Batopilas is a small town, seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Chihuahua, located along the Río Batopilas at the bottom of the Batopilas canyon, part of the Copper Canyon. As of 2010, the town of Batopilas had a population of 1,220, its elevation above sea level is 578 metres. The town is situated in a narrow valley, bordered by steep canyon walls; the government of Mexico declared it a Pueblo Mágico on October 19, 2012. Batopilas was a prominent silver-mining center from the early 18th to the early 20th century. Native people of the region, Tarahumara or Rarámuri Indians called the area Bachotigori, meaning "Place of the enclosed waters", as they described the canyon, its abundance of tropical flora and fauna to the Spanish explorers travelling through this rough part of the Chihuahuan mountains. Batopilas is a mangled Spanish version of the indigenous word Bachotigori; the Tarahumara Indians most had known of silver in the area for a long time before a Spanish explorer found silver by the Río Batopilas around 1632.
The discovery was in the river itself, near the bank, the silver ore was pure white and glistening. The mine was named the Nevada Mine because of the white ore color, Nevada meaning "snow-capped" in Spanish; the Spanish exploration party took specimens of the silver ore back to Mexico City and shipped them to Spain. Few local records exist from the period prior to 1845 due to two large fires that ravaged the area, the first one in 1740 and the second in 1845. Most of what is known comes from documents available in the Colonial Archives in Madrid. Batopilas was founded in 1708 when Pedro de la Cruz filed a claim to a mine in the vicinity which he named the Guadalupe. Over time, as more and more mines were discovered, the town grew both in importance. One of the most prominent structures, Hacienda San Miguel, was erected in the mid seventeenth century, some thirty feet above the Río Batopilas, opposite the town, it was enlarged and rebuilt in the 1740s by Don Juan José de Rivolta, who turned it into a medieval-style castle, surrounded by guard towers and defensive walls.
Rivolta made a fortune in Batopilas, wielded significant power in the area, holding among other titles, that of alcalde. Following Rivolta's death, the hacienda was occupied by Rafael Alonzo Pastrana, who discovered several rich silver veins in the area. Between 1730 and 1750, the Pastrana vein is estimated to have produced 48 million pesos, making its owner one of the richest men in the world. Pastrana further expanded the hacienda, enlarging the living quarters, the ore processing facilities. Near the end of eighteenth century, Don Ángel Bustamante took over the Carmen mine. Between 1790 and 1820, the mine produced over 30 million pesos worth of silver ore. Following his death and the Wars of Independence, Batopilas fell into disrepair and continued deterioration until the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1840 only 10 families remained in Batopilas. Batopilas fortunes started to turn when Manuel Mendazona, a merchant from Culiacán, came to town in 1852, he bought and restored Hacienda Pastrana and tried to restore both the town and the mines to their former glory.
Old San Antonio and Carmen mines were reopened and a tunnel was started in 1854 cutting through several veins. Mendazona died in 1856 before he could realize his plans, his brother-in-law and executor, Guadalupe Ramírez, continued with the work for the next 5 years before selling the tunnel and mines of San Miguel to an American investor, John R. Robinson in 1861. John Riley Robinson, a doctor, railroad superintendent, inventor and a future patent holder, was a gristmill operator in Mansfield in the 1850s, when he formed a partnership with several Wells Fargo financiers, including the president William K. Fargo, Directors Ashbel H. and Danford N. Barney, among others to buy silver mines in Mexico. By the late 1850s the discovery of new silver mines in California had come to a stop, but the legends of rich Mexican veins were still abound; the partners raised $50,000 to buy the mines in Batopilas, John Robinson departed for Mexico in February 1861. On May 25, 1861 Robinson was able to buy not only the San Miguel mines and the hacienda, but the San Antonio complex for 27,700 pesos.
The newly acquired property was transferred to a newly formed Batopilas Silver Manufacturing Co. in 1862. During his tenure as a manager of Batopilas Silver Manufacturing Co. Robinson manifested himself as a pragmatic, bent on profits businessman, a good diplomat, he made minor improvements to the mining and smelting operations to improve efficiency. The town itself grew in size and attracted a mixed group of Mexicans, Tarahumara Indians, Chinese immigrants, all of whom came in search of work and better wages. Batopilas at this time was a collection of shacks, occupied by miners and transients. While the mines made the company and its shareholders wealthy, the local populace remained poor and malnourished. During 1860s and 1870s silver and silver ore were transported south to the port of Mazatlán from where it was shipped to San Francisco, Asia, or New York City via Pacific Mail Steamship Company vessels. Mexico received no taxes or duties from this procedure, which forced President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada in 1872 to require the company to ship all silver to a newly established mint in Ciudad Chihuahua.
Continued instability and political strife in Mexico during the French Invasion followed by revolt of general Porfirio Díaz wore Robinson down. He lost his two sons and two grandchildren to typhoid fever, decided to return to the US and sell the company
Chihuahua the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U. S. adjacent to the U. S. states of New Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City. Although Chihuahua is identified with the Chihuahuan Desert for namesake, it has more forests than any other state in Mexico, with the exception of Durango. Due to its variant climate, the state has a large variety of flora; the state is characterized by rugged mountainous terrain and wide river valleys. The Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, part of the continental spine that includes the Rocky Mountains, dominates the state's terrain and is home to the state's greatest attraction, Las Barrancas del Cobre, or Copper Canyon, a canyon system larger and deeper than the Grand Canyon. On the slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains, there are vast prairies of short yellow grass, the source of the bulk of the state's agricultural production.
Most of the inhabitants live along the Conchos River Valley. The etymology of the name Chihuahua has long been disputed by linguists; the most accepted theory explains that the name was derived from the Nahuatl language meaning "The place where the water of the rivers meet". Chihuahua is the largest state in Mexico by area, with an area of 247,455 square kilometres, it is larger than the United Kingdom and smaller than Wyoming, tenth US state in area; the state is known under the nickname El Estado Grande. Chihuahua has a diversified state economy; the three most important economic centers in the state are: Ciudad Juárez, an international manufacturing center. Today Chihuahua serves as an important commercial route prospering from billions of dollars from international trade as a result of NAFTA. On the other hand the state suffers the fallout of illicit trade and activities at the border; the earliest evidence of human inhabitants of modern day Chihuahua was discovered in the area of Samalayuca and Rancho Colorado.
Clovis points have been found in northeastern Chihuahua that have been dated from 12,000 BC to 7000 BC. It is thought. Inhabitants of the state developed farming with the domestication of corn. An archeological site in northern Chihuahua known as Cerro Juanaqueña revealed squash cultivation, irrigation techniques, ceramic artifacts dating to around 2000 BC. Between AD 300 and 1300 in the northern part of the state along the wide, fertile valley on the San Miguel River the Casas Grandes culture developed into an advanced civilization; the Casas Grandes civilization is part of a major prehistoric archaeological culture known as Mogollon, related to the Ancestral Pueblo culture. Paquime was the center of the Casas Grandes civilization. Extensive archaeological evidence shows commerce and hunting at Paquime and Cuarenta Casas. La Cueva De Las Ventanas, a series of cliff dwellings along an important trade route, Las Jarillas Cave scrambled along the canyons of the Sierra Madre in Northwestern Chihuahua date between AD 1205 and 1260 and belong to the Paquimé culture.
Cuarenta Casas is thought to have been a branch settlement from Paquime to protect the trade route from attack. Archaeologists believe the civilization began to decline during the 13th century and by the 15th century the inhabitants of Paquime sought refuge in the Sierra Madre Occidental while others are thought to have emigrated north and joined the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. According to anthropologist current natives tribes are descendants of the Casas Grandes culture. During the 14th century in the northeastern part of the state nomad tribes by the name of Jornado hunted bison along the Rio Grande; when the Spanish explorers reached this area they found their descendants and Manso tribes. In the southern part of the state, in a region known as Aridoamerica, Chichimeca people survived by hunting and farming between AD 300 and 1300; the Chichimeca are the ancestors of the Tepehuan people. Nueva Vizcaya was the first province of northern New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. Around 1528, a group of Spaniard explorers, led by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, first entered the territory of what is now Chihuahua.
The conquest of the territory lasted nearly one century and encountered fierce resistance from the Conchos tribe, but the desire of the Spanish Crown to transform the region into a bustling mining center led to a strong strategy to control the area. In 1562 Francisco de Ibarra headed a personal expedition in search of the mythical cities of Cibola and Quivira. Francisco de Ibarra is thought to have been the first European to see the ruins of Paquime. In 1564 Rodrigo de Río de Loza, a lieutenant under Francisco de Ibarra, stayed behind after the expedition and found gold at the foot of the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
The Mexican Revolution known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution, its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; the origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa.
In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a fair election. Opposition to his regime grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative. Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, were assassinated; the counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces; when the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war. The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare.
Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza. The armed conflict lasted for the better part of a decade, until around 1920, had several distinct phases. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces. Although the conflict was a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles; the United States played an significant role. Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. 1.5 million people died.
Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework. The period 1920–1940 is considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented; this armed conflict is characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the 20th century. The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent a neoliberal reform process that started in the 1980s; the Porfiriato is the period in late nineteenth-century Mexican history dominated by General Porfirio Díaz, who became president of Mexico in 1876 and ruled continuously until his forced resignation in 1911.
After the presidency of his ally, General Manuel González, Díaz ran for the presidency again and served in office until 1911. Under his administration, the constitution had been amended to allow unlimited presidential re-election. Díaz had challenged Benito Juárez on the platform of "no re-election." During the Porfiriato, there were regular elections, marked by contentious irregularities. Although Díaz had publicly announced in an interview with journalist James Creelman that he would not run in the 1910 election, setting off a flurry of political activity, he changed his mind and decided to run again at age 80; the contested 1910 election was a key political event. As Díaz aged, the question of presidential succession became important. In 1906, the office of vice president was revived, with Díaz choosing his close ally Ramón Corral from among his Científico advisers to serve in the post. By the 1910 election, the Díaz regime had become authoritarian, opposition to it had increased in many sectors of Mexican society.
In the 19th century, he had been a national hero, opposing the French Intervention in the 1860s and distinguishing himself in the Battle of Puebla on 5 May 1862. Díaz entered politics fo
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
Hidalgo del Parral, is a city and seat of the municipality of Hidalgo del Parral in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It is located in the southern part of the state, 220 kilometres from the state capital, the city of Chihuahua, Chih; as of 2015, the city of Hidalgo del Parral had a population of 109,510 inhabitants, while the metro area has a population of 129,688 inhabitants. The city was founded as San José del Parral; the name was changed after independence from Spain, in honour of Fr Miguel Hidalgo considered the'Father of the Country'. According to legend, Juan Rangel de Biezma came here in 1629, picked up a rock on the “Cerro la Prieta”, licked it and proclaimed “There is a mineral deposit here.” This deposit produced silver for 340 years. Parral was once a bustling center for silver mining; as early as 1567, the silver mines at Santa Barbara were established in the territory of the Conchos Indians. However, in 1631, a vast new silver strike was made in. In 1640, it was declared "Capital of the World of Silver" by monarch Philip IV of Spain, at the height of the Spanish Empire, that included territories in Eastern Asia and the Low Countries.
The large area of southern Chihuahua inhabited by the Tarahumara people included the highway between the mining districts of Parral and Chihuahua. Asarco managed the La Prieta mine until the boom ended in the early 1930s. After the end of the silver mining boom, Parral was completely abandoned in the early 1930s Currently, Parral is a medium-sized town in the state of Chihuahua dedicated to commerce, is an important regional center for trade between the southern regions of Chihuahua and northern Durango, it received its first local television station in 1969, the now-defunct XHJMA-TV channel 3, it has one local station, XHMH-TV channel 13. Urban development has been slow due to the lack of its complex physical geography, its intricate network of streets and alleys are distinctive features of the city, helping to preserve its colonial style. Parral is associated with several historical figures, including Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, assassinated in Parral on July 20, 1923, buried here.
It belonged to one of the most prominent families in Parral, descendants of Pedro Alvarado owning the silver mine called “La Palmilla.” This family was rich enough to offer the President Porfirio Díaz to pay the national external debt. The palace was constructed by Federico Amérigo Rouvier and it is now a museum and cultural center, it has preserved much of the original European-made furniture. The walls of the patio were painted by Italian painter Antionio Decanini between 1946 and 1948; this historical building was a gift from Don Pedro Alvarado to Pancho Villa and is located next to the Plaza Guillermo Baca. This is, she distinguished herself in Parral history by fighting against a contingent of U. S. soldiers sent to capture Pancho Villa after he crossed the border and attacked Columbus, New Mexico. The Francisco Villa Museum is a historical building located on the street near the spot where Villa’s enemies waited days for him to pass and assassinated him in 1923; every year in July, his death is reenacted here.
This was a luxurious palace, with a beautiful baroque style. The annual staging of the Murder of Francisco Villa, a recreation using props from the era, in the exact place of the historical event; the annual Cabalgata Villista, is a long-distance horse ride with statewide massive participation and a spectacular visual event as thousands of horses enter the city. In addition to its diverse and rich History, Parral is famous for its traditional foods. Parral was named as one of the “Ten Gastronomic Marvels of Mexico,” for its artisan confectioneries dulces de leche; these include a wide variety of candies and pastries from old recipes based on milk and natural fruits. Some other notable recipes with a touch of Parral are enchiladas, barbacoa and cabrito. Dulces de leche are cooked-milk confections found nationwide in Mexico. Parral's candies have been shipped around the world; these traditional confections arrived in Parral in the early 20th century. The origin of recipes is unknown, although it is believed that they arrived in southern Mexico from Europe during the colonial times.
These recipes were transferred to generations. One of the most famous confectionery artisans in Parral was Don Pablo Rodriguez, founder of La Gota de Miel. Don Pablito was born in Jalisco in the late 19th century, he and his wife arrived to Parral in the early 20th century, after working for several years in the State of Coahuila as a baker and a cook in the Hacienda del Rosario for Francisco Madero and Mercedes González (parents of President Franc
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2017, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 878,062 inhabitants. While the metropolitan area had a population of 1,036,806 inhabitants. Among cities in Mexico, the city of Chihuahua is ranked in human and social development. According to the UNCP report on human development, Chihuahua municipality's HDI value was 0.9117 – this was equal or higher than some Western European countries. The literacy rate in the city is among the highest in the country at 99%. Another report about competitiveness from the CIDE organization ranks Chihuahua as the second most competitive city in the country just behind Monterrey and ahead of Mexico City; this report ranks Chihuahua as the most Socially Competitive city in the country. The predominant activity is industry, including domestic heavy, light industries, consumer goods production, to a smaller extent maquiladoras; the city is served by the General Roberto Fierro Villalobos International Airport.
It has been said that the name derives from the Nahuatl language, meaning "between two waters", other accepted definitions are "place of the holed-rock" " or from Tarahumara, "dry and sandy place". The name itself is older than the Spanish conquest of Mexico; the city was founded on October 12, 1709, by Blas Cano de los Rios and Antonio Deza y Ulloa, a Spanish explorer, as El Real de Minas de San Francisco de Cuéllar. Don Ildefonso de Irigoyen donated the land for the city foundation; the town was erected a Villa in 1718 with the name of San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua, the name was shortened in 1823. The location was chosen because it is the intersection of the rivers Sacramento, it is the midpoint between the Río Bravo del Norte and the then-important mining city of Hidalgo del Parral. For much of the 18th century, Chihuahua served as the de facto capital of Nueva Vizcaya because most governors preferred to reside there rather than in Durango, the capital of the province at that time. Just as in other parts of Northern Mexico, Roman Catholic missionaries were an important influence during the colonial era, the city became a meeting point for missionaries heading to and from the'sierra', the mountainous region in western Chihuahua State where the native Tarahumara still live.
During the War of Independence, the city saw little action. However, it was in Chihuahua where Miguel Hidalgo, considered the Father of the Country, was held prisoner in the Federal Palace of Chihuahua and executed in 1811 at the nearby Government Palace by the Spaniards. During the Mexican–American War, Chihuahua fell to U. S. forces in 1847, after the Mexican Army was defeated at the Battle of the Sacramento, 15 miles north of the city. During the French invasion, President Benito Juárez made the city the seat of his government-in-exile from 1864 to 1867. During the presidency of Porfirio Díaz the city experienced explosive growth and became one of the most important cities in Mexico; the city became the seat for wealthy families. The city was more involved during the Mexican Revolution, for it became at times the operations base for the División del Norte, the army led by Pancho Villa. Many sites and memories remain of the Revolutionary era. La Quinta Luz was turned into a museum by Sra. María Luz Corral de Villa, is now managed by the federal government.
During the 20th century, the city grew in population and learned to take advantage of its proximity with the U. S. border. Until the establishment of foreign manufacturing plants in the 1970s, the city was a trade post for cattle and agricultural products. During the 1990s the city grew economically, becoming the third wealthiest municipality in the republic, after Benito Juárez borough of the Federal District, San Pedro Garza García in Nuevo León. In 2002, Mayor Jorge Barousse Moreno from the Institutional Revolutionary Party died and was succeeded by Alejandro Cano Ricaud. During Cano's administration, the city experienced dramatic growth in the security sector when the Police Department was certified by the ISO and surveillance aircraft bought. Between 2002 and 2005, the city experimented with the introduction of certain new commercial innovations, like the first large mall in the city, Plaza del Sol, the rise of the commercial Zone of the Sun, all along the Periférico de la Juventud, one of the main thoroughfares in the city.
In 2004 Juan Blanco Zaldívar, of the National Action Party, won the election for mayor of the city for the term 2004–2007. Since 2005, the International Festivals of Chihuahua have been celebrated by both the state and city governments during the months of September/October with art shows, stage presentations and concerts by such bands as America, Foreigner and Los Lobos being held at venues throughout the city. Elections for mayor for the term 2007–2010 were held at the beginning of July 2007; the turnout of registered voters, at about 41%, was the lowest in years. In January, 2010, Mayor Carlos Borruel submitted his resignation in order to campaign for election to the office of Governor of Chihuahua, his deputy, Lic. Alvaro Guillermo Madero Muñoz, assumed the office of mayor for the balance of his term. On July 4, 2013, Javier Garfio Pacheco of the PRI won election for a 3-year term as mayor. In December 2015, Eugenio Baeza Fares assumed office as mayor of the City of