A vice-county is a geographical division of the British Isles used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering. It is sometimes called a Watsonian vice-county as vice-counties were introduced for Great Britain, its offshore islands, the Isle of Man, by Hewett Cottrell Watson who first used them in the third volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852. Watson's vice-counties were based on the ancient counties of Britain, but subdividing these boundaries to create smaller, more uniform units, considering exclaves to be part of the vice-county in which they locally lie. In 1901 Robert Lloyd Praeger introduced a similar system for its off-shore islands. Vice-counties are the "standard geographical area for county based recording", they provide a stable basis for recording using sized units, although National Grid-based reporting has grown in popularity, vice-counties remain a useful mapping boundary, employed in many regional surveys county floras and national lists.
This allows data collected over long periods of time to be compared easily. The vice-counties remain unchanged by subsequent local government reorganisations, allowing historical and modern data to be more compared. In 2002, to mark the 150th anniversary of the introduction of the Watsonian vice-county system, the NBN Trust commissioned the digitisation of the 112 vice-county boundaries for England and Wales, based on 420 original one-inch to the mile maps annotated by Dandy in 1947, held at the Natural History Museum, London; the resulting datafiles were much more detailed than anything available to recorders up to that point, were made available. Intended for use with modern GIS and biological recording software, a final'standard' version was released in 2008. Up until that point, county recorders only had general access to a set of two fold-out vice-county maps covering the entirety of Great Britain, published in 1969; the vice-county system was first introduced by Hewett Cottrell Watson in the third volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852.
He refined the system in volumes. The geographical area that Watson called "Britain" consisted of the island of Great Britain with all of its offshore islands, plus the Isle of Man, but excluding the Channel Islands; this area was divided into 112 vice-counties with larger counties divided. Each of these 112 vice-counties has a number, thus Vice-county 38 abbreviated to "VC38", is called "Warwickshire". In 1901, Robert Lloyd Praeger extended the system of vice-counties to Ireland and its off-shore islands, based on an earlier suggestion by C. C. Babington in 1859; the Irish vice-counties were based on the historic 32 counties of Ireland, with the six largest being sub-divided. This produced a total of 40 vice-counties for Ireland, which were numbered from H1 to H40; as with the 112 vice-counties of Britain, each vice-county has a name as well as a number. Thus Vice-county H3 is "West Cork". Combining these two systems produces a 152 vice-county system; the exclusion of the Channel Islands from Watson's system for Britain has led to variations between different recording schemes.
The geographical area covered by the 152 vice-counties may be described as the "British Isles", as in the 2008 Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles. Other recording schemes regard the "British Isles" as including the Channel Islands; as they are not part of the 152 vice-county system, the Channel Islands may be added as an extra vice-county, making 153 in total, being indicated by letter codes such as "C" or "CI". Less each of the five separate islands may be treated as a vice-county, giving 157 vice-counties in total. Alternative counts of vice-counties used in different recording schemes are shown in the table below; the vice-counties of Britain alone may be described as "Watsonian vice-counties", or this term may be used for the combined vice-counties of Britain and Ireland, which may be described as "Watson-Praeger vice-counties". In all cases, the Channel Islands may be excluded, or included, so that the count of vice-counties varies, as noted in the table above. Subdivisions of England Subdivisions of Scotland Subdivisions of Wales Subdivisions of Northern Ireland Counties of Ireland Vice-county map from the British Bryological Society OS grid reference to vice-county conversion utility Digital download page for Watsonian Vice-County Boundaries NBN Metadata on Watsonian Vice-county digitisation BSBI Vice-County Census Catalogue
American Christian Press serves as the publishing arm of The Way International Biblical research and fellowship ministry, operating out of New Knoxville, Ohio. The Way Magazine, published bi-monthly. Editor: Keith W. Jackson. Power for Abundant Living. ISBN 0-910068-01-1 Christians Should Be Prosperous. ISBN 0-910068-65-8 Receiving the Holy Spirit Today. ISBN 0-910068-49-6 Jesus Christ is Not God. ISBN 0-910068-33-X Jesus Christ Our Passover. ISBN 0-910068-30-5 Jesus Christ Our Promised Seed. ISBN 0-910068-42-9 Are the Dead Alive Now?. ISBN 0-910068-40-2 Studies in Abundant Living Series Vol I - The Bible Tells Me So. ISBN 0-910068-10-0 Studies in Abundant Living Series Vol II - The New Dynamic Church. ISBN 0-910068-11-9 Studies in Abundant Living Series Vol III - The Words Way. ISBN 0-910068-12-7 Studies in Abundant Living Series Vol IV - God's Magnified Word. ISBN 0-910068-13-5 Studies in Abundant Living Series Vol V - Order My Steps in Thy Word. ISBN 0-910068-59-3 Teaching God's Word to Children. ISBN 0-910068-71-2 The Rise and Expansion of the Christian Church in the First Century.
ISBN 0-910068-78-X The Way: Living in Love by Elena S. Whiteside ISBN 0-910068-04-6 Uncle Harry An Autobiography by Karen Martin Wierwille. ISBN 0-910068-15-1 Will The Real You Please Stand Up by John A. Lynn. ISBN 0-910068-28-3 Will The Real You Please Remain Standing by John A. Lynn. ISBN 0-910068-38-0 The Living Word Speaks Studies in Biblical Research and Fellowship by Walter J. Cummins ISBN 0-910068-39-9 Living in the Eye of the Storm by John A. Lynn. ISBN 0-910068-50-X God's Word in Culture by Elena S. Whiteside. ISBN 0-910068-51-8 Outreach Strategies of Jesus Christ. ISBN 1-933283-01-7 Studies in Biblical Accuracy Vol I - Demonstrating God's Power by Walter J. Cummins. ISBN 0-910068-60-7 Life Lines Quotations of Victor Paul Wierwille. ISBN 0-910068-64-X Born Again to Serve by Dorothea Kipp Wierwille. ISBN 0-910068-79-8 The Way International: Where God's Word Prevails. ISBN 0-910068-80-1 Sing Along The Way. ISBN 1-933283-00-9 Just The Way. ISBN 0-910068-89-5 What God's Word Says about Angels.
ISBN 0-910068-96-8 On the Trail of Customs of the Bible by Bernita Jess. ISBN 1-933283-04-1 The Aramaic New Testament ISBN 0-910068-47-X The Concordance to the Peshitta Version of the Aramaic New Testament ISBN 0-910068-61-5 The English Dictionary Supplement to the Concordance to the Peshitta Version of the Aramaic New Testament ISBN 0-910068-67-4 Aramaic-English Interlinear New Testament Volume 1 ISBN 0-910068-73-9 Volume 2 ISBN 0-910068-74-7 Volume 3 ISBN 0-910068-75-5 Orientalisms of the Bible. ISBN 0-910068-70-4 Light Through an Eastern Window. ISBN 0-910068-63-1. ISBN 0-910068-48-8 Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament by William Jennings. ISBN 0-910068-69-0 Studies in Abundant Living, Vols I - V are each a compilation of published pamphlets, Way Magazine articles or transcriptions of teachings; some chapters are repeated, sometimes in expanded form in other books. At times these books, as well as Power for Abundant Living, Receiving the Holy Spirit Today and Christians Should Be Prosperous were included as part of the package with The Way's foundational class.
European Christian Press was the publishing arm of The Way in Great Britain Ltd., at one time associated with The Way International. They published several books of collected teachings of Way founder VP Wierwille, edited by Christopher Geer. Living Victoriously. ISBN 1-870676-00-9 Take God At His Word. ISBN 1-870676-05-X We are His - He is Ours: The Honesty of Leadership. ISBN 1-870676-25-4 Our Times ISBN 1-870676-30-0 Turn Your Eyes Upon Jesus. ISBN 1-870676-35-1 Take A Stand For God. ISBN 1-870676-40-8
El Vallès is a historical county in Catalonia, located in the center of the Catalan Pre-coastal range. It is nowadays represented by two separate administrative divisions which are part of the Barcelona Province: the Western Vallès, which has two capitals and Terrassa; the present division of Vallès has its historical roots in the legal districts of Granollers and Sabadell - Terrassa, established in 1834. However, the first time this subdivision was explicitly used as sanctioned by law was in 1936, with the official division of Catalonia in comarques. In 2015, four of the municipalities in Eastern Vallès became part of a newly created comarca: the Moianès; some parts of the Vallès region belong to the metropolitan area of Barcelona and the Àmbit Metropolità de Barcelona, is nowadays connected with Barcelona with public transportations systems such as FGC's so-called Metro del Vallès. Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Àmbit Metropolità de Barcelona ASCAMM, a technology centre at the Vallès Technology Park Consell Comarcal del Vallès Occidental Consell Commarcal del Vallès Oriental