consent of the government, declared any person attempting to rely on such a treaty to be trespassing. However, at the time the proclamation was being drawn up, a prominent businessman from Van Diemen's Land, John Pascoe Fawkner, had funded an expedition to the area. At the same time, the Port Phillip Association had funded a second expedition.
The settlement party aboard the Enterprize entered the Yarra River, anchored close to the site chosen by Batman, on 29 August. The party went ashore the following day and landed their stores and began to construct the settlement; the Association party aboard the Rebecca arrived in September after spending time at a temporary camp at Indented Head, where they encountered William Buckley – an escaped convict, believed dead, living for 32 years with the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wathaurong of the Kulin nation alliance. Batman was dismayed to discover the settlers of the Enterprize had established a settlement in the area and informed the settlers that they were trespassing on the Association's land. However, according to the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, both the parties were in fact trespassing on Crown land; when Fawkner arrived in October, following tense arguments between the two parties, negotiation were made for land to be shared equally. As Fawkner had arrived after the two parties, he was aware of the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, which had gained approval from the Colonial Office in October.
He knew. Land was divided, the settlement existed peacefully, but without a formal system of governance, it was referred to by a number of names, including: "Batmania" and "Bearbrass" of which the latter was agreed upon by Batman and Fawkner. Fawkner assumed a leading role in the establishment of Bearbrass; the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Charles Grant, recognised the settlement's fait accompli that same year, authorised Governor Bourke to transfer Bearbrass to a Crown settlement. Batman and the Port Phillip Association were compensated £7,000 for the land. And, in March 1837, it was renamed "Melbourne" by Governor Bourke in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb; the City Centre is bordered by
Daniel Michael Andrews is an Australian politician, the 48th Premier of Victoria, a post he has held since 2014. He has been the leader of the Victorian branch of the Labor Party since 2010, from 2010 to 2014 was Leader of the Opposition in that state. Andrews was elected member for the Legislative Assembly seat of Mulgrave at the 2002 election, served as a parliamentary secretary and minister in the Bracks and Brumby Labor governments. On 29 November 2014, he was elected Premier of Victoria after the ALP won the state election, defeating the incumbent Liberal government. On 24 November 2018, he was re-elected as Premier of Victoria when Victorian Labor won the 2018 election in a landslide. Andrews was born in a suburb of Melbourne, to Bob Andrews and Jan.. In 1983 his family moved to Wangaratta, where he was educated at the Marist Brothers' Galen Catholic College. Andrews moved back to Melbourne in 1990 to attend Monash University, where he was a resident of Mannix College and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in politics and classics in 1996.
After graduating, Andrews became an electorate officer for federal Labor MP Alan Griffin. He worked at the party's head office from 1999 to 2002 as an organiser, as assistant state secretary. Following his election to parliament in the Legislative Assembly seat of Mulgrave at the 2002 election, Andrews was appointed Parliamentary Secretary for Health in the Steve Bracks Labor government. Following the 2006 election, Andrews was appointed to the Cabinet, becoming Minister for Gaming, Minister for Consumer Affairs and Minister Assisting the Premier on Multicultural Affairs. In 2007, Andrews became Minister for Health in the John Brumby Labor government. In 2008, Andrews voted in favour of abortion law reform in Victoria. Brumby resigned as leader of the Victorian Labor Party following the Labor defeat at the 2010 election, after 11 years of Labor governments. On 3 December 2010, Andrews was elected Victorian Labor Party leader, becoming Leader of the Opposition in Victoria, with former Deputy Premier Rob Hulls staying on as his deputy.
Hulls was replaced as deputy by James Merlino. Labor took the lead in the polls in mid-2012 and held it for all but a few months until the election, though Andrews trailed his Liberal counterparts, Ted Baillieu and Denis Napthine as preferred premier. Labor held 43 seats at dissolution but notionally held 40 after the redistribution of electoral boundaries, it thus needed a swing to win five seats to form government. At the election, Labor gained seven seats for a majority of two; the election was the first time since 1955 that an incumbent government was removed from office after a single term. In his victory speech, Andrews declared, "The people of Victoria have today given to us the greatest of gifts, entrusted to us the greatest of responsibilities and bestowed upon us the greatest of honours. We will not let them down!" He was sworn in as premier on 4 December. On winning office, Andrews government cancelled the East West Link project and initiated the level crossing removal project and the Melbourne Metro Rail Project.
On 24 May 2016 Andrews made an official apology in parliament for gay men in Victoria punished during the time homosexuality was a crime in the state. It was decriminalised in 1981. In August 2018 Andrews announced plans to build a $50 billion suburban rail loop connecting all major rail lines via Melbourne Airport. At the 2018 state election, Labor won a comprehensive victory, picking up an eight-seat swing for a total of 55 seats, tying Labor's second-best seat count in Victoria, it is only the fifth time. Andrews thus joined John Cain Jr and Steve Bracks as the only Victorian Labor leaders to lead the party to a second term in government. Andrews is one of the few state politicians in Australia to have never spent a day on the backbench, he has spent his entire tenure in the Legislative Assembly as a junior minister, opposition leader and premier. Shortly after his taking office in 2014 Daniel Andrews ended the state government's dispute with ambulance paramedics; the dispute that had started with the previous state government did not go as far as strikes, due to the death toll that would result in such action.
So the visible manifestation of the dispute was the protest style "colourful slogans" on the side and back windows of the state's ambulances, which were removed after Andrews promised to end the dispute. In September 2016, the Andrews Government privatised the Port of Melbourne for a term of 50 years in return for more than $9.7 billion. In September 2015, the Opposition announced it would refer the Andrews government to IBAC, the police, or a parliamentary enquiry over allegations that the Labor Party had misused taxpayer-funded electoral officers for party political campaigning in the leadup to the 2014 state election. After an eight month investigation, Victoria Police said; the Legislative Council referred the matter to the Victorian Ombudsman, after the Supreme Court confirmed it was within her jurisdiction, the government lost several appeals against the referral. In March 2018, the Ombudsman released a report stating that Victorian Labor had wrongly used $387,842 of staff budget entitlements during the election campaign, breaching guidelines for the use of electoral staff.
The report identified 21 MPs who had used the scheme, devised by former Treasurer John Lenders. Andrews stated he was sorry the incidents had occurred, that Labor had repaid the money; the investigation was reopened in July
Kew railway station, Melbourne
Kew railway station was the terminus of the Kew railway line, Australia. It was opened on 19 December 1887; the line ceased operations in August 1952, but the line and station were closed on 13 May 1957 and subsequently demolished. The headquarters of VicRoads now stands on the site
Country Roads Board
The Country Roads Board was the government authority responsible for the construction and maintenance of main roads in the State of Victoria, Australia between 1913 and 1983. The CRB was formed to take over responsibility from the Board of Lands and Works for the care and management of the main roads of the state; until there was a lack of co-operation between the agencies with operational responsibility for roads, the Roads and Bridges Branch of the Public Works Department and local municipalities, in the construction and maintenance of main roads. Expenditure of state funds was without proper supervision or a thorough investigation into actual needs; the absence of a systematic policy, as well as a lack of funds, had resulted in Victorian roads being in a deplorable condition. At this time the use of the motor car accentuated the demands for better roads; as a result of these needs the Country Roads Act 1912 was proclaimed in 1913 establishing the Country Roads Board as a central road authority with responsibility for those roads within the State considered to be main roads.
The initial functions of the Board, set out in the 1912 Act, were: to ascertain which roads should be main roads, to ascertain the most effective methods of road construction and maintenance, to ascertain the deviations in existing roads or new roads which would facilitate communication and improve conditions for traffic. After an initial investigation by the Board, construction guidelines were established and the letting of construction contracts, either directly by the Board or by municipal councils, proceeded by about 1915; the responsibilities of the CRB expanded over time. Responsibility for major roads in Melbourne was shared with the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works, until all road responsibilities were passed to the CRB in 1974. At various times other types of roads were proclaimed under legislation and subsequently came within the responsibility of the Country Roads Board; the Development Roads Act 1918 provided for the declaration of'Developmental Roads', roads which would serve to develop any area of land by providing access to a railway station for primary producers.
The Highways and Vehicles Act 1924 provided for the declaration of certain arterial roads as State Highways. The Tourists' Roads Act 1936 provided for the declaration of roads of sufficient interest or roads leading to tourist resorts or attractions as Tourists' Roads; the Country Roads Act 1956 enabled the Board to construct by-pass roads which became popularly known as freeways. The first chairman of CRB was William Calder who remained in charge until his death in 1928. Another prominent chairman was Donald Victor Darwin who took over in 1949, steered the board through a massive post-war expansion program; the Country Roads Board was abolished and succeeded by the Road Construction Authority on 1 July 1983 by operation of the Transport Act 1983. This step occurred as part of a suite of major institutional changes in the Victorian transport portfolio affecting roads and trams and related matters; the Road Construction Authority was merged with the Road Traffic Authority on 1 July 1989 to form the Roads Corporation.
The Roads Corporation is still in place today and trades as VicRoads. VicRoads W. K. Anderson. Roads for the people: a history of Victoria's roads. Hyland House. ISBN 1-875657-23-1
Sunshine is a suburb of Melbourne, lying 11 to 13 km west of the CBD, located within the City of Brimbank local government area. Sunshine recorded a population of 9,768 at the 2016 census. Sunshine a town just outside Melbourne, is today a residential suburb with a mix of period and post-War homes, with a town centre, an important retail centre in Melbourne's west, it is one of Melbourne's principal places of employment outside the CBD with many industrial companies situated in the area, is an important public transport hub with both V/Line and Metro services at Sunshine train station and its adjacent major bus interchange. The farms and settlements in the area now known as Sunshine first came under the Braybrook Road District which became the Shire of Braybrook. From 1860 to 1885 the only railway which passed through the area was the Bendigo line and the only railway station in the area was Albion & Darlington at the site of the current Albion station; when the Ballarat line was built through the area, a new station was built at the junction of the two lines: this station opened on 7 September 1885 and was called Braybrook Junction as it was in the Shire of Braybrook.
The area around the Braybrook Junction railway station came to be known as Braybrook Junction. The Braybrook Junction Post Office opened on 25 August 1890. In 1904 H. V. McKay bought, he secured 400 acres of land at Braybrook Junction with the aim of establishing housing to allow his future workers to live in the area, along the lines of a company town. The land became the Sunshine Estate. In 1906 McKay moved his agricultural machinery manufacturing business from Ballarat to his newly acquired factory in Braybrook Junction; the factory was renamed the Sunshine Harvester Works and it became the largest manufacturing plant in Australia. In July 1907, the train station, the post office, the shire riding's names were changed from Braybrook Junction to Sunshine after workers and residents had petitioned to do so in honour of McKay's Sunshine Harvester Works. In 1907 an industrial dispute between owner H. V. McKay and his workers at the Sunshine Harvester Works led to the Harvester Judgement, the benchmark industrial decision which led to the creation of a minimum living wage for Australian workers.
The Sunshine train disaster on 20 April 1908 killed 44 people at Sunshine station. In 1909, the H. V. McKay Sunshine Harvester Works Pipe Band was formed; this is one of Australia's oldest continuously functioning pipe bands and still exists as the Victoria Scottish Pipes & Drums. The land that H. V. McKay had earlier purchased to build housing for his workers on was developed by McKay as the Sunshine Estate, a housing estate developed with reference to some of the ideals of the Garden city movement, an influential town planning movement of the early 20th century. Infrastructure and amenities established by McKay for the Sunshine Estate and the rest of Sunshine included electric street lighting and sporting grounds, public buildings, a library; the town of Sunshine became regarded as a model industry-centred community. Housing for the McKay's employees swelled the local population and the town of Sunshine was touted as the "Birmingham of Australia". After WWII, Sunshine became connected to the sprawling city of Melbourne as car-based travel enabled people to leave the inner city suburbs and move into houses on larger blocks in suburbia.
In 1951, the old Shire of Braybrook was abolished and the City of Sunshine was established. Sunshine was not immune when many Australian-based manufacturing industries started winding down during and after the 1970s. In 1992, the Massey Ferguson factory the Sunshine Harvester Works, was demolished to make way for the development of the Sunshine Marketplace. On 15 December 1994, the City of Sunshine was abolished and Sunshine became part of the newly created City of Brimbank. Sunshine is now both a low-density residential suburb and one of Melbourne's principal places of employment outside the CBD. Many heavy and light industrial companies are situated in and around the area and it is an important retail centre in Melbourne's west. In addition to Sunshine's street shopping strips there are two shopping centres, the Sunshine Plaza and the Sunshine Marketplace. There is a Village Cinemas multiplex, the "Village 20 Sunshine Megaplex", at the Sunshine Marketplace. Educational institutions in Sunshine include Victoria Polytechnic.
Secondary schools include Sunshine College and Harvester Technical College.. Sunshine is a multicultural suburb. In the post-WWII period, many immigrants from all over continental Europe settled in Sunshine. Today Sunshine still has significant populations from Italy, former Yugoslavia, Poland, it is the main centre for Melbourne's Maltese community: indeed, the only branch of Malta's Bank of Valletta in the whole of Oceania is situated on Watt St, Sunshine. From the late 1970s, many Vietnamese refugees settled in Sunshine and surrounding areas; the Vietnamese have opened small businesses such as groceries and restaurants throughout the Sunshine town centre. More immigrants moving to Sunshine have come from Sudan and India. In 2016, Sunshine had a population of 9,768; the most common ancestries given in the 2016 census were: Australian 11.4%, English 12.5%, Vietnamese 12.9%, Chinese 5.9% and Irish 5.0%. For country of birth, 42% of people were born in Australia while the other most common countries of birth were Vietnam with 12.6%, India 5.7%, Burma 4.0%, Philippines 2.0%, Nepal 2.0%.
Sunshine railway station was redevel
Transport Integration Act 2010
The Transport Integration Act 2010 is a law enacted by the Parliament of the State of Victoria, Australia. The Act is the prime transport statute in Victoria, having replaced major parts of the Transport Act 1983, renamed as the Transport Act 1983; the purpose of the Transport Integration Act is to "...create a new framework for the provision of an integrated and sustainable transport system in Victoria...". The Act broadly seeks to unify all elements of the Victorian transport portfolio to ensure that transport and land use agencies work together towards the common goal of an integrated and sustainable transport system. In essence, the Transport Integration Act sets out the policy framework for transport in Victoria and establishes and sets the charters of the key agencies who make decisions which affect the planning and operation of the State's transport system. One commentator has opined that "he Act is a leading example of modern and progressive principles-based legislation, it marked a fundamental shift away from detailed, prescriptive rules to higher level guidance and more flexible outcomes."
The Transport Integration Act is administered by the Minister for Public Transport, the Hon Jacinta Allan MLA, the Minister for Ports and Minister for Roads, the Hon Luke Donnellan MLA. The policy area of the Act contains a vision and principles for the transport system in Victoria, making it clear that the transport system needs to be integrated and sustainable - in economic terms, in environmental terms and in social terms; the Act therefore establishes transport in Victoria as a triple bottom line issue. The Act consolidates and establishes most of the transport agencies in Victoria and applies its policy framework to those agencies and other non transport interface agencies whose planning and land use activities can have significant effects on the transport system. While comprehensive coverage of transport portfolio matters can be expected of a transport statute the most radical feature of the Transport Integration Act may be its reach into planning activities which are not administrated by transport agencies but which nonetheless can have a major impact on the transport system.
Withington observed that " for the first time, the scope of the State's principal transport statute reaches beyond transport agencies to include "interface bodies" such as planning authorities and land managers". The Act requires the development of a transport plan for Victoria and requires that the plan be periodically revised, it requires transport agencies regulated by the Act to prepare corporate plans and to coordinate them with the central Department of Transport and other affected transport agencies. Withington observed that " the Act is designed to encourage people to think - in a structured way - about the impacts of their decisions on the transport system, it is detailed enough to provide clear direction, but flexible enough to accommodate agencies' different roles and responsibilities and a wide range of different circumstances". The Transport Integration Act is divided into eight parts - Preliminary Vision statement, Objectives and Statements of Policy Principles Administration Planning Transport System Agencies Transport Corporations Transport Safety Agencies General The coverage of the Act is broad and extends to all State-controlled transport activities including most land and water-based transport and some air transport activities.
The Act applies to most State transport agencies and their activities through its coverage of Victoria's "transport system". Accordingly, it applies to things such as - heavy and light rail systems including trains and trams roads and vehicles including cars and bicycles ports and waterways including commercial ships and recreational vessels air transport systems"Transport system" is defined to include not only system infrastructure and conveyances, but such things as - communication systems and other technologies strategic and operational plans schedules and ticketing systems labour components service components; the Act's coverage of the transport system is therefore extensive. This occurs because " the recognises that a 21st century transport system should be conceived and planned as a single system performing multiple tasks rather than separate transport modes; the Transport Integration Act seeks to integrate land use and transport planning and decision-making by extending the framework to land use agencies whose decisions can have significant impact on transport.
Accordingly, the Act can apply to the activities of a range of planning, land use and other agencies. The Transport Integration Act "...provides that planning authorities must have regard to the policy framework when preparing a Planning Scheme Amendment...which is'likely to have a significant impact on the planning system' ". The Transport Integration Act has an overarching status in the hierarchy of Victoria's transport legislation. All other Victorian transport laws, including those relating to particular aspects of the regulation of trains, roads, transport projects and safety, are identified as "transport legislation" under the Act and are therefore captured by the framework and are subordinate to it; the Act s