A. R. Rahman
Allahrakka Rahman known professionally as A. R. Rahman, is an Indian music director, musician and music producer. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Indian classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are six National Film Awards, two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, fifteen Filmfare Awards and seventeen Filmfare Awards South, he has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India. In 2009, Rahman was included on the Time 100 list of the world's most influential people; the UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011. He is nicknamed "The Mozart of Madras" and "Isai Puyal" in Tamil. With an in-house studio, Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated 200 million units sold worldwide.
Rahman has become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist and raising money for a number of causes and charities. In 2017, Rahman made his debut as a writer for the film Le Musk, his fans call themselves'Rahmaniac'. Rahman was born in India, his father, R. K. Shekhar, was a film-score conductor for Tamil and Malayalam films. After his father's death when Rahman was nine years old, the rental of his father's musical equipment provided his family's income. Raised by his mother, Rahman, studying in Padma Seshadri Bala Bhavan had to work to support his family. Which led to him to miss classes and fail exams. Therefore, the Principal Mrs YGP summoned Rahman and his mother and told them that Rahman should focus on academics irrespective of family circumstances. Rahman attended another school called MCN for a year, joined Madras Christian College Higher Secondary School, where he was admitted on his music talent and formed a band with his high school classmates. However, after discussing with his mother, he dropped out of school to pursue a career as a full-time musician.
Rahman was a keyboard player and arranger for bands such as Roots and founded the Chennai-based rock group Nemesis Avenue. He mastered the keyboard, synthesizer and guitar, was interested in the synthesizer because it was the "ideal combination of music and technology". Rahman began his early musical training under Master Dhanraj, at age 11 began playing in the orchestra of Malayalam composer M. K. Arjunan, he soon began working with other composers, such as M. S. Viswanathan, Ramesh Naidu and Raj-Koti, accompanied Zakir Hussain, Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and L. Shankar on world tours and obtained a scholarship from Trinity College London to the Trinity College of Music. Studying in Madras, Rahman graduated with a diploma in Western classical music from the school. Rahman was introduced to Qadiri tariqa when his younger sister was ill in 1984, his mother was a practicing Hindu. At the age of 23, he converted to Islam with other members of his family in 1989, changing his name to Allahrakka Rahman.
Rahman composed scores for documentaries and jingles for advertisements and Indian television channels. In 1987 Rahman still known as Dileep, composed jingles for a line of watches introduced by Allwyn, he arranged the jingles for some advertisements that went on to become popular, including the popular jingle for Titan Watches, in which he used the theme from Mozart's Symphony no.25. In 1992, he was approached by director Mani Ratnam to compose the score and soundtrack for his Tamil film, Roja. Rahman's film career began in 1992 when he started Panchathan Record Inn, a recording and mixing studio in his backyard, it would become the most-advanced recording studio in India, arguably one of Asia's most sophisticated and high-tech studios. Cinematographer Santosh Sivan signed Rahman for his second film Yoddha, a Malayalam film starring Mohanlal and directed by Sivan's brother Sangeeth Sivan that released in September 1992; the following year, Rahman received the Rajat Kamal award for best music director at the National Film Awards for Roja.
The films' score was critically and commercially successful in its original and dubbed versions, led by the innovative theme "Chinna Chinna Aasai". Rahman followed this with successful scores and songs for Tamil–language films for the Chennai film industry, including Ratnam's politically-charged Bombay, the urban Kadhalan, Thiruda Thiruda and S. Shankar's debut film Gentleman. Rahman collaborated with director Bharathiraaja on Kizhakku Cheemayile and Karuththamma, producing successful Tamil rural folk-inspired film songs; the 1995 film Indira and romantic comedies Mr. Romeo and Love Birds drew attention. Rahman attracted a Japanese audience with Muthu's success there, his soundtracks are known in the Tamil Nadu film industry and abroad for his versatility in combining Western classical music and Tamil traditional and folk-music traditions, jazz and rock music. The soundtrack for Bombay sold 15 million copies worldwide, "Bombay Theme" would reappear in his soundtrack for Deepa Mehta's Fire and a number of compilations
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
Hugh Richard Bonneville Williams, known professionally as Hugh Bonneville, is an English actor. He is best known for playing Robert Crawley, Earl of Grantham in the ITV historical drama series Downton Abbey, his performance on the show earned him a nomination at the Golden Globes and two consecutive Primetime Emmy Award nominations. Bonneville was born in Paddington, London, to a mother, a nurse and a father, a urological surgeon, he was educated at Dulwich College Preparatory School and at Sherborne School, an independent school in Dorset. Following secondary education, Bonneville read theology at Corpus Christi College and studied acting at the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art in London, he left Cambridge with a 2:2 in theology and has since said that he tended to do more acting than academic work. Bonneville is an alumnus of the National Youth Theatre. Bonneville's first professional stage appearance was at Regent's Park. In 1987, he joined the National Theatre where he appeared in several plays the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1991, where he played Laertes to Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet.
He played Valentine in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Bergetto in'Tis Pity She's a Whore and Surly in The Alchemist. In 1991, Bonneville made his television debut, billed as Richard Bonneville, his debut film was 1994's Mary Shelley's Frankenstein with Robert De Kenneth Branagh. His early roles were good-natured bumbling characters like Bernie in Notting Hill and Mr Rushworth in Mansfield Park. In the BBC television series, Take A Girl Like You and Armadillo, he played more villainous characters, leading up to the domineering Henleigh Grandcourt in Daniel Deronda and the psychopathic killer James Lampton in The Commander series. In Love Again, he played the poet Philip Larkin. In Iris, he played the young John Bayley opposite Kate Winslet, with his performance lauded by critics and receiving a BAFTA nomination for Best Supporting Actor. In 2004, Bonneville played Sir Christopher Wren in the docudrama Wren -- The Man. Bonneville works extensively in radio, he played the role of Jerry Westerby in the BBC Radio 4 dramatisation of the John le Carré novel The Honourable Schoolboy, first broadcast in January 2010.
Earlier, he appeared in the surreal parallel universe comedy Married. From 2010 until 2015, he appeared in the ITV period drama Downton Abbey, as Robert, Earl of Grantham. In early 2010, he appeared in the comedy film Hare. In 2011 and 2012, he starred as Ian Fletcher in the award-winning BBC comedy series Twenty Twelve, reprised the role in the 2014 BBC comedy series W1A. In December 2012, he appeared on BBC Two with co-star Jessica Hynes in World's Most Dangerous Roads, travelling through Georgia, he appeared in the much-delayed film Hippie Hippie Shake with Cillian Murphy and Sienna Miller. From 2011 until 2014, Bonneville was the narrator of the Channel 4 show The Hotel. Bonneville played Mr. Brown in the 2014 film Paddington and its 2017 sequel Paddington 2, he has appeared in the singing comedic role of The Pirate King in the ABC fairy tale-themed musical comedy extravaganza series Galavant during its 2015 and 2016 seasons. He narrated the ITV series The Cruise. In 2017, Bonneville portrayed Lord Louis Mountbatten in director Gurinder Chadha's film Viceroy's House, which depicted the tumult and violence surrounding the Partition of India during the final days of British rule.
In 2017, it was announced that Bonneville would play Roald Dahl in an upcoming biopic about the author. In 2018, Bonneville began yearly appearances as the host and narrator of the annual "From Vienna: The New Year's Celebration" episode of Great Performances, broadcast on New Year's Day on PBS in the United States, he succeeded Julie Andrews. Bonneville married Lucinda "Lulu" Evans in 1998; the couple have Felix. In 2009, Bonneville was the voice of Justice Fosse in Joseph Crilly's British premiere of Kitty and Damnation for the Giant Olive Theatre Company at the Lion & Unicorn Theatre in Kentish Town. Shortly thereafter he became Giant Olive's first patron. Bonneville is a patron of the London children's charity Scene & Heard and an ambassador for WaterAid. Trowbridge, Simon; the Company: A Biographical Dictionary of the Royal Shakespeare Company. Oxford: Editions Albert Creed, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9559830-2-3. Official website Hugh Bonneville on IMDb
Cyril Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe
Cyril John Radcliffe, 1st Viscount Radcliffe, was a British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India. He served as the first chancellor of the University of Warwick from its foundation in 1965 to 1977. Radcliffe was born in Llanychan, Wales, the son of a British Army captain, his maternal grandfather was the President of the Law Society between 1890 and 1891. Radcliffe was educated at Haileybury College, he was conscripted in World War I but his poor eyesight limited the options for service so he was allocated to the Labour Corps. After the War, he attended New College, Oxford as a scholar, took a first in literae humaniores in 1921. In 1922 he was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls Oxford, he won the Eldon Law Scholarship in 1923. He was called to the bar by the Inner Temple in 1924, joined the chambers of Wilfred Greene the Master of the Rolls, he practiced at the Chancery bar, was appointed a King's Counsel in 1935. During World War II, Radcliffe joined the Ministry of Information becoming its Director-General by 1941, where he worked with the Minister Brendan Bracken.
In 1944 he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. He returned to the bar in 1945. Radcliffe, a man who had never been east of Paris, was given the chairmanship of the two boundary committees set up with the passing of the Indian Independence Act, he was faced with the daunting task of drawing the borders for the new nations of Pakistan and India in a way that would leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and Muslims in Pakistan as possible. Radcliffe submitted his partition map on 9 August 1947, which split Punjab and Bengal in half; the new boundaries were formally announced on 14 August 1947 — the day of Pakistan's independence and the day before India became independent of the United Kingdom. Radcliffe's efforts saw some 14 million people — seven million from each side — flee across the border when they discovered the new boundaries left them in the "wrong" country. In the violence that ensued after independence, estimates of loss of life accompanying or preceding the partition vary between several hundred thousand and two million, millions more were injured.
After seeing the mayhem occurring on both sides of the boundary, Radcliffe refused his salary of 40,000 rupees. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1948; the poet W. H. Auden referred to Radcliffe's role in the partition of India and Pakistan in his 1966 poem "Partition". In 1949, Radcliffe was made a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, sworn of the Privy Council, created a life peer as Baron Radcliffe, of Werneth in the County of Lancaster. Unusually, he had not been a judge. In the 1940s and 1950s he chaired a string of public enquiries in addition to his legal duties and continued to hold numerous trusteeships and chairmanships right up until his death, he chaired the Committee of Enquiry into the Future of the British Film Institute, whose recommendations led to the modernisation of the BFI in the post-war period. From 1957 he was chairman of the Radcliffe Committee, called to enquire into the working of the monetary and credit system; the committee published a report known as the Radcliffe report which suggested reforms on how monetary policy is run.
He was a frequent public speaker and wrote numerous books: he gave the BBC Reith Lecture in 1951 - a series of seven broadcasts titled Power and the State which examined the features of democratic society, considered the problematic notions of power and authority. He presented the Oxford University Romanes Lecture in 1963 on Mountstuart Elphinstone. In 1962 he was made a hereditary peer as Viscount Radcliffe, of Hampton Lucy in the County of Warwick. Lord Radcliffe married the Honourable Antonia Mary Roby, daughter of Godfrey Benson, 1st Baron Charnwood and former wife of John Tennant, in 1939, he died in April 1977, aged 78. He had no issue and the viscountcy of Radcliffe became extinct on his death. In 2006, two sets of Chancery barristers' chambers in Lincoln's Inn merged and adopted the name "Radcliffe Chambers" in his honour. Radcliffe Line Partition of India Chester, Lucy P. Borders and Conflict in South Asia: The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab. Manchester UP, 2009
Independence Day (India)
Independence Day is annually celebrated on 20 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for non-violent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress. Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan. On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the incumbent Prime Minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation. Independence Day is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies and cultural events.
It is a national holiday. French traders had removed outposts in the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century. Through overwhelming military strength, the British East India company subdued local kingdoms and established themselves as the dominant force by the 18th century. Following the First War of Independence of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of India. In the decades following, civic society emerged across India, most notably the Indian National Congress Party, formed in 1885; the period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The discontent of this period crystallised into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. During the 1930s, the reform was legislated by the British; the next decade was beset with political turmoil: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress' final push for non-cooperation, an upsurge of Muslim nationalism led by the All-India Muslim League.
The escalating political tension was capped by Independence in 1947. The jubilation was tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into Pakistan. At the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration, or "Declaration of the Independence of India" was promulgated, 15 August was declared as Independence Day; the Congress called on people to pledge themselves to civil disobedience and "to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time" until India attained complete independence. Celebration of such an Independence Day was envisioned to stoke nationalistic fervour among Indian citizens, to force the British government to consider granting independence; the Congress observed 26 January as the Independence Day between 1930 and 1946. The celebration was marked by meetings where the attendants took the "pledge of independence". Jawaharlal Nehru described in his autobiography that such meetings were peaceful, "without any speeches or exhortation".
Gandhi envisaged that besides the meetings, the day would be spent "... in doing some constructive work, whether it is spinning, or service of'untouchables,' or reunion of Hindus and Mussalmans, or prohibition work, or all these together". Following actual independence in 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect on and from 26 January 1950. In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the concluded World War II, realised that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an restless India. In 20 February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest; the new viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, believing the continuous contention between the Congress and the Muslim League might lead to a collapse of the interim government. He chose the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II, 15 August, as the date of power transfer.
The British government announced on 3 June 1947 that it had accepted the idea of partitioning British India into two states. The Indian Independence Act 1947 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan with effect from 15 August 1947, granted complete legislative authority upon the respective constituent assemblies of the new countries; the Act received royal assent on 18 July 1947. Millions of Muslim and Hindu refugees trekked the newly drawn borders in the months surrounding independence. In Punjab, where the borders divided the Sikh regions in halves, massive bloodshed followed. In all, between 250,000 and 1,000,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. While the entire nation was celebrating the Independence Day, Gandhi stayed in Calcutta in an attempt to stem the carnage. On 14 August 1947, the Independence Day of Pakistan, the new Dominio
Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma
Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, was an English heiress, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. She was born in 1900, the elder daughter of Wilfred William Ashley 1st Baron Mount Temple, a Conservative Member of Parliament. Edwina Ashley was patrilineally descended from the Earls of Shaftesbury, ranked as baronets since 1622 and ennobled as barons in 1661, she was a great-granddaughter of the reformist 7th Earl of Shaftesbury through his younger son, The Hon. Evelyn Melbourne Ashley and his wife, Sybella Farquhar, a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Beaufort. From this cadet branch, the Ashley-Cooper peers would inherit the estates of Broadlands and Classiebawn Castle. Ashley's mother was Amalia Mary Maud Cassel, daughter of the international magnate Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel and private financier to the future King Edward VII. Cassel was one of the most powerful men in Europe, he lost his beloved wife.
He lost his only child, Amalia. He was to leave the bulk of his vast fortune to Edwina, his elder granddaughter. After Ashley's father's remarriage in 1914 to Molly Forbes-Sempill, she was sent away to boarding schools, first to the Links in Eastbourne to Alde House in Suffolk, at neither of, she a willing pupil, her grandfather, Sir Ernest, solved the domestic dilemma by inviting her to live with him and to act as hostess at his London residence, Brook House. His other mansions, Moulton Paddocks and Branksome Dene, would become part of her Cassel inheritance. By the time Lord Louis Mountbatten first met Edwina in 1920, she was a leading member of London society, her maternal grandfather died in 1921, leaving her £2 million, his palatial London townhouse, Brook House, at a time when her future husband's naval salary was £610 per annum. She would inherit the country seat of Broadlands, from her father, Wilfred William Ashley, 1st Baron Mount Temple, she and Mountbatten married on 18 July 1922 at St. Margaret's Church.
The wedding attracted crowds of more than 8,000 people, was attended by many members of the royal family, including Queen Mary, Queen Alexandra, the Prince of Wales, dubbed "wedding of the year". The reception was held in Brook House after which the couple rode a Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost to the bride's family's country house. Edwina was known to be wildly promiscuous throughout the marriage, doing little to hide such indiscretions from her husband, he became aware of her numerous lovers, accepted them and developed friendships with some of them – making them "part of the family". Towards the end of Edwina's life, her daughter Pamela Mountbatten wrote a memoir of her mother in which she describes her mother as "a man eater" and her mother's many lovers as a succession of "uncles" throughout her childhood. Louis Mountbatten gained a long-time French mistress and the couple settled into a type of "ménage à quatre". Edwina's affair with Prime Minister Nehru of India both during and after their post WWII service has been documented.
In addition to their lifetime of heterosexual excesses, both Louis and Edwina were described as being bisexual, providing an unending source of gossip among the wealthy, titled society set of their day. The Mountbattens had two daughters and Pamela. In her memoir daughter Pamela describes Edwina as a detached seen mother who preferred travelling the world with her current lover to mothering her children. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Lady Mountbatten acquired a new purpose in life and devoted her considerable intelligence and energy to the service of others. In 1941, Mountbatten's visited the United States, where she thanked efforts to raise funds for the British Red Cross and St John Ambulance Brigade. In 1942, she was appointed Superintendent-in-Chief of the St John Ambulance Brigade serving extensively with Brigade. In 1945, she assisted in the repatriation of prisoners of war in the South East Asia, she was awarded a CBE in 1943 and made a Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in 1946.
She received the American Red Cross Medal. She is remembered for her service as the last Vicereine of India during the final months of the British Raj and the first months of the post-Partition period, between February 1947 and June 1948. Louis Mountbatten was endowed as the last Viceroy of India in 1947 and granted plenipotentiary power to oversee the transition to an independent India. Lady Mountbatten's time in India was in part marked by scandal, as she developed an infatuation for the leader of the Indian National Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru, whom she had met a year in Singapore. Till now it was unclear whether the romance was consummated, their fondness for one another was evident and caused widespread speculation.. But in 2012 Edwina's Daughter Lady Pamela Hicks accepted that there was a romance between her mother and Jawaharlal Nehru; the relationship was blamed for contributing to the alienation of Muslim leaders, who feared that through Edwina, Nehru was biasing the Viceroy in favour of Hindus and the Indian National Congress.
Lady Mountbatten, in all accounts of the violent disruption that followed the Partition of Indi
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam