Lieutenant commander is a commissioned officer rank in many navies. The rank is superior to a lieutenant and subordinate to a commander, the corresponding rank in most armies and air forces is major, and in the Royal Air Force and other Commonwealth air forces is squadron leader. The NATO rank code is mostly OF-3, a lieutenant commander is a senior department officer or the executive officer on many warships and smaller shore installation, or the commanding officer of a smaller ship/installation. They are senior department officers in naval aviation squadrons, most Commonwealth and other navies address lieutenant commanders by their full rank or the positions they occupy. The United States Navy, addresses officers by their rank or the higher grade of the rank. For example, oral communications in formal and informal situations, a Lieutenant is abbreviated as Lieutenant, Lieutenants were commonly put in command of smaller vessels not warranting a commander or captain. Such a lieutenant was called a lieutenant commanding or lieutenant commandant in the United States Navy, the USN settled on lieutenant commander in 1862 and made it a distinct rank.
The RN followed suit in March 1914, the insignia worn by a Royal Navy lieutenant commander is two medium gold braid stripes with one thin gold stripe running in between, placed upon a navy blue/black background. The top stripe has the ubiquitous loop used in all RN officer rank insignia, the RAF follows this pattern with its equivalent rank of squadron leader. This distinction was abolished when the rank of lieutenant commander was introduced, throughout much of its existence, the British Royal Observer Corps maintained a rank of observer lieutenant commander. The ROC wore a Royal Air Force uniform and their rank insignia appeared similar to that of an RAF squadron leader except that the stripes were shown entirely in black, prior to the renaming, the rank had been known as observer lieutenant. In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank is the naval rank equal to Major in the army or air force and is the first senior officer rank, Lieutenant Commanders are senior to Lieutenants and to army and air force Captains, and are junior to Commanders and Lieutenant Colonels.
There are two insignia used by USN and USCG Lieutenant Commanders, in all dress uniforms, they wear sleeve braid or shoulder boards bearing a single gold quarter-inch stripe between two gold half-inch strips. Above or inboard of the stripes, they wear their speciality insignia and this rank is used on in Pakistan Navy. The rank of lieutenant commander is used in the Irish Naval Service. The majority of commanders in the Irish Naval Service hold the rank of lieutenant commander, with a commander being a senior. The corresponding rank in the German Navy, Italian Navy, Argentine Navy, Brazilian Navy, French Navy, Spanish Navy and most other French and Spanish-speaking countries is corvette captain. The insignia of kapteeniluutnantti, the rank immediately below the former, is one thin stripe between two wider ones, which could cause confusion among the naval personnel of other nations
Marshal of the air force
Marshal of the air force is the English term for the most senior rank in a number of air forces. The ranks described by this term can properly be considered marshal ranks, no air force in an English-speaking country formally uses the exact title marshal of the air force, although it is sometimes used as a shortened form of the full title. In several Commonwealth air forces and many Middle Eastern air forces the most senior rank is named marshal of the and Italy have used rank titles which literally translate as marshal of the air, whereas Portugals rank translates as marshal of the air force. Nazi Germanys Luftwaffe used the rank of Generalfeldmarschall The premier rank of Reichsmarschall was held solely by Hermann Göring, the first instance of this rank was marshal of the Royal Air Force, which was established on paper in 1919 and was first held by Lord Trenchard. Other Commonwealth countries adopted their own versions of the rank but, unlike the United Kingdom. Marshals of the air force can be properly considered marshals and such ranks are equivalent to the rank of field marshal.
Marshal of the air force is a rank and in NATO countries it is described by the ranking code of OF-10. As such a rank, it is very seldom held. It is awarded either in a capacity to heads of state or members of royal families. In the air forces of Australia, India and the United Kingdom, the rank of marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force was never granted. During Germanys Nazi period, the Luftwaffe, in common with the Heer, used the rank of generalfeldmarschall, the German ranks of reichsmarschall and generalfeldmarschall ceased to exist with the fall of the Third Reich. There are a variety of insignia in use by the different air forces which maintain a rank of marshal of the air force. Others use a pattern of stars, typically numbering five in total. The following command or rank flags are or have been in use, As of 2016, there are 16 living individuals who hold or have held the rank, or its equivalents, of Marshal of the Air Force. In the case of Malaysia, the elected Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed a Marshal of the Air Force for his tenure as head of state and he can, however, be re-appointed to the rank if he serves another term.
In 2012, his son, the Prince of Wales, was appointed to the British rank, of those, only Lord Craig did not retire then, as he went on to serve as Chief of the Defence Staff as a Marshal of the RAF. Air Chief Marshal Arjan Singh, DFC, served as the first four-star Chief of the Air Staff of the Indian Air Force from 1964 to 1969, when he retired. He was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Indian Air Force in 2002
Lieutenant (junior grade)
The rank is used in the United States Maritime Service. The NOAA Corpss predecessors, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, promotion to LTJG is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest all fully qualified ensigns should be promoted to LTJG, the time for promotion to LTJG is a minimum of two years after commissioning in the Navy or 18 months in the Coast Guard. Lieutenants, junior grade typically lead petty officers and non-rated personnel, a LTJGs usual shipboard billet is as a division officer. Lieutenant, junior grade is referred to colloquially as JG. Prior to March 3,1883, this rank was known in the Navy as Master, solid Snake was disguised as this U. S. Navy SEAL. S
For more information on commandant when used as a position, see Commandant. Commandant is a military or police rank, in the French, Spanish and Monegasque armed forces it is a rank equivalent to major. In South Africa for most of the half of the 20th century. In the Canadian Forces, “commandant” is the French-language title for a major of any unit, however, in English, “commandant” is used exclusively to identify those commanding officers responsible for units that provide a service or oversight to some lodger population. Prior to its amendment in 2014, the National Defence Act identified “Commandant daviation” as the French translation for the rank of squadron leader, Commandant is a military rank in both the Irish Army and Irish Air Corps. It is equivalent to major or squadron leader in armed forces. In the Irish Naval Service, the equivalent rank is lieutenant commander, Commandant, is an officer-grade rank of the Military of France, specifically the French Army and the French Air Force, which is equivalent to major.
The commandant is styled chef de bataillon in the infantry, chef descadrons in the cavalry and chef descadron in the artillery. Commandant is the style, but not the rank, of the officers of the French Navy. Prior to the French Revolution, the major was the appointed by the King to keep track of the expenditures. He could have a deputy and could be either a commoner or a nobleman, a major was graded as a commissar, not an officer. The officer at commandant rank level was the chef de bataillon or chef descadron, major is now, the most senior warrant officer rank, above adjudant-chef. Comandante is an officer rank used in some Latin American countries. The Chilean Air Force uses the rank of comandante de escuadrilla as an equivalent to the British rank of squadron leader. The Peruvian Air Force uses the rank of comandante as an equivalent to lieutenant-colonel or wing commander, comandante can be translated into English either as commandant or as commander. The rank may be found in numerous organizations, such as the Sandinistas.
The rank comandante en jefe, may be found in the nation of Cuba as a military rank held by Raúl Castro. The rank of comandante en jefe is the equivalent of a marshal or general of the army
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually abbreviated to Adm or ADM, in the Commonwealth and the U. S. a full admiral is equivalent to a full general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a code of OF-9 as a four-star rank. The word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, from Medieval Latin admiralis and these themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, commander of, as in amīr al-baḥr, commander of the sea. The term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, the Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i. e. Commander of Commanders, the Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante, the word admiral has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the worlds navies, equivalent to the army rank of general.
However, this wasnt always the case, for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II, admiral was the third highest naval rank after general admiral and grand admiral. The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, the Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864, for example, Horatio Nelsons highest rank was vice admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer, some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian general at sea. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army, see Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho or Chief of Staff, Joint Staff 幕僚長 with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a long and important history in Spain
It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in non-English-speaking countries, especially those with an air force-specific rank structure. Flight lieutenant ranks above flying officer and below squadron leader, the name of the rank is the complete phrase, it is never shortened to lieutenant. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-3, and is equivalent to a lieutenant in the Royal Navy and a captain in the British Army and the Royal Marines. The equivalent rank in the Womens Auxiliary Air Force, Womens Royal Air Force, on 1 April 1918, the newly created RAF adopted its officer rank titles from the British Army, with Royal Naval Air Service lieutenants and Royal Flying Corps captains becoming captains in the RAF. In response to the proposal that the RAF should use its own titles, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navys officer ranks. For example, the current rank of lieutenant would have been air lieutenant. It was suggested that RAF captains might be entitled flight-leaders, the rank title flight lieutenant was chosen as flights were typically commanded by RAF captains and the term flight lieutenant had been used in the Royal Naval Air Service.
The rank of lieutenant has been used continuously since 1 August 1919. The RAFs promotion system is automatic up until Flight Lieutenant, every officer will attain the rank provided they complete their professional training and do not leave early. For Aircrew, Flight Lieutenant is reached 2.5 years after commissioning, BEng/MEng qualified engineers 2.5 and 1.5 years respectively, and for all ground branch officers,3.5 years. Aircrew are appointed to an Early Departure Payment Commission upon reaching their Operational Conversion Unit, promotion to Squadron Leader thereafter is strictly upon merit, officers promoted beyond Flight Lieutenant are appointed to a Career Commission, or service to age 60. Resigning a commission is generally dependent on the needs of the Service, most aircrew reach their squadrons as Flight Lieutenants due to the length of training time required. The majority of squadron line pilots are flight lieutenants, with some squadron executives or Career Commission aircrew reaching Squadron Leader, the role of a Flight Lieutenant generally involves management of a team of specialists Non-Commissioned Officers and airmen, within their specific branch.
Flight Lieutenant is the most common rank in the RAF, in April 2013, for example, there were 8,230 RAF officers, in RAF informal usage, a flight lieutenant is sometimes referred to as a flight lieuy. A Flight Lieutenants starting salary is £39,236.40 as of 2015, in the Air Training Corps, a flight lieutenant is usually the officer commanding of a squadron. Retired flight lieutenants are the first rank that may continue to use their rank after they have active service. The rank insignia consists of two narrow blue bands on slightly wider black bands and this is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulders of the flight suit or the casual uniform. The rank insignia on the uniform is similar to the naval pattern
A petty officer is a non-commissioned officer in many navies and is given the NATO rank denotion OR-6. They are equal in rank to sergeant in the British Army, a petty officer is superior in rank to leading rate and subordinate to chief petty officer, in the case of the British armed forces. The modern petty officer dates back to the Age of Sail, Petty officers rank between naval officers and most enlisted sailors. These were men with some claim to rank, sufficient to distinguish them from ordinary ratings. Several were warrant officers, in the sense of being appointed by warrant. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the title derives from the Anglo-Norman and Middle French petit, meaning of small size, little. Two of the petty officers rates and masters mate, were a superior petty officer with a general authority. However, it was possible for a warrant officer, in his role as a superior officer. This is because both were regarded as future sea officers, with the all-important social distinction of having the right to walk the quarterdeck, midshipmen wore distinctive uniforms, masters mates dressed respectably, and both behaved like officers.
The masters mate rating evolved into the rank of sub-lieutenant, there are two petty officer ranks in the Royal Canadian Navy. Petty officer, 2nd class is equivalent to a sergeant and petty officer, Petty officers are normally addressed as Petty Officer Bloggins or PO Bloggins, thereafter as PO. The NATO rank denotion for petty officer, 2nd class is OR-6, the NATO rank denotion for petty officer, 1st class is OR-7. A petty officer is an officer in the Indian Navy. They are equal in rank to an sub inspector of police in the Indian Police Services, or sergeant in the Indian Army and Indian Air Force. A petty officer is superior in rank to a rate and subordinate to a chief petty officer. A petty officer has the ability to work as a leader, capable of taking charge of a group of personnel, in the Royal Navy, the rate of petty officer comes above that of leading rating and below that of chief petty officer. It is the equivalent of sergeant in the Royal Marines, British Army, Petty officer is the lowest of the senior rating grades.
Petty officers, like all senior rates, wear fore and aft rig, the title of petty officer in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard has three separate classes and three senior grades
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces. Its origin is the Latin serviens, one who serves, through the French term sergent, the term sergeant refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer immediately below a lieutenant. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad, in Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are often variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language. The equivalent rank in Arab armies is raqeeb, meaning overseer or watcher, in medieval European usage, a sergeant was simply any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have sergeants-at-arms, the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant servant, court official, from Middle Latin servientem servant, soldier.
Later, a sergeant was a man of what would now be thought of as the middle class. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the sergeant class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops. The sergeant class was deemed to be half of a knight in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords, the title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies who is charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army, there are usually several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units. Sergeant is a rank in both the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force, the ranks are equivalent to each other and the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer.
The Australian Army rank of sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two sir in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952. The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is more senior than a constable or senior constable, New South Wales Police Force, for example, has the additional rank of incremental sergeant. This is a progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant, upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given a warrant of appointment under the commissioners hand and seal
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
Officer Cadet is a rank held by military cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. The term officer trainee is used interchangeably in some countries, the Australian Defence Force follows the same usage as the British military system, using the rank of officer cadet, for personnel undergoing initial officer training. They do however hold probationary commissions, Officer cadets in the Australian Army are subordinate to warrant officers and officers and address them as sir or maam. As officer cadets are appointed to their positions, they are superior to some other ranks. The ranks of cadet, staff cadet, and midshipman are primarily found at these establishments. Officer cadets are appointed to the Australian Army Reserve where training is conducted on a part-time basis at various University Regiments around the country. Australian Army Reserve officer cadets must pass various training courses throughout their training with the final module completed at the Royal Military College, air traffic controllers and air combat officers joining the RAAF directly through the Officers Training School start their career as an officer cadet.
Once they have completed their employment training, they are promoted, Officer cadets may sometimes hold a staff or even line appointments within a unit, such as second-in-command of a platoon within a company-sized or larger unit. This is usually done for work purposes, and in such roles. Some officer cadets, who are going through ROTP, are qualified in their military trade. However, those officers are ineligible to receive a commission until holding a university degree, for Royal Canadian Navy members of the same rank, naval cadet, or aspirant de marine in French, is used in lieu of officer cadet. Officer cadets and naval cadets are referred to and addressed as Mister Smith or Miss Smith, there is a tendency in less cordial environments to refer to an officer cadet as OC Smith. Officer cadets are generally addressed as mister or miss by commissioned officers, in non-training environments, such as a base or wing, they are referred to as sir or maam by non-commissioned members. Officer cadets and naval cadets in the CF are subordinate officers and they do not carry the Queens commission, and as such are not required to be saluted by CF members, however they frequently are, except in a training environment.
This gives rise to the derogatory term quarter-inch admiral as a term for cadets who try to insist that they are superior in rank to other members. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is one pip over a white band. The peak of the cap is plain. In the Indonesian service academies, there is a system associated to the cadets training and studying in the academy