Gilbert Burnet was a Scottish philosopher and historian, Bishop of Salisbury. He was fluent in Dutch, Latin and Hebrew. Burnet was respected as a cleric, a preacher, an academic, a writer and a historian, he was always associated with the Whig party, was one of the few close friends in whom King William III confided. Burnet was born at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1643, the son of Robert Burnet, Lord Crimond, a Royalist and Episcopalian lawyer, who became a judge of the Court of Session, of his second wife Rachel Johnston, daughter of James Johnston, sister of Archibald Johnston of Warristoun, a leader of the Covenanters, his father was his first tutor until he began his studies at the University of Aberdeen, where he earned a Master of Arts in Philosophy at the age of thirteen. He studied law before changing to theology, he travelled for several years. He visited Oxford, London, the United Provinces and France, he studied Hebrew under a Rabbi in Amsterdam. By 1665 he returned to Scotland and was ordained in the Church of Scotland by the bishop of Edinburgh.
In 1664 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He began his ministry in the rural church at East Saltoun, East Lothian, served this community devoutly for four years. In 1669, without his being asked, he was named to the vacant chair of Divinity at the University of Glasgow. At first he declined, he was offered, but declined, a Scottish bishopric. In 1672 or 1673 he married Lady Margaret Kennedy, daughter of the Earl of Cassilis, many years his senior; the great differences between the couple in age and fortune caused them to keep the marriage secret for a considerable time. Burnet's motives for marriage were not mercenary, seeing as he entered into what has been described as an early form of "pre-nuptial agreement" by which he renounced any claim to his wife's money. Burnet himself recalled that they had been good friends for several years, but that in his view such a close friendship between a single man and a single woman could not continue indefinitely unless they married; the marriage seems to have been happy, despite their lack of children.
He was to have numerous children by marriages. In view of the unsettled political times, he moved to London. In London, his political and religious sentiments prompted him to support the Whigs, his energetic and bustling character led him to take an active part in the controversies of the time, he endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation between Episcopacy and Presbytery. At Court, where his brother Thomas was a royal physician, he gained the favour of Charles II, from whom he received various preferments, he described Charles shrewdly as a man who, despite his affable manner and famed courtesy, was at heart the archetypal cynic: "he has a ill opinion of men and women, so is infinitely distrustful... he thinks the world is governed wholly by interest". Burnet noted that this attitude was quite understandable, given the King's experiences in the English Civil War and the Interregnum, which had shown him when he was still young the "baseness of human nature". Like many other observers he noted Charles's remarkable self-control: "he has a strange command of himself: he can pass from business to pleasure, from pleasure to business, in so easy a manner that all things seem alike to him."
He recorded some of the King's most memorable sayings, such as "Appetites are free, Almighty God will never damn a man for allowing himself a little pleasure". During the Popish Plot, when Queen Catherine was accused of treason, the King confided to Burnet his feelings of guilt about his ill-treatment of the Queen, "who is incapable of doing a wicked thing", his resolve not to abandon her, his wish to live a more moral life in future. Burnet, for his part, told the King frankly that he was wrong to believe that the Earl of Shaftesbury had any part in the charges of treason made against the Queen: Shaftesbury, well aware of the Queen's great popularity with the English ruling class, was too shrewd a statesman to make such a serious political misjudgment; as regards the reality of the Plot itself, while the King became a total sceptic on the subject, Burnet captures Charles's first reaction to the accusations neatly enough: "among so many particulars I do not know but there may be some truth."
Burnet himself was neither a sceptic about, nor a convinced believer in the Plot. Like most sensible Protestants he believed that there had been a Catholic conspiracy of some sort, but he had grave doubts about the veracity of the informers Titus Oates, while he regarded Israel Tonge, the co-author of the Plot, as insane, he recognised the danger that innocent people might be falsely accused, it is notable that he praised the Catholic martyr Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, nowadays the best-known victim of the Plot, as a good and innocent man, destroyed by the malice of his personal enemies. He argued that the first victim of the Plot, the young Catholic banker William Staley, was innocent, although his narrative of Staley's trial was undoubtedly coloured by his detestation of William Carstares, the Crown's chief witness at Staley's trial. Whether the Catholic nobleman William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, executed for treason in
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona who represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, there is a separate de facto leader with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is a ceremonial figurehead who does not guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of political authority. In countries where the head of state is the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, said that the head of state should embody l'esprit de la nation.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". An independent nation state has a head of state, determines the extent of its head's executive powers of government or formal representational functions. In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic. Among the different state constitutions that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary system, with three subset models; the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or limited executive powers, has a ceremonial and symbolic role. The Parliamentary-Presidential model, or South African Method, where Parliament chooses the President, who acts as both Head of State and Head of Government; some argue this is unfair, becouse citizens dont get a direct say in their executive leadership.
However, this method makes it impossible for a dictator to come to power. The semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet. In a federal constituent or a dependent territory, the same role is fulfilled by the holder of an office corresponding to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor; the same applies to Indian states, etc.. Hong Kong's constitutional document, the Basic Law, for example, specifies the Chief Executive as the head of the special administrative region, in addition to their role as the head of government; these non-sovereign-state heads have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories concerned. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be the nominal chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state, possessing limited executive power.
In reality, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government, answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature, it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. The executive branch is thus said to be responsible to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen. In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure.
In republics with a parliamentary system the head of state is titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system; the older the cons
Cardinal Vicar is a title given to the vicar general of the Diocese of Rome for the portion of the diocese within Italy. The official title, as given in the Annuario Pontificio, is "Vicar General of His Holiness"; the Bishop of Rome is responsible for the spiritual administration of this diocese, but because the Bishop of Rome is the Pope, with many other responsibilities, he appoints a Cardinal Vicar with ordinary power to assist in this task. Canon law requires all Catholic dioceses to have one or more vicars general, but the Cardinal Vicar functions more like a de facto diocesan bishop than do other vicars general; the holder has been a cardinal. A similar position exists to administer the spiritual needs of the Vatican City, known as the Vicar General for Vatican City, or more Vicar General of His Holiness for Vatican City, it seems certain that in the twelfth century vicars were named only when the pope absented himself for a long time from Rome or its neighbourhood. When he returned, the vicar's duties ceased.
This may have lasted to the pontificate of Pope Innocent IV. Thus the nomination of a vicar on 28 April 1299, is dated from the Lateran; the office owes its full development to the removal of the Roman Curia to Southern France and its final settlement at Avignon. Since the list of vicars is continuous; the oldest commissions do not specify any period of duration. It is only in the sixteenth century; the nomination was by Bull. The oldest Bull of nomination known bears the date of 13 February 1264. An immemorial custom of the Curia demands that all its officials shall be duly sworn in, this was the case with the vicars. In all probability during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries such oaths were taken at the hands of the pope himself; the duty fell to the Apostolic Camera. The oath, whose text first appears in a document of 21 May 1427 resembles, in its first part, the usual episcopal oath; the oath is conceived in general terms and lays but slight stress on the special duties of the vicar. The official named on 18 October 1412, as representative of the vicar was sworn in, before entering on his office was admonished to take, in presence of a specified cardinal, the usual oath of fidelity to the pope and of a faithful exercise of the office.
According to the oldest known decree of nomination, 13 February 1264, both Romans and foreigners were subject to the jurisdiction of the vicar. In this document, neither the special rights of the vicar nor the local extent of his authority are made known, but it is understood that the territory in question is the city of Rome. On 27 June 1288, the vicar received the rights of "visitation and reformation in spiritual matters..... of dedicating churches and reconciling cemeteries, consecrating altars, blessing and ordaining suitable persons from the city". On 21 July 1296, Pope Boniface VIII added the authority to hear confessions and impose salutary penances. On 6 July 1202, the following variant is met with: "to reform the churches and people of Rome itself", the additional right to do other things pertaining to the office of vicar, his jurisdiction over all monasteries is first vouched for 16 June 1207. The inclusion among these of monasteries and non-exempt and their inmates, without the walls of Rome, was the first step in the local extension of the vicar's jurisdiction.
He was empowered to confer vacant benefices in the city. For a considerable length of time the above-mentioned rights exhibit the fulness of the vicar's authority. Special commissions, multiply in this period, bearing with them in each case a special extension or new application of authority. Under Pope Clement VI the territory of the vicar-general's jurisdiction was notably increased by the inclusion of the suburbs and the rural district about Rome; until the time of Pope Benedict XIV this was the extent of the vicar's jurisdiction. By the "district of the city of Rome" was understood a distance of forty Italian miles from the city walls. Since, the territory of the suburbicarian sees lay within these limits, the vicar came to exercise a jurisdiction concurrent with that of the local bishop and cumulatively; this was a source of frequent conflicts, until 21 December 1744, when the local jurisdiction of the suburbicarian bishops was abolished by Benedict XIV, insofar as their territory fell within the above-mentioned limits.
In the course of time the vicar acquired not only the position and authority of a vicar-general, who has ordinary but delegated power, but the right of subdelegation, whereby he named a vicegerent, his representative not alone in pontifical ceremonies, but in jurisdiction. For the rest, being delegatus a principe he can canonically subdelegate. By a Constitution of Clement VIII, 8 June 1592, the vicar's right to hold a visitation ordinary and extraordinary of churches, monasteries and the people was withdrawn in favour of the Congregatio Visitationis Apostolicæ, newly founded, for the current affairs of the ordinary visitation. Henceforth this duty pertains to the vicarius urbis only in
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king. Cromwell was one of most powerful proponents of the English Reformation, he helped to engineer an annulment of the king's marriage to Queen Catherine so that Henry could lawfully marry Anne Boleyn. Henry failed to obtain the Pope's approval for the annulment in 1534, so Parliament endorsed the king's claim to be Supreme Head of the Church of England, giving him the authority to annul his own marriage. However, Cromwell subsequently charted an evangelical and reformist course for the Church of England from the unique posts of vicegerent in spirituals and vicar-general. During his rise to power, Cromwell made many enemies, including his former ally Anne Boleyn, he played a prominent role in her downfall. He fell from power, after arranging the king's marriage to German princess Anne of Cleves. Cromwell had hoped that the marriage would breathe fresh life into the Reformation in England, but Henry found his new bride unattractive and it turned into a disaster for Cromwell, ending in an annulment six months later.
Cromwell was arraigned under a bill of attainder and executed for treason and heresy on Tower Hill on 28 July 1540. The king expressed regret at the loss of his chief minister. Thomas Cromwell was born around 1485, in Putney, the son of Walter Cromwell, a blacksmith and cloth merchant, owner of both a hostelry and a brewery. Walter Cromwell is considered by some to be of Irish ancestry. Thomas's mother, was the aunt of Nicholas Glossop of Wirksworth in Derbyshire, she lived in Putney in the house of a local attorney, John Welbeck, at the time of her marriage to Walter Cromwell in 1474. Cromwell had two sisters: the elder, married Morgan Williams, a Welsh lawyer. Katherine and Morgan's son, was employed in his uncle's service and changed his name to Cromwell. Little is known about Cromwell's early life, it is believed that he was born on the edge of Putney Heath. In 1878, his birthplace was still of note: The site of Cromwell's birthplace is still pointed out by tradition and is in some measure confirmed by the survey of Wimbledon Manor, quoted above, for it describes on that spot'an ancient cottage called the smith's shop, lying west of the highway from Richmond to Wandsworth, being the sign of the Anchor'.
The plot of ground here referred to is now covered by the Green Man public house. Cromwell declared to Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer that he had been a "ruffian… in his young days"; as a youth, he left his family in Putney, crossed the Channel to the continent. Accounts of his activities in France and the Low Countries are sketchy and contradictory, it is alleged that he first became a mercenary, marched with the French army to Italy, where he fought in the Battle of Garigliano on 28 December 1503. While in Italy, he entered service in the household of the Florentine banker Francesco Frescobaldi, he visited leading mercantile centres in the Low Countries, living among the English merchants and developing a network of contacts while learning several languages. At some point he returned to Italy; the records of the English Hospital in Rome indicate that he stayed there in June 1514, while documents in the Vatican Archives suggest that he was an agent for the Archbishop of York, Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, handled English ecclesiastical issues before the Roman Rota.
At one point during these years, Cromwell returned to England, where around 1515 he married Elizabeth Wyckes. She was the widow of Thomas Williams, a Yeoman of the Guard, the daughter of a Putney shearman, Henry Wykes, who had served as a gentleman usher to King Henry VII; the couple had three children: Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell, Elizabeth Seymour's second husband. Anne Cromwell Grace Cromwell Cromwell's wife died early in 1529 and his daughters and Grace, are believed to have died not long after their mother, their death may have been to Sweating sickness. Provisions made for Anne and Grace in Cromwell's will, dated 12 July 1529, were crossed out at some date. Gregory outlived his father by only 11 years, succumbing to sweating sickness in 1551. Thomas Cromwell had an illegitimate daughter, whose early life is a complete mystery. According to novelist Dame Hilary Mantel, "Cromwell had an illegitimate daughter, beyond the fact that she existed, we know little about her, she comes into the records, in an obscure way — she's in the archives of the county of Chester."
Jane married William Hough, of Leighton in Wirral, around 1550. William Hough was the son of Richard Hough, Cromwell's agent in Chester from 1534-40, it is unknown what role Gregory Cromwell played in her life. Jane and her husband William Hough remained staunch Roman Catholics, together with their daughter, her husband, William Whitmore, their children, all came to the attention of the authorities as recusants during the reign of Elizabeth I. In 1517, again in 1518, Cromwell led an embassy to Rome to obtain from Pope Leo X a papal bull for the reinstatement of Indulgences for the town of Boston, Lincolnshire. By 1520, Cromwell was established in London mercantile and legal circles. In 1523, he obtained a seat in the House of Commons as a Burgess, though the constituency he represented has not been identified. After Parliament had been dissolved, Cromwell wrote a letter to a friend, jesting about the session's
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification, it is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time. The poem concerns the biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men." In his introduction to the Penguin edition of Paradise Lost, the Milton scholar John Leonard notes, "John Milton was nearly sixty when he published Paradise Lost in 1667. The biographer John Aubrey tells us that the poem was begun in about 1658 and finished in about 1663. However, parts were certainly written earlier, its roots lie in Milton's earliest youth."
Leonard speculates that the English Civil War interrupted Milton's earliest attempts to start his "epic that would encompass all space and time."Leonard notes that Milton "did not at first plan to write a biblical epic." Since epics were written about heroic kings and queens, Milton envisioned his epic to be based on a legendary Saxon or British king like the legend of King Arthur. In the 1667 version of Paradise Lost, the poem was divided into ten books. However, in the 1672 edition, Paradise Lost contained twelve books. Having gone blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost through dictation with the help of amanuenses and friends, he wrote the epic poem while he was ill, suffering from gout, despite the fact that he was suffering after the early death of his second wife, Katherine Woodcock, in 1658, the death of their infant daughter. The poem is divided into "books"; the Arguments at the head of each book were added in subsequent imprints of the first edition. The poem follows the epic tradition of starting in medias res, the background story being recounted later.
Milton's story has one about Satan and the other following Adam and Eve. It begins after Satan and the other rebel angels have been defeated and banished to Hell, or, as it is called in the poem, Tartarus. In Pandæmonium, the capital city of Hell, Satan employs his rhetorical skill to organize his followers. Belial and Moloch are present. At the end of the debate, Satan volunteers to corrupt the newly created Earth and God's new and most favoured creation, Mankind, he braves the dangers of the Abyss alone in a manner reminiscent of Aeneas. After an arduous traversal of the Chaos outside Hell, he enters God's new material World, the Garden of Eden. At several points in the poem, an Angelic War over Heaven is recounted from different perspectives. Satan's rebellion follows the epic convention of large-scale warfare; the battles between the faithful angels and Satan's forces take place over three days. At the final battle, the Son of God single-handedly defeats the entire legion of angelic rebels and banishes them from Heaven.
Following this purge, God creates the World, culminating in his creation of Eve. While God gave Adam and Eve total freedom and power to rule over all creation, he gave them one explicit command: not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil on penalty of death; the story of Adam and Eve's temptation and fall is a fundamentally different, new kind of epic: a domestic one. Adam and Eve are presented as having a romantic and sexual relationship while still being without sin, they have distinct personalities. Satan, disguised in the form of a serpent tempts Eve to eat from the Tree by preying on her vanity and tricking her with rhetoric. Adam, learning that Eve has sinned, knowingly commits the same sin, he declares to Eve that since she was made from his flesh, they are bound to one another – if she dies, he must die. In this manner, Milton portrays Adam as a heroic figure, but as a greater sinner than Eve, as he is aware that what he is doing is wrong. After eating the fruit and Eve have lustful sex.
At first, Adam is convinced that Eve was right in thinking that eating the fruit would be beneficial. However, they soon fall asleep and have terrible nightmares, after they awake, they experience guilt and shame for the first time. Realizing that they have committed a terrible act against God, they engage in mutual recrimination. Meanwhile, Satan returns triumphantly amid the praise of his fellow fallen angels, he tells them about how their scheme worked and Mankind has fallen, giving them complete dominion over Paradise. As he finishes his speech, the fallen angels around him become hideous snakes, soon enough, Satan himself turned into a snake, deprived of limbs and unable to talk. Thus, they share the same punishment. Eve appeals to Adam for reconciliation of their actions, her encouragement enables them to approach God, sue for grace, bowing on supplicant knee, to receive forgiveness. In a vision shown to him by the angel Michael, Adam witnesses everything that will happen to Mankind until the Great Flood.
Adam is upset by this vision of the future, so Michael tells him about Mankind's potential redemption from original sin through Jesus Christ. Adam and Eve are cast out of Eden, Michael says that Adam may find "a
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Yogyakarta is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, literature, poetry, visual arts, wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious. Yogyakarta is the capital of the Yogyakarta Special Region and served as the Indonesian capital from 1946 to 1948 during the Indonesian National Revolution, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in southeastern Yogyakarta, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1587 and 1613; the city's population was 422,732 inhabitants at the 2017 census. Its built-up area was home to 4,010,436 inhabitants, which includes Magelang and 65 districts across Sleman, Bantul, Kulon Progo, Magelang regencies.
Yogyakarta-Magelang and Surakarta are being agglomerated within several years. At 0.837, Yogyakarta has one of the highest HDI within Indonesia, with which it is considered a "developed" city. Yogyakarta is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, the birthplace of the eponymous hero Rama from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, proper", karta means "prosperous, flourishing"—thus, "a city, fit to prosper". In colonial era correspondence, the city is written in the Javanese script as ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ, read as with the added prefix nga-. In the orthography of the time, the proper name was spelt with the Latin alphabet as "Jogjakarta"; as the orthography of the Indonesian language changed, the consonant came to be written with <y>, the consonant with <j>. Personal and geographical names however, were allowed to maintain their original spelling according to contemporary Indonesian orthography. Thus, the city can be written as "Yogyakarta", true to its original pronunciation and the Javanese script spelling, or "Jogjakarta", true to the old Dutch spelling and reflects popular pronunciation today, but differs from the original Ayodhya etymology.
One may encounter either "Yogyakarta" or "Jogjakarta" in contemporary documents. According to the Canggal inscription dated 732 CE, the area traditionally known as "Mataram" became the capital of the Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya of Mataram; the inscription was found in a Hindu temple in Central Java, 40 km away from Yogyakarta and 20 km away from the giant Borobudur temple complex. This Hindu temple itself was on the border between the area of the Hindu Sañjaya dynasty and the area of the Buddhist Shailendra dynasty. Mataram became the center of a refined and sophisticated Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture for about three centuries in the heartland of the Progo River valley, on the southern slopes of Mount Merapi volcano; this time period witnessed the construction of numerous candi, including Prambanan. Around the year 929 CE, the last ruler of the Sañjaya dynasty, King Mpu Sindok of Mataram, moved the seat of power of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java and thus established the Isyana dynasty.
The exact cause of the move is still uncertain. Historians suggest that some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram, Merapi erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram. During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta was identified again as "Mataram" and recognized as one of the twelve Majapahit provinces in Java ruled by a Duke known as Bhre Mataram. During the reign of the fourth king of the Majapahit Empire, the Hindu King Hayam Wuruk of the Rajasa dynasty, the title of Bhre Mataram was held by the king's nephew and son-in-law Wikramawardhana the fifth king of Majapahit. Kotagede, now a district in southeastern Yogyakarta, was established as the capital of the Mataram Sultanate from 1587–1613. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, the Mataram Sultanate reached its zenith as the greatest kingdom in Java, expanded its influence to Central Java, East Java, half of West Java. After two changes of capital—to Karta and to Plered, both located in present-day Bantul Regency—the capital of the Mataram Sultanate moved to Kartasura.
A civil war in the Mataram Sultanate broke out between Pakubuwono II, the last ruler of Kartasura, his younger brother and heir apparent to the throne, Prince Mangkubumi. Pakubuwono II had agreed to cooperate with the Dutch East India Company, ceded some Mataram territory to the Dutch, his younger brother, Prince Mangkubumi, stood against the agreement, citing concerns that the people would become slaves under Dutch rule. During the war, Prince Mangkubumi defeated Pakubuwono II's forces and declared sovereignty in the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, occupying the southern parts of the former Mataram Sultanate. With Pakubowono II dead from illness, the Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of the Treaty of Giyanti and ratified on 13 February 1755 among Prince Mangkubumi, the Dutch East India Company, his nephew Pakubuwono III and his allies. Ascending to the newly-created Yogyakarta throne with the name Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, Mangkubumi thus established the royal House of Hamengkubuwono, still the ru