Salón de la Plástica Mexicana
Salón de la Plástica Mexicana is an institution dedicated to the promotion of Mexican contemporary art. It was established in 1949 to expand the Mexican art market, its first location was in historic center of the city but today it operates out of a building in Colonia Roma. The institution is run by a membership of four hundred recognized artists and holds multiple exhibitions each year. Although it operates autonomously, it is part of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura; when it opened in 1949, the main purpose of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana was to promote the work of Mexican artists, creating a larger and more active market for Mexican art with emphasis on contemporary works. The works are offered at discount prices and include drawings and watercolors as well as oils; the idea is to promote art to the general public as well as to large collectors. Among its initial objectives was to sell artists’ work without charging a commission. However, today the mission of the institution is to promote the work of its members without being involved in actual sales.
It operates autonomously. It has control of two locations, its original building in the historic center of Mexico City on Donceles Street and a former mansion in Colonia Roma on Colima Street which it operates out of; the Salón has been an important source of works for institutions such as the Museo de Arte Moderno has its own important collection of contemporary art which increases each year. It is affiliated with the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes with the aim of opening a Museo Nacional de Artes Plásticas; the institution receives on average of 400 visitors per day. The Salón is run by a membership of four hundred, who have been selected based on their outstanding careers. All of the members are well-established artists who are selected based on application which consists of samples of their work and curricula; the general coordinator is Cecilia Santacruz. The Salón has maintained a list from its beginning of the best Mexican artists which include Ignacio Aguirre, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Raúl Anguiano, Luis Arenal, Dr. Atl, Abelardo Ávila, Angelina Beloff, Alberto Beltrán, Ángel Bracho, Celia Calderón, Federico Cantú, Fernando Castro Pacheco, José Chávez Morado, Erasto Cortés Juárez, Olga Costa, Dolores Cueto, Germán Cueto, Gonzalo de la Paz Pérez, Francisco Dosamantes, Jesús Escobedo, Arturo García Bustos, Jorge González Camarena, Jesús Guerrero Calvan, Xavier Guerrero, Frida Kahlo, Agustín Lazo, Amador Lugo, Leopoldo Méndez, Carlos Mérida, Gustavo Montoya, Tosia Malamud, Francisco Mora, Nicolás Moreno, Luis Nishizawa, Juan O'Gorman, Pablo O'Higgins, Carlos Orozco Romero, Luis Ortiz Monasterio, Feliciano Peña, Fanny Rabel, Everardo Ramírez, Jesús Reyes Ferreira, Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, Diego Rivera, Antonio Ruiz, Juan Soriano, Rufino Tamayo, Cordelia Urueta, Héctor Xavier, Desiderio Hernández Xochitiotzin and Alfredo Zalce.
The Salón has multiple exhibitions during the year in collaboration with other institutions such as the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Secretaría de Gobernación. It has sponsored exhibitions outside of its Colonia Roma site such as “Universo Gráfico” at the Universidad Americana de Acapulco. Most exhibitions are dedicated to a particular artist but there are themed exhibits as well; these have included one dedicated to the historic center of Mexico City, the 16th century Tembleque aqueduct or Arcos de Zempoala in Otumba and a 2009 exhibition dedicated to Mexico’s Day of the Dead. It participates in the annual “Corredor Cultural Roma-Condesa” an event to promote the cultural and gastronomic offerings of Colonia Roma and Colonia Condesa area, it was founded with the aim of exhibiting works representative of Mexican fine arts. It was the result of government efforts to promote Mexican fine arts with fifty two founding members. Of these Fernando Castro Pacheco, Arturo García Bustos, Rina Lazo and Luis Nishizawa remain active with the organization.
Over its history, it has exhibited works by hundreds of painters, engravers, sketch artists and photographers from many different movements and generations. It has had exhibitions by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Gerardo Murillo “Dr Atl”, Frida Kahlo, Rufino Tamayo, Jorge González Camarena, Leopoldo Méndez, Carlos Mérida, Pablo O´Higgins, Francisco Moreno Capdevila, Juan O´Gorman, José Chávez Morado, Adolfo Mexiac, Alfredo Zalce, Manuel Álvarez Bravo and Héctor García y Francisco Zúñiga; the Salón was located physically outside the Palacio de Bellas Artes, at first at the former Mont-Orendáin Gallery in the historic center of Mexico City, with extended hours, open until 10 p.m. everyday but Monday. Catalogs of the Salón were done by its first director but a number were designed by artists such as Justino Fernández, Dr. Atl, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Leopoldo Méndez and some with text by Octavio Paz, its first director was Susana Gamboa and its first exhibition was of paintings by Feliciano Peña, one of the first artists to break from the Mexican muralist school of painting.
This was shortly followed by exhibitions of works by Fernando Castro Pacheco. Its original rules were strict with the aim of quality control, with pieces submitted judged by a panel with included the head of the Departamento de Artes Plásticas, the directors of the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura and the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas the president of the Asociación de Críticos e Investigadores de las Artes Plásticas and the director of the Salón itself. In its first three years, sales surpassed a half a million pesos, with the main beneficiaries being Rufino Tamayo, Luis Nishizawa, Guillermo Meza, Carlos Orozco Romero, Raúl A
Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. The city is located around a 90 min drive south of Mexico City using the Federal Highway 95D; the name "Cuernavaca" is derived from the Nahuatl phrase "Cuauhnāhuac" and means "surrounded by or close to trees". The name was Hispanicized to Cuernavaca; the coat-of-arms of the municipality is based on the pre-Columbian pictograph emblem of the city which depicts a tree trunk with three branches, with foliage, four roots colored red. There is a cut in the trunk in the form of a mouth, from which emerges a speech scroll representing the language Nahuatl and by extension the locative suffix "-nāhuac", meaning "near". Cuernavaca has long been a favorite escape for Mexico City and foreign visitors because of its warm, stable climate and abundant vegetation; the municipality was designated a Forest Protection Zone by President Lazaro Cardenas in 1937 to protect the aquifers, the vegetation and the quality of life of residents both in Mexico City and locally.
The city was nicknamed the "City of Eternal Spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the 19th century. Aztec emperors had summer residences there, considering its location of just a 1½-hour drive from Mexico City, today many Mexico City residents maintain homes there. Cuernavaca is host to a large foreign resident population, including large numbers of students who come to study the Spanish language. Cuernavaca was nicknamed "City of Eternal Spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the 19th century; the city is located in a tropical region, but its temperature is constant at 21–26 °C. It is located on the southern slope of the Sierra de Chichinautzin mountains. In the morning, warm air flows up the mountains from the valley below and in the late afternoon, cooler air flows down from the higher elevations. One ubiquitous flowering plant in the city is the bougainvillea; this pleasant climate has attracted royalty and nobles since Aztec times. Foreign princes and other nobles have been attracted to this place because of its flowers, fruits, fresh-water springs, waterfalls.
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico set up a country residence in the city. Philanthropist Barbara Hutton, who held several royal titles through marriage, had a home on the outskirts of the city. Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy lived there from 1971 to 1999, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, lived in exile in the city following the Iranian Revolution. Although a native of the U. S. Bauhaus designer Michael van Beuren established his residence in a family hacienda in Cuernavaca while fleeing the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany, a colony of Bauhaus designers grew in the city during World War II. Cuernavaca always has been a popular place for people from Mexico City to escape the city. In the 20th century, the climate and flora began to attract many foreigners as well. Population increase in this urban area began in 1940, but the metro area was not created, nor recognized, until the 1960s. From this time the population and the extension of the metropolitan area have grown. From 1960 to 1980, the population had grown from 85,620 to 368,166.
From the 1980s to the present, the municipalities of Emiliano Zapata, Temixco, Tepoztlán, Xochitepec have been added to the metropolitan area. These municipalities have seen the highest rates of growth, however; the metropolitan area has a population of 912,024 and the municipality has 366,321 inhabitants, as of 2015. Over the decades since 1970, this metropolitan area has become more economically and integrated with the Mexico City metropolitan area. Many people from Mexico City own second homes there for weekend retreats, both for the climate and for the well-developed infrastructure. Starting in the 1980s permanent migration of Mexico City residents began, spurred by pollution and crime problems in the capital; the 1985 Mexico City earthquake pushed many well-to-do families there, fearful of the next catastrophe. In many of these cases, the main breadwinner commutes each day to work in Mexico City; this has produced a considerable increase in housing developments on the outskirts of the city in the late 1990s and 2000s.
This influx has had a positive economic benefit for the city but has put pressure on the infrastructure as well. 85% of the city of Cuernavaca is dedicated to housing, much of this is in middle-class housing developments such as Rancho Cortés, Rancho Tetela, Colonia del Bosque, which are located on the outskirts of the city. Lower-income housing is concentrated in the city proper. Burials dated to c. 1000 BCE have been found in Morelos, in the north of the city. The first major culture to inhabit this area was the Tlahuica, whose main settlement was where the city of Cuernavaca is today; the Tlahuicas have inhabited this area at least since the 12th century. The first incursions south into the area by peoples of the Valley of Mexico occurred in the 12th century, when a lord named Xolotl conquered most of the Valley of Mexico. An allied Chichimeca tribe moved south into what is now northern Morelos state, making Techintecuitla lord of the Cuahnahuac area, with the Tlahuicas concentrated in the nearby towns of Yecapixtla and Yautecatle.
According to the Tlatelolco Annals, in 1365, the lord of Cuahnahuac, tried to conqu
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
Édouard Manet was a French modernist painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future envisioned for him, became engrossed in the world of painting, his early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings; the last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with other great artists of the time, develop his own style that would be heralded as innovative and serve as a major influence for future painters. Édouard Manet was born in Paris on 23 January 1832, in the ancestral hôtel particulier on the rue des Petits Augustins to an affluent and well-connected family. His mother, Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince Charles Bernadotte, from whom the Swedish monarchs are descended.
His father, Auguste Manet, was a French judge. His uncle, Edmond Fournier, took young Manet to the Louvre. In 1841 he enrolled at the Collège Rollin. In 1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust, future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent lifelong friend. At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to Rio de Janeiro. After he twice failed the examination to join the Navy, his father relented to his wishes to pursue an art education. From 1850 to 1856, Manet studied under the academic painter Thomas Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the Old Masters in the Louvre. From 1853 to 1856, Manet visited Germany and the Netherlands, during which time he was influenced by the Dutch painter Frans Hals, the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya. In 1856, Manet opened a studio, his style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details and the suppression of transitional tones.
Adopting the current style of realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, Gypsies, people in cafés, bullfights. After his early career, he painted religious, mythological, or historical subjects. Manet had two canvases accepted at the Salon in 1861. A portrait of his mother and father, who at the time was paralysed and robbed of speech by a stroke, was ill-received by critics; the other, The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier, placed in a more conspicuous location as a result of its popularity with Salon-goers. Manet's work, which appeared "slightly slapdash" when compared with the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings, intrigued some young artists; the Spanish Singer, painted in a "strange new fashion caused many painters' eyes to open and their jaws to drop." Music in the Tuileries is an early example of Manet's painterly style. Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his lifelong interest in the subject of leisure.
While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some, the suggested atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at the time. Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists and musicians who take part, he has included a self-portrait among the subjects. A major early work is The Luncheon on the Grass Le Bain; the Paris Salon rejected it for exhibition in 1863, but Manet agreed to exhibit it at the Salon des Refusés, a parallel exhibition to the official Salon, as an alternative exhibition in the Palais des Champs-Elysée. The Salon des Refusés was initiated by Emperor Napoleon III as a solution to a problematic situation which came about as the Selection Committee of the Salon that year rejected 2,783 paintings of the ca. 5000. Each painter could decide whether to take the opportunity to exhibit at the Salon des Refusés, less than 500 of the rejected painters chose to do so. Manet employed model Victorine Meurent, his wife Suzanne, future brother-in-law Ferdinand Leenhoff, one of his brothers to pose.
Meurent posed for several more of Manet's important paintings including Olympia. The painting's juxtaposition of dressed men and a nude woman was controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time, Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of the Judgement of Paris based on a drawing by Raphael. Two additional works cited by scholars as important precedents for Le déjeuner sur l'herbe are Pastoral Concert and The Tempest, both of which are attributed variously to Italian Renaissance masters Giorgione or Titian; the Tempest is an enigmatic painting featuring a dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing to the left and gazing to the side at the woman, seated and breastfeeding a baby. In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men
Museo de Arte Moderno
The Museo de Arte Moderno or Museum of Modern Art is located in Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, Mexico. The museum is part of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes and prepares exhibitions of national and international contemporary artists; the museum hosts a permanent collection of art from Remedios Varo, Gelsen Gas, Frida Kahlo, Olga Costa, Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Leonora Carrington, Rufino Tamayo, Juan Soriano, Vicente Rojo. In 1971, the posthumous retrospective exhibition of Varo drew the largest audiences in its history - larger than those for Rivera and Orozco; the building of the Museum of Modern Art of Mexico was based on the design of the architects Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and Carlos A. Cazares Salcido, in collaboration with Rafael Mijares Alcérreca. A part of the original project, which included an auditorium and wineries, was never completed; the design of the gardens and walkways corresponds to Juan Siles, with the direction of the artist Helen Escobedo.
A forerunner of the MAM, the National Museum of Plastic Arts, was created in 1947 by Carlos Chávez. This first museum was located inside the Palacio de Bellas Artes. However, this museum was more than modest and provisional in part because of the museological conception of modern art since it was considered just one chapter in a broader curatorial script that traversed the history of Mexican art since the pre-Hispanic Mexico/pre-Hispanic times. Shortly after, in 1953, Carmen Barreda, the director of the Salon de la Plastica Mexicana and who would become the first director of the MAM from 1964 to 1972, founded a board with the intention of building an enclosure destined, on purpose, to preserve and disseminate the modern art; the museum focuses on displaying modern Mexican art from the decade of 1930 onwards. Within its permanent exhibition are works of several great Mexican masters of the period, such as: Frida Kahlo, Julio Castellanos, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Emir Jair, Roberto Montenegro, José Clemente Orozco, Louis Henri Jean Charlot, Juan Soriano, Juan O'Gorman, Diego Rivera, Jesús Guerrero Galván, María Izquierdo, Rufino Tamayo, Raúl Anguiano, Federico Cantú, Carlos Orozco Romero, Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, Ricardo Martínez de Hoyos, Jorge González Camarena, Guillermo Meza, Francisco Corzas, Leonora Carrington, Alfredo Zalce, Remedios Varo, Agustín Lazo, Ángel Zárraga, Gerardo Murillo, José Chávez Morado, Mathías Goeritz, Gunther Gerzso, Manuel Felguérez, Abraham Ángel, Pedro Coronel, Luis López Loza, Francisco Toledo, Francisco Zúñiga, Pedro Friedeberg, Luis Ortiz Monasterio, Feliciano Béjar, Rosa Castillo y Mardonio Magaña.
Like other Mexican art museums, the MAM has a wide collection of modern and contemporary Mexican art, which by limitations of physical space is known by means of temporary exhibitions. The museum's lobby and gardens are adorned with sculptures by great national and international artists. Among nationals represented are Gelsen Gas, Germán Cueto, Mathias Goeritz, Estanislao Contreras and Manuel Felguérez; the theme of the museum covers what is known as the Escuela Mexicana de Pintura and the Generación de la Ruptura. Exhibitions of international contemporary art are presented; the museum has under its shelter an important collection of works by the great Mexican photographer Manuel Álvarez Bravo. The museum has four rooms that are named after different personalities of the Mexican cultural environment of the twentieth century: Xavier Villaurrutia, Carlos Pellicer, Antonieta Rivas Mercado, José Juan Tablada, it features the Fernando Gamboa Gallery. The museum's permanent collection is on display in room "C" of the main building, on the first floor.
Museo de Art Moderno * Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes *
Palacio de Bellas Artes
The Palacio de Bellas Artes is a prominent cultural center in Mexico City. It has hosted some of the most notable events in music, theatre and literature and has held important exhibitions of painting and photography; the Palacio de Bellas Artes has been called the "Cathedral of Art in Mexico". The building is located on the western side of the historic center of Mexico City next to the Alameda Central park; the first National Theater of Mexico was built in the late 19th century, but it was soon decided to tear this down in favor of a more opulent building in time for Centennial of the Mexican War of Independence in 1910. The initial design and construction was undertaken by Italian architect Adamo Boari in 1904, but complications arising from the soft subsoil and the political problem both before and during the Mexican Revolution, hindered stopped construction by 1913. Construction began again in 1932 under Mexican architect Federico Mariscal and was completed in 1934; the exterior of the building is Neoclassical and Art Nouveau and the interior is Art Deco.
The building is best known for its murals by Diego Rivera and others, as well as the many exhibitions and theatrical performances its hosts, including the Ballet Folklórico de México. The earliest known structure on the site was the Convent of Santa Isabel, whose church was built in 1680. However, significant Aztec finds, such as a sacrificial altar in the shape of a plumed serpent have been found here; the convent area suffered frequent flooding during the early colonial period and development here grew slowly. In spite of this, the convent remained, it was replaced by lower-class housing. A section of this housing, on Santa Isabel Alley, was torn down and replaced by the National Theater in the latter 19th century. During the late 19th century and early 20th, this theatre was the site of most of Mexico City's high culture, presenting events such as theatre, Viennese dance and more, it was decided to replace this building with a more opulent one for the upcoming Centennial of Mexican Independence celebrations in 1910.
The old theatre was demolished in 1901, the new theatre would be called the Gran Teatro de Ópera. The work was awarded to Italian architect Adamo Boari, who favored neoclassical and art nouveau styles and, responsible for the Palacio del Correo, across the street. Adamo Boari promised in October 1904 to build a grand metallic structure, which at that time only existed in the United States, but not to this size; the first stone of the building was placed by Porfirio Díaz in 1904. Despite the 1910 deadline, by 1913, the building was hardly begun with only a basic shell. One reason for this is that the project became more complicated than anticipated as the heavy building sank into the soft spongy subsoil; the other reason was the political and economic instability that would lead to the Mexican Revolution. Full hostilities suspended construction of the palace and Adamo Boari returned to Italy; the project would sit unfinished for about twenty years. In 1932, construction resumed under Mexican architect Federico Mariscal.
Mariscal updated it from Boari's plans to the more modern Art Deco style. The building was finished in 1934, was inaugurated on 29 September of that year; the inaugural work presented in the theatre was "La Verdad Sospechosa" by Juan Ruiz de Alarcón in 1934. In 1946, the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes was created as a government agency to promote the arts and was housed at the Museo Nacional de Artes Plásticas, the Museo del Libro and other places, it is now at the Palacio. In this theatre, Maria Callas debuted in the opera Norma in 1950. In 2002, the Palace was the scene of the funeral of María Félix. Since its initial construction little has been updated or modified. However, intensive renovation efforts were begun in 2009 for the upcoming 2010 celebrations. Much of the equipment and machinery is original from the early 20th century. Much of the technological equipment is being updated in the theatre which needs computerized lights, sound systems and other improvements. Other work will improve the acoustics.
Upgrades to the theatre will allow for multimedia shows. The main hall has had no renovation or upgrade work since it opened in 1934. Renovations here will lessen the number of people the hall can accommodate but should make the area more comfortable; the palace has a mixture of a number of architectural styles. Art Nouveau dominates the exterior, done by Adamo Boari, the inside is dominated by Art Deco, completed by Federico Mariscal. Since construction began in 1904, the theater has sunk some four meters into the soft soil of Mexico City; the main facade, which faces Avenida Juárez, is made of white Italian Carrara marble. In the interior of the portal are sculptures by Italian Leonardo Bistolfi, it consists of "Harmony", surrounded by "Pain", "Rage", "Happiness", "Peace" and "Love". Another portion of the facade contains sculptures representing music and inspiration. On the plaza front of the building, designed by Boari, there are four Pegasus sculptures which were made by Catalan Agustí Querol Subirats.
These had been in the Zocalo before being brought here. The roof covering the center of the building is made of crystal designed by Hungarian Géza Maróti and depicts the muses with Apollo. One aspect of the Palace which has since disappeared is the "Pergola", located in the Alameda, it was construct