Tom Jones (singer)
Sir Thomas John Woodward, known professionally as Tom Jones, is a Welsh singer. His career has spanned six decades, from his emergence as a vocalist in the mid-1960s with a string of top hits, regular touring, appearances in Las Vegas, career comebacks—to coaching on The Voice UK from 2012. Jones's powerful voice has been described as a "full-throated, robust baritone", his performing range has included pop, R&B, show tunes, dance and gospel. In 2008, the New York Times called Jones a musical "shape shifter", who could "slide from soulful rasp to pop croon, with a voice as husky as it was pretty". Jones has sold over 100 million records with thirty-six Top 40 hits in the United Kingdom and nineteen in the United States, including "It's Not Unusual", "What's New Pussycat", the theme song for the 1965 James Bond film Thunderball, "Delilah", "Green, Green Grass of Home", "She's a Lady", "Kiss" and "Sex Bomb". Jones made his acting debut playing the leading role in the 1979 television film Pleasure Cove as well as playing himself in Tim Burton's 1996 film Mars Attacks!
In 2012, he played a dramatic role in an episode of Playhouse Presents. Jones received a Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966, an MTV Video Music Award in 1989, two Brit Awards: Best British Male in 2000 and the Outstanding Contribution to Music award in 2003. Jones was awarded an OBE in 1999 and in 2006 he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to music. Jones was born Thomas John Woodward, at 57 Kingsland Terrace, Pontypridd, in Glamorgan, South Wales, his parents were Thomas Woodward, a coal miner, Freda Jones. Three of his grandparents were of English origin: his paternal grandfather, James Woodward, was an ironmonger's haulier from Gloucestershire, his paternal grandmother, Anne Woodward, was from Wiltshire, his maternal grandfather, Albert Jones, was Welsh, his maternal grandmother, Ada Jones, was born in Pontypridd, to parents from Somerset and Wiltshire. Jones attended Wood Road Infants School, Wood Road Junior School and Pontypridd Central Secondary Modern School, he began singing at an early age: he would sing at family gatherings, weddings and in his school choir.
Jones gained confidence through his singing talent. At 12 he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Many years he said: "I spent two years in bed recovering, it was the worst time of my life." During convalescence he listen to music and draw. Jones's bluesy singing style developed out of the sound of American soul music, his early influences included blues and R&B singers Little Richard, Solomon Burke, Jackie Wilson and Brook Benton, as well as Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis. In March 1957 Jones married his high school girlfriend, Linda Trenchard when they were expecting a child together, both aged 16; the couple's son, was born in the month following their wedding. To support his young family Jones took a job working in a glove factory and was employed in construction. Jones's voice has been described as a "full-throated, robust baritone", he became the frontman in 1963 for Tommy Scott and the Senators, a Welsh beat group. They soon gained a local reputation in South Wales. In 1964, the group recorded several solo tracks with producer Joe Meek, who took them to various labels, but they had little success.
That year, Decca producer Peter Sullivan saw Tommy Scott and the Senators performing in a club and directed them to manager Phil Solomon, but the partnership was short-lived. The group continued working men's clubs in South Wales. One night at the Top Hat in Cwmtillery, Jones was spotted by Gordon Mills, a London-based manager who originally hailed from South Wales. Mills became Jones's manager, took the young singer to London, renamed him "Tom Jones", to exploit the popularity of the Academy Award-winning 1963 film. Mills got Jones a recording contract with Decca, his first single, "Chills and Fever", was released in late 1964. It did not chart, but the follow-up, "It's Not Unusual", became an international hit after offshore pirate radio station Radio Caroline promoted it; the following year was the most prominent of Jones's career, making him one of the most popular vocalists of the British Invasion. In early 1965, "It's Not Unusual" reached No. 1 in the United Kingdom and the top ten in the United States.
During 1965, Mills secured a number of film themes for Jones to record, including the theme songs for the film What's New Pussycat? and for the James Bond film Thunderball. Jones was awarded the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1966. In Hollywood, Jones met Elvis Presley for the first time who he recalls singing his song as he walked towards him on set. In 1966, Jones's popularity began to slip somewhat, causing Mills to reshape the singer's image into that of a crooner. Jones began to sing material that appealed to a wider audience, such as the big country hit "Green, Green Grass of Home"; the strategy worked, Jones returned to the top of the charts in the UK and began hitting the Top 40 again in the US. For the remainder of the decade, he scored a string of hits on both sides of the Atlantic, including "I'll Never Fall in Love Again", "I'm Coming Home", "Delilah", each of which reached No. 2 in the UK chart. In 1967, Jones performed in Las Vegas for the first time at the Flamingo, his performances and style of dress became part of his stage act, featured his open, half-unbuttoned shirts and tight trousers.
He soon chose instead concentrating on his lucrative club performances. His shows at Caesars Palace
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
James Bond Theme
The "James Bond Theme" is the main signature theme of the James Bond films and has featured in every Eon Productions Bond film since Dr. No, released in 1962; the piece has been used as an accompanying fanfare to the gun barrel sequence in every James Bond film. The "James Bond Theme" has accompanied the opening titles twice, as part of the medley that opens Dr. No and again in the opening credits of From Russia with Love, it has been used as music over the end credits for Dr. No, Thunderball, On Her Majesty's Secret Service, The World Is Not Enough, Casino Royale, Quantum of Solace and Spectre. Monty Norman has been credited with writing the "James Bond Theme", has received royalties since 1962. Norman collected around £485,000 in royalties between the years 1976 and 1999. For Dr. No, the tune was arranged by John Barry, who would go on to compose the soundtracks for eleven James Bond films. Courts have ruled twice that the theme was written by Monty Norman, despite claims and testimony by Barry that he had written the theme.
Norman has won two libel actions against publishers for claiming that Barry wrote the theme, most against The Sunday Times in 2001. Norman describes the distinctive rhythm of the guitar in the first few bars of the "James Bond Theme" as "Dum di-di dum dum", he claims that it was inspired by the song "Good Sign Bad Sign" sung by Indian characters in A House for Mr Biswas, a musical he composed based on a novel by V. S. Naipaul set in the Indian community in Trinidad. Norman showed his manuscript music from A House for Mr Biswas in a filmed interview and sang its lyrics. In 2005, Norman released an album called Completing the Circle that features "Good Sign Bad Sign", the "James Bond Theme," and a similar-sounding song titled "Dum Di-Di Dum Dum." For these songs Norman added lyrics that explain the origin and history of the "James Bond Theme". Though the "James Bond Theme" is identified with John Barry's jazz arrangement, parts of it are heard throughout Monty Norman's score for Dr. No in non-jazzy guises.
Barry's arrangement is repeated in various scenes of the first Bond film. This is consistent with the account given by Barry and some of the film makers, contained in supplementary material on the DVD release of Dr. No: Barry was called in to make an arrangement of Norman's motif after Norman had completed the score. There is no information about the distinctive ostinati and bridges introduced by Barry that are juxtaposed with Norman's motif in order to flesh out the arrangement; these added musical figures have become as recognizable to listeners as Norman's motif, responsible for the controversy over the authorship of the "James Bond Theme" as listeners have come to know it. The "James Bond Theme" was recorded on 21 June 1962, using five saxophones, nine brass instruments, a solo guitar and a rhythm section; the guitar riff heard in the original recording of the theme was played by Vic Flick on a 1939 English Clifford Essex Paragon Deluxe guitar plugged into a Fender Vibrolux amplifier. Flick was paid a one-off fee of £6 for recording the famous James Bond Theme riff.
John Scott played the saxophone. Barry, paid £250 for his work, was surprised that his theme appeared so in Dr. No, he was told by Noel Rogers, the head of United Artists Music, that though the producers would not give him any more money or a writing credit they would get in touch with him if there was another Bond film made. Within the Bond films themselves, many different arrangements of the theme have been used reflecting the musical tastes of the specific times; the electric guitar version of the theme is most associated with the Sean Connery era although it was used in some Roger Moore films, in Timothy Dalton's final film Licence to Kill and in the Bond films starring Pierce Brosnan with scores composed by David Arnold. For every Bond movie which John Barry scored, he orchestrated a different version of the Bond theme, as can be heard during the gun barrel sequence; these specialised Bond themes reflected the style and locations featured in the movie, the actor playing Bond. The "James Bond Theme" and its variations found in the movies are played during many different types of scenes.
Early in the series, the theme provided background music to Connery's entrances. It was not until Goldfinger. Since the primary use of the "James Bond Theme" has been with action scenes; the first appearance of the "James Bond Theme" was in Dr. No. There it was used as part of main title sequence. In From Russia with Love, the "James Bond Theme" appears not only in the gunbarrel pre-title sequence, but as part of the main title theme and in the track "James Bond with Bongos", it is a slower, somewhat punchier rendition than the original orchestration. The original Barry arrangement from Dr. No is heard during a check of Bond's room for listening devices. In Goldfinger, the "James Bond Theme" can be heard on the soundtrack in "Bond Back in Action Again"; the "James Bond Theme" for this movie is influenced by the brassy, jazzy theme song sung by Shirley Bassey. Thunderball featured a full orchestral version of the theme in the track "Chateau Flight". Another full orchestral version was intended for the end titles of the film.
You Only Live Twice featured a funereal orchestration with Bond's "burial" at sea sequence in Hong Kong harbour. A full orchestral version of the theme was used in the Little Nellie autogyro fight scene; the George Lazenby film On Her Majesty's Secret Service used a unique high-pitched arrangement with the melody played on a Moog synthesizer. The cue
Worcester Park is a suburb in south west London, covering both the extreme north-west of the London Borough of Sutton in Greater London and the northernmost part of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey. The area is 10.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross. The suburb's population was 16,031 at the time of the 2001 census; the suburb comprises the Worcester Park ward, an electoral area of the London Borough of Sutton with a population in 2011 of 11,655, as well as the Cuddington ward, an electoral area of Epsom and Ewell, which had a population of 5,791 at the time of the 2001 census. The Worcester Park post town, coterminous with the KT4 postcode district, covers all of the suburb and extends into the south-eastern periphery of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, covering most of the areas of Old Malden and Malden Green. Beverley Brook runs through Worcester Park, alongside Green Lane and past Green Lane Primary School, traversing up to Cuddington Recreation Ground. Green Lane appears in the Domesday Book.
The Huntsmans Hall was situated on what was the far boundary of a hunting ground for Henry VIII. In 2011, around 78% of residents of Worcester Park ward were White, with 3.6% mixed race, 4.8% Asian or British Asian, 2.0% Black and 3.3% Chinese or of another ethnic group. Worcester Park takes its name from the 4th Earl of Worcester, appointed Keeper of the Great Park in 1606; the area was once part of the Great Park which covered around 1100 acres and was adjacent to the Little Park which contained Nonsuch Palace of Henry VIII. Both parks were used as deer parks. Henry VIII had obtained the land from Sir Richard de Codington. During the ownership by Sir Richard de Codington, there was a manor house on a site, replaced by Worcester House and is now the site of Worcester Close. There was a church of St. Mary on the same site where the church of St Mary the Virgin, now stands. In 1809 Worcester Park was acquired by William Taylor, he used a mill on the banks of the Hogsmill River to continue the manufacture of gunpowder, carried out on and off in the area for several centuries.
Manufacturing continued until the 1850s. In 1890 Worcester Park Baptist Church was formed in Longfellow Road, it moved to its present location on The Avenue in the 1950s. Cheam Common Infants and Junior schools are pre-World War II school buildings. Air raid shelters were found underground during an extension to the main building of the junior school; the school is located at the top of the high street. Blakesley School was a private primary school run by the Headmaster Eric Dudley, it closed in the summer of 1958. It occupied the land at grid reference TQ214654 bordered by the portion of Delta Road, not surfaced, Delta Close, Grafton Avenue, again not surfaced, heading towards the church, it occupied a substantial plot of land and was a "modern manor house" style building referred to on local maps as Worcester Court. The surrounding wall is said to go back to Henry VIII's reign. Belonging to T Parker & Sons, who were based at what is now a housing estate at grid reference TQ221662 beside Worcester Park Station, Parker's Field was a popular toboggan run until a housing estate was built on a large part of it in the 1970s.
The Scout HQ next door to Cuddington Primary School in Salisbury Road at grid reference TQ215650 was built in 1958 and named Rowe Hall in honour of a long serving scout mistress, "Miss Rowe", a teacher at Blakesley School. This headquarters was erected after the previous building was destroyed by arsonists and still serves the 2nd Cuddington Scout Group. In the 1950s, the ruins of a splendid ornamental lake with a multi-arched bridge and balustrade were still visible in the woodland at the foot of the hill in "Parker's Field"; the house itself was not visible, nor were there any ruins apart from the lake and some mounds of bricks to be found. The lake itself had drained into the Hogsmill River; the lake dried up in the late 1940s following the rechannelling of the river. Close to the bridge remnant to the south-west of the bridge was a ruined domed structure, all that remains of an ice house. However, it was filled with soil and other débris. Locals presumed the house to be named "Worcester Park House", have suggested that Blakesley School was the original house, while historical sources suggest "Worcester House".
However the map of 1871 shows a building labelled "Worcester Park House" to be alongside the lake, to the west of it, on land that was, in the 1950s, overgrown with trees. Documents from H M Land registry show that the name of the building for Blakesley School was Worcester Court. Worcester Park is the site of the enormous launch structure built to pioneer manned flight in the short story The Argonauts of the Air by H. G. Wells written in 1895. Central Road half a mile in length forms the focal point of Worcester Park, it hosts a number of shops, estate agents, building societies, restaurants and coffee bars. These include both independents; the largest store is a branch of Waitrose. Along with neighbouring North Cheam, Worcester Park is a beneficiary of the Mayor of London's "Outer London Fund". See section below. During 2011/12 Worcester Park and neighbouring North Cheam won nearly £2m from the
Sir George Henry Martin, was an English record producer, composer, audio engineer, musician. He was referred to as the "Fifth Beatle" in reference to his extensive involvement on each of the Beatles' original albums. Martin produced 30 number-one hit singles in the United Kingdom and 23 number-one hits in the United States. Martin produced comedy and novelty records in the early 1950s, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan, Bernard Cribbins, among others, his career spanned more than six decades of work in music, film and live performance. He held a number of senior executive roles at media companies and contributed to a wide range of charitable causes, including his work for The Prince's Trust and the Caribbean island of Montserrat. In recognition of his services to the music industry and popular culture, he was made a Knight Bachelor in 1996. Martin was born in London; when he was six, Martin's family acquired a piano. At eight years of age, Martin persuaded his parents and Betha Beatrice Martin, that he should take piano lessons, but those ended after only eight lessons because of a disagreement between his mother and the teacher.
As a child, he attended several schools, including a "convent school in Holloway", St Joseph's School, at St Ignatius' College, where he had won a scholarship. When WWII broke out, St. Ignatius College students were evacuated to Welwyn Garden City, his family left London, he was enrolled at Bromley Grammar School. I remember well the first time I heard a symphony orchestra. I was just in my teens when Sir Adrian Boult brought the BBC Symphony Orchestra to my school for a public concert, it was magical. Hearing such glorious sounds I found it difficult to connect them with ninety men and women blowing into brass and wooden instruments or scraping away at strings with horsehair bows. Despite Martin's continued interest in music, "fantasies about being the next Rachmaninov", he did not choose music as a career, he worked as a quantity surveyor, for the War Office as a Temporary Clerk, which meant filing paperwork and making tea. In 1943, when he was 17, he joined the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy and became an aerial observer and a commissioned officer.
The war ended before Martin was involved in any combat, he left the service in 1947. Encouraged by Sidney Harrison Martin used his veteran's grant to attend the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1947 to 1950, where he studied piano and oboe, was interested in the music of Rachmaninoff and Ravel, as well as Cole Porter. Martin's oboe teacher was Margaret Eliot. After that, Martin explained. On 3 January 1948 – while still at the Academy – Martin married Sheena Chisholm, with whom he would have two children and Gregory Paul Martin, he married Judy Lockhart-Smith on 24 June 1966, they had two children and Giles Martin. Following his graduation, he worked for the BBC's classical music department joined EMI in 1950 as an assistant to Oscar Preuss, the head of EMI's Parlophone Records from 1950 to 1955. Although having been regarded by EMI as a vital German imprint in the past, it was not taken and only used for EMI's insignificant acts. After taking over Parlophone, as head of artists and repertoire, when Preuss retired in 1955, Martin recorded classical and Baroque music, original cast recordings, regional music from around Britain and Ireland.
Martin produced numerous comedy and novelty records. His first hit for Parlophone was the "Mock Mozart" single by Peter Ustinov with Antony Hopkins – a record reluctantly released in 1952 by EMI, only after Preuss insisted they give his young assistant, Martin, a chance; that decade Martin worked with Peter Sellers on two popular comedy LPs. One was released on 10 format and called The Best Of Sellers, the second was released in 1957, being called Songs for Swinging Sellers; as he had worked with Sellers, he came to know Spike Milligan, with whom he became a firm friend, best man at Milligan's second marriage: "I loved The Goon Show, issued an album of it on my label Parlophone, how I got to know Spike." The album was Bridge on the River Wye. It was a spoof of the film The Bridge on the River Kwai, being based on the 1957 Goon Show episode "An African Incident." It was intended to have the same name as the film, but shortly before its release, the film company threatened legal action if the name was used.
Martin edited out the'K' every time the word Kwai was spoken, with Bridge on the River Wye being the result. The River Wye is a river that runs through Wales; the album featured Milligan, Jonathan Miller, Peter Cook, playing various characters. Other comedians Martin worked with included Bernard Cribbins, Charlie Drake, Terry Scott, Bruce Forsyth, Michael Bentine, Dudley Moore and Swann, Lance Percival, Joan Sims, Bill Oddie, The Alberts. Martin worked with whom he had a number of hits. In early 1962, under the pseudonym "Ray Cathode," Martin released an early electronic dance single, "Time Beat" – recorded at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop; as Martin wanted to add rock and roll to Parlophone's repertoire, he struggled to find a "fireproof" hit-making pop artist or group. As a producer, Martin recorded the two-man show featuring Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, At the Drop of a Hat, which sold for