Archbasilica of St. John Lateran
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, – known as the Papal Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, St. John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica – is the cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome in the city of Rome and serves as the seat of the Roman Pontiff, it is the oldest and highest ranking of the four papal major basilicas, giving it the unique title of "archbasilica". Because it is the oldest public church in the city of Rome, it is the oldest and most important basilica of the Western world, houses the cathedra of the Roman bishop, it has the title of ecumenical mother church of the Catholic faithful; the current archpriest is Angelo De Donatis, Vicar General for the Diocese of Rome. The President of the French Republic Emmanuel Macron, is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon" of the archbasilica, a title that the heads of state of France have possessed since King Henry IV; the large Latin inscription on the façade reads: Clemens XII Pont Max Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang.
This abbreviated inscription translates to: "Pope Clement XII, in the fifth year to Christ the Savior, in honor of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist". The inscription indicates, with its full title, that the archbasilica was dedicated to Christ the Savior and, centuries co-dedicated to St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist; as the Cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, it ranks superior to all other churches of the Roman Catholic Church, including St. Peter's Basilica; the archbasilica is sited in the City of Rome. It is outside Vatican City, 4 kilometres to its northwest, although the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices have extraterritorial status from Italy as one of the properties of the Holy See, pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929; the archbasilica's Latin name is Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris ac Sancti Ioannis Baptistae et Ioannis Evangelistae ad Lateranum, which in English is the Archbasilica of the Most Holy Savior and Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist at the Lateran, in Italian Arcibasilica del Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano.
The archbasilica stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the "New Fort of the Roman imperial cavalry bodyguards". The fort was established by Septimius Severus in AD 193. Following the victory of Emperor Constantine I over Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, the guard was abolished and the fort demolished. Substantial remains of the fort lie directly beneath the nave; the remainder of the site was occupied during the early Roman Empire by the palace of the gens Laterani. Sextius Lateranus was the first plebeian to attain the rank of consul, the Laterani served as administrators for several emperors. One of the Laterani, Consul-designate Plautius Lateranus, became famous for being accused by Nero of conspiracy against the Emperor; the accusation resulted in the redistribution of his properties. The Lateran Palace fell into the hands of the Emperor when Constantine I married his second wife Fausta, sister of Maxentius. Known by that time as the "Domus Faustae" or "House of Fausta," the Lateran Palace was given to the Bishop of Rome by Constantine I.
The actual date of the donation is unknown, but scholars speculate that it was during the pontificate of Pope Miltiades, in time to host a synod of bishops in 313, convened to challenge the Donatist schism, declaring Donatism to be heresy. The palace basilica was converted and extended, becoming the residence of Pope St. Silvester I becoming the Cathedral of Rome, the seat of the Popes as the Bishops of Rome. Pope Sylvester I presided over the official dedication of the archbasilica and the adjacent Lateran Palace in 324, changing the name from "Domus Fausta" to "Domus Dei" with a dedication to Christ the Savior; when a cathedra became a symbol of episcopal authority, the papal cathedra was placed in its interior, rendering it the cathedral of the Pope as Bishop of Rome. When Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian mission to England under Augustine of Canterbury, some original churches in Canterbury took the Roman plan as a model, dedicating a church both to Christ as well as one to St. Paul, outside the walls of the city.
The church name "Christ Church" so common for churches around the world today in Anglophone Anglican contexts came from this Roman church, central to pre-medieval Christian identity. On the archbasilica's front wall between the main portals is a plaque inscribed with the words "Sacrosancta Lateranensis ecclesia omnium urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput", which translate to "Most Holy Lateran Church and head of all the churches in the city and the world"; the archbasilica and Lateran Palace were re-dedicated twice. Pope Sergius III dedicated them to St. John the Baptist in the 10th century in honor of the newly consecrated baptistry of the archbasilica. Pope Lucius II dedicated them to John the Evangelist in the 12th century. Thus, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist became co-patrons of the archbasilica, while the primary Patron is still Christ the Savior, as the inscription in the entrance indicates and as is traditional for patriarchal cathedrals; the archbasilica remains dedicated to the Savior, its titular feast is the Feast of
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
A major basilica is one of the four highest-ranking Roman Catholic church buildings, all of which are papal basilicas: the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, St. Peter's Basilica, the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. All of them are located within the diocese of Rome: St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City and thus within the territory and sovereign jurisdiction of the Holy See; the other three are geographically located in Italian territory, but enjoy extraterritorial status under the Lateran Treaty. The Archbasilica of St. John in the Lateran is the seat of the Pope and the site of the Papal Cathedra, is the oldest and first in rank of the major basilicas. All other churches that have the title of basilica are minor basilicas; the title of "major basilica" was introduced in 1300 by Pope Boniface VIII. With the promulgation of the bull Antiquorum fida relatio, he instituted the Holy Year and set the conditions for its indulgences. Boniface VIII renewed certain "great remissions and indulgences for sins" which were to be obtained "by visiting the city of Rome and the venerable basilica of the Prince of the Apostles".
He offered "not only full and copious, but the most full, pardon of all their sins" to those who fulfilled certain conditions: First, as penitent, they had to confess their sins, second, they had to visit on pilgrimage the basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul, the respective burial sites of the apostles Pope St. Peter and St. Paul. In the second jubilee year in 1350, Pope Clement VI designated as a third major basilica St. John in the Lateran, the Cathedral of Rome, he encouraged the faithful to make daily visits to St. John in the Lateran, besides those to the basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul. For the next jubilee year in 1390, the Basilica of St. Mary Major, the oldest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was added to the list. Visiting these four churches has remained one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee indulgence. Pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929 between the Vatican City State and Italy, the three major basilicas located in Rome, but not within the territory of the Vatican City itself, are within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State.
However, the Holy See owns these three Major Basilicas not within the territory of the Vatican City, Italy is obligated to recognize its full ownership thereof and to concede to these three properties "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States". Thus, while of the major basilicas, the Basilica of St. Peter's alone is within the territory and sovereign jurisdiction of the Vatican City, the other three major basilicas enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies while being within Italian territory. All four of the major basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City State; these properties, located across Rome, are deemed to be essential institutions necessary to the character and mission of the Holy See for which extraterritoriality is justified. The four major basilicas, together with the Minor Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls, all of which are in Rome, were known as "patriarchal basilicas", along with a few other churches outside of Rome.
Upon relinquishing the title of "Patriarch of the West" in 2006, Pope Benedict XVI renamed the "patriarchal basilicas" as "Papal basilicas". The five styled "patriarchal basilicas" of Rome, were assigned to and associated with the five ancient patriarchates of the Latin Church, or the Pentarchy: St. John Lateran was associated with Rome, St. Peter's with Constantinople, St. Paul's with Alexandria, St. Mary Major with Antioch, St. Lawrence with Jerusalem; as indicated, the title of "patriarchal basilica", now replaced with "Papal basilica", was officially given to two churches associated with St. Francis of Assisi and situated in or near his home town of Assisi, Italy: Papal Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi Papal Basilica of St. Mary of the AngelsThus there are four papal major basilicas and three papal minor basilicas. In addition, there is a multitude of minor basilicas throughout the world which have not been granted the official appellation "Papal" as the aforementioned three have. To this class belong the four great ancient churches of Rome: Archbasilica of St. John Lateran called the Lateran Archbasilica, is the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope.
It is the only one called an "archbasilica". Its full official name is "Papal Archbasilica of the Most Holy Saviour and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist at the Lateran, Cathedral of Rome". St. Peter's Basilica called the Vatican Basilica, is a major pilgrimage site, traditionally said to be built over the burial place of Saint Peter; the largest church in the world, it is used for most of the chief religious ceremonies in which the Pope participates. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican". Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls known as the Ostian Basilica because it is situated on the road that led to Ostia, is built over the burial place of Paul the Apostle, its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls". Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore called the Liberian Basilica because the original building was attributed to Pope Liberius, is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, hence its
Outline of Vatican City
The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Vatican City: Vatican City – an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, being the sovereign territory of the Holy See and ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The territory of this landlocked sovereign city-state consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy, it has an area of 44 hectares, a population of just over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent state in the world by both population. Pronunciation: Common English country name: Vatican City Official English country name: Vatican City State Common endonym: Vatican City State Official endonym: Stato della Città del Vaticano, Adjectival: Vatican Demonym: Citizen of Vatican City Etymology: See Vatican Hill ISO country codes: VA, VAT, 336 ISO region codes: none Internet country code top-level domain:.va Geography of Vatican City Vatican City is: A walled enclave within the city of Rome A sovereign city-state A European microstate Land boundaries: Italy 3.2 km Coastline: none Population: 824 - 220th Size: 0.44 square kilometres - 234th largest country Atlas of Vatican City Vatican City is situated within the following regions: Eastern Hemisphere Northern Hemisphere Eurasia Europe Southern Europe Italian Peninsula Surrounded by Italy Surrounded by Lazio Surrounded by Rome Time zone: Central European Time, Central European Summer Time Extreme points of Vatican City High: unnamed location 75 m Low: Saint Peter's Square 33 m Climate of Vatican City Ecoregions in Vatican City: none Protected areas of Vatican City: none Vatican City is an enclave in an urban area, lacks the geographic features common to countries: Lakes: none Mountains: none Rivers: none Valleys: none World Heritage Sites in Vatican City: Vatican City is itself a World Heritage Site None Vatican City is inside Rome, which in turn lies within the Lazio region of Italy Vatican City lies next to the Borgo district in Rome.
None Vatican City has no administrative divisions. Demographics of Vatican City Politics of Vatican City Form of government: Ecclesiastical. Capital: Vatican City Association of Vatican Lay Workers Elections in Vatican City Political parties in Vatican City: none. Vatican City is in the jurisdiction of the Holy See. Political scandals of Vatican City Banco Ambrosiano Gone with the Wind in the Vatican Roman Question Vatican Secret Archives Government of Vatican City Head of state: Pope Mario Bergoglio as Pope Francis Head of government: President of the Governatorate of Vatican City, Giuseppe Bertello Governatorate of Vatican City Absolute legislative authority: Pope Pope Francis Secretariat of State Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State: Giovanni Lajolo Laws passed by the Commission must be approved by the pope through the Secretariat of State prior to being published and taking effect. Absolute judicial authority: Pope Pope Francis Supreme Court of Vatican City The Cardinal Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura serves ex officio as the President of the Supreme Court of Vatican City.
The two other members of the Supreme Court are Cardinals of the Apostolic Signatura and are chosen by the Cardinal Prefect on a yearly basis. Appellate Court of Vatican City Tribunal of Vatican City State Under the terms of article 22 the Lateran Treaty, Italy will, at the request of the Holy See, punish individuals for crimes committed within Vatican City and will itself proceed against the person who committed the offence, if that person takes refuge in Italian territory. Persons accused of crimes recognized as such both in Italy and in Vatican City that are committed in Italian territory will be handed over to the Italian authorities if they take refuge in Vatican City or in buildings that under the treaty enjoy immunity. Foreign relations of Vatican City – Vatican City State is a recognised national territory under international law, but it is the Holy See that conducts diplomatic relations on its behalf, in addition to the Holy See's own diplomacy, entering into international agreements in its regard.
See Foreign relations of the Holy See Diplomatic missions in Vatican City: none. Because Vatican City is too small, diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See are situated in Rome, not in Vatican City. Diplomatic missions to the Holy See Diplomatic missions of Vatican City: none.. The Holy See, which Vatican City is the sovereign territory of, maintains diplomatic relations with 176 countries. Diplomatic missions of the Holy See International organization membership of Vatican City Vatican City State is a member of: Law of Vatican City State Constitution: Fundamental Law of Vatican City State Capital punishment in Vatican City: abolished in 1969 Crime in Vatican City Human rights in Vatican City LGBT rights in Vatican City Lateran Treaty Law enforcement in Vatican City Vatican City State has no military, but resident within it is the Swiss Guard. Military in Vatican City Command Commander-in-chief: Christoph Graf Forces — Vatican City lies within Rome, the capital of Italy, therefore defense is the responsibility of Italy.
Army of Vatican City: none, see Military in Vatican City.
John the Apostle
John the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης. Listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome or Joanna, his brother was James, another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes; the traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament. John the Apostle was the younger brother of James, son of Zebedee. According to Church tradition, their mother was Salome, he was first a disciple of John the Baptist. John is traditionally believed to be one of two disciples, as recounted in John 1: 35-39, hearing the Baptist point out Jesus as the "Lamb of God", followed Jesus and spent the day with him. Zebedee and his sons fished in the Sea of Galilee.
Jesus called Peter and these two sons of Zebedee to follow him. James and John are listed among the Twelve Apostles. Jesus referred to the pair as "Boanerges". A gospel story relates how the brothers wanted to call down heavenly fire on an unhospitable Samaritan town, but Jesus rebuked them. John lived for more than half a century following the martyrdom of James, the first Apostle to die a martyr's death. Peter and John were the only witnesses of the raising of Daughter of Jairus. All three witnessed the Transfiguration, these same three witnessed the Agony in Gethsemane more than the other Apostles did. John was the disciple who reported to Jesus that they had'forbidden' a non-disciple from casting out demons in Jesus' name, prompting Jesus to state that'he, not against us is on our side'. Jesus sent only Peter into the city to make the preparation for the final Passover meal. At the meal itself, the "disciple whom Jesus loved" sat next to Jesus, it was customary to lie along upon couches at meals, this disciple leaned on Jesus.
Tradition identifies this disciple as Saint John. After the arrest of Jesus and the "other disciple", John followed him into the palace of the high-priest. John alone among the Apostles remained near Jesus at the foot of the cross on Calvary alongside myrrhbearers and numerous other women. After Jesus' Ascension and the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, together with Peter, took a prominent part in the founding and guidance of the church, he was with Peter at the healing of the lame man at Solomon's Porch in the Temple and he was thrown into prison with Peter. He went with Peter to visit the newly converted believers in Samaria. While he remained in Judea and the surrounding area, the other disciples returned to Jerusalem for the Apostolic Council. Paul, in opposing his enemies in Galatia, recalls that John explicitly, along with Peter and James the Just, were referred to as "pillars of the church" and refers to the recognition that his Apostolic preaching of a gospel free from Jewish Law received from these three, the most prominent men of the messianic community at Jerusalem.
The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or, in John 20:2, the Beloved Disciple is used five times in the Gospel of John, but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus. John 21:24 claims; the disciple whom Jesus loved is referred to six times in John's gospel: It is this disciple who, while reclining beside Jesus at the Last Supper, asks Jesus, after being requested by Peter to do so, who it is that will betray him. At the crucifixion, Jesus tells his mother, "Woman, here is your son", to the Beloved Disciple he says, "Here is your mother." When Mary Magdalene discovers the empty tomb, she runs to tell the Beloved Peter. The two men rush to the empty tomb and the Beloved Disciple is the first to reach the empty tomb. However, Peter is the first to enter. In John 21, the last chapter of the Gospel of John, the Beloved Disciple is one of seven fishermen involved in the miraculous catch of 153 fish. In the book's final chapter, after Jesus hints to Peter how Peter will die, Peter sees the Beloved Disciple following them and asks, "What about him?"
Jesus answers, "If I want him to remain until I come, what is that to you? You follow Me!" Again in the gospel's last chapter, it states that the book itself is based on the written testimony of the disciple whom Jesus loved. None of the other Gospels has anyone in the parallel scenes that could be directly understood as the Beloved Disciple. For example, in Luke 24:12, Peter alone runs to the tomb. Mark and Luke do not mention any one of the twelve disciples having witnessed the crucifixion. There are two references to an unnamed "other disciple" in John 1:35-40 and John 18:15-16, which may be to the same person based on the wording in John 20:2. Church tradition has held that John is the author of the Gospel of John and four other books of the New Testament — the three Epistles of J
The Roman Missal is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Before the high Middle Ages, several books were used at Mass: a Sacramentary with the prayers, one or more books for the Scriptural readings, one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, leading to versions that were complete in themselves; such a book was referred to as a Missale Plenum. In 1223 Saint Francis of Assisi instructed his friars to adopt the form, in use at the Papal Court, they adapted this missal further to the needs of their itinerant apostolate. Pope Gregory IX considered, but did not put into effect, the idea of extending this missal, as revised by the Franciscans, to the whole Western Church, its use spread throughout Europe after the invention of the printing press. Printing favoured the spread of other liturgical texts of less certain orthodoxy.
The Council of Trent recognized. The first printed Missale Romanum, containing the Ordo Missalis secundum consuetudinem Curiae Romanae, was produced in Milan in 1474. A whole century passed before the appearance of an edition published by order of the Holy See. During that interval, the 1474 Milanese edition was followed by at least 14 other editions: 10 printed in Venice, 3 in Paris, 1 in Lyon. For lack of a controlling authority, these editions differ, sometimes seriously. Annotations in the hand of Cardinal Gugliemo Sirleto in a copy of the 1494 Venetian edition show that it was used for drawing up the 1570 official edition of Pope Pius V. In substance, this 1494 text is identical with that of the 1474 Milanese edition. Implementing the decision of the Council of Trent, Pope Pius V promulgated, in the Apostolic Constitution Quo primum of 14 July 1570, an edition of the Roman Missal, to be in obligatory use throughout the Latin Church except where there was a traditional liturgical rite that could be proved to be of at least two centuries’ antiquity.
Some corrections to Pope Pius V's text proved necessary, Pope Clement VIII replaced it with a new typical edition of the Roman Missal on 7 July 1604. A further revised typical edition was promulgated by Pope Urban VIII on 2 September 1634. Beginning in the late seventeenth century and neighbouring areas saw a flurry of independent missals published by bishops influenced by Jansenism and Gallicanism; this ended when Bishop Pierre-Louis Parisis of Langres and Abbot Guéranger initiated in the nineteenth century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal. Pope Leo XIII took the opportunity to issue in 1884 a new typical edition that took account of all the changes introduced since the time of Pope Urban VIII. Pope Pius X undertook a revision of the Roman Missal, published and declared typical by his successor Pope Benedict XV on 25 July 1920. Though Pope Pius X's revision made few corrections and additions to the text of the prayers in the Roman Missal, there were major changes in the rubrics, changes which were not incorporated in the section entitled "Rubricae generales", but were instead printed as an additional section under the heading "Additiones et variationes in rubricis Missalis."
In contrast, the revision by Pope Pius XII, though limited to the liturgy of only five days of the Church's year, was much bolder, requiring changes to canon law, which until had prescribed that, with the exception of Midnight Mass for Christmas, Mass should not begin more than one hour before dawn or than one hour after midday. In the part of the Missal thus revised, he anticipated some of the changes affecting all days of the year after the Second Vatican Council; these novelties included the first official introduction of the vernacular language into the liturgy for renewal of baptismal promises within the Easter Vigil celebration. Pope Pius XII issued no new typical edition of the Roman Missal, but authorized printers to replace the earlier texts for Palm Sunday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, the Easter Vigil with those that he began to introduce in 1951 and that he made universally obligatory in 1955; the Pope removed from the Vigil of Pentecost the series of six Old Testament readings, with their accompanying Tracts and Collects, but these continued to be printed until 1962.
Acceding to the wishes of many of the bishops, Pope Pius XII judged it expedient to reduce the rubrics of the missal to a simpler form, a simplification enacted by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of 23 March 1955. The changes this made in the General Roman Calendar are indicated in General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII. In the following year, 1956, while preparatory studies were being conducted for a general liturgical reform, Pope Pius XII surveyed the opinions of the bishops on the liturgical improvement of the Roman breviary. After duly weighing the answers of the bishops, he judged that it was time to attack the problem of a general and systematic revision of the rubrics of the breviary and missal; this question he referred to the special committee of experts appointed to study the general liturgical reform. His successor, Pope John XXIII, issued a new typical edition of the Roman Missal in 1962; this incorporated th
The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the pope, in Vatican City. Known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both functionary papal activity. Today, it is the site of the process by which a new pope is selected; the fame of the Sistine Chapel lies in the frescos that decorate the interior, most the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo. During the reign of Sixtus IV, a team of Renaissance painters that included Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli, created a series of frescos depicting the Life of Moses and the Life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe-l'œil drapery below; these paintings were completed in 1482, on 15 August 1483 Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Between 1508 and 1512, under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted the chapel's ceiling, a project which changed the course of Western art and is regarded as one of the major artistic accomplishments of human civilization. In a different climate, after the Sack of Rome, he returned and, between 1535 and 1541, painted The Last Judgment for Popes Clement VII and Paul III; the fame of Michelangelo's paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel since they were revealed five hundred years ago. While known as the location of Papal conclaves, the primary function of the Sistine Chapel is as the chapel of the Papal Chapel, one of the two bodies of the Papal household, called until 1968 the Papal Court. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, the Papal Chapel comprised about 200 people, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity. There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet.
Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, in general St. Peter's, were attended by large congregations; these included the Christmas Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Cappella Maggiore was used before it was rebuilt on the same site as the Sistine Chapel; the Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV, this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico; the Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel, the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning; the present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1481.
The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the High Renaissance, including Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Michelangelo; the first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on 15 August 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir, the Sistine Chapel Choir, for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Gregorio Allegri's Miserere. One of the functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, from which smoke arises as a signal.
If white smoke,which is created by burning the ballots of the election, appears, a new Pope has been elected. If a candidate receives less than a two-thirds vote, the cardinals send up black smoke—created by burning the ballots along with wet straw and chemical additives—it means that no successful election has yet occurred; the first papal conclave to be held on the Sistine Chapel was the conclave of 1492, which took place from August 6 from August 11 of the same year and in which Pope Alexander VI known as Rodrigo Borja, was elected. The conclave provided for the cardinals a space in which they could hear mass, in which they could eat and pass time attended by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican. Since 1996, John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis requires the cardinals to be lodged in the Domus Sanctae Marthae during a papal conclave, but to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel. Canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity.
After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name. Until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Paul