Coronation Street is a British soap opera created by Granada Television and shown on ITV since 9 December 1960. The programme centres on Coronation Street in Weatherfield, a fictional town based on inner-city Salford. In the show's fictional history, the street was built in 1902 and named in honour of the coronation of King Edward VII; the show airs six times a week: Monday and Friday 7:30-8 pm and 8:30-9 pm. Since 2017, ten sequential classic episodes of the series from 1986 onwards have been broadcast weekly on ITV3; the programme was conceived in 1960 by scriptwriter Tony Warren at Granada Television in Manchester. Warren's initial kitchen sink drama proposal was rejected by the station's founder Sidney Bernstein, but he was persuaded by producer Harry Elton to produce the programme for 13 pilot episodes. Within six months of the show's first broadcast, it had become the most-watched programme on British television, is now a significant part of British culture; the show has been one of the most lucrative programmes on British commercial television, underpinning the success of Granada Television and wider ITV network.
Coronation Street is made by Granada Television at MediaCityUK and shown in all ITV regions, as well as internationally. On 17 September 2010, it became the world's longest-running television soap opera and was listed in Guinness World Records. On 23 September 2015, Coronation Street was broadcast live to mark ITV's sixtieth anniversary. Influenced by the conventions of the kitchen sink drama, Coronation Street is noted for its depiction of a down-to-earth, working-class community, combined with light-hearted humour and strong characters; the show averages 8 million viewers per episode. The first episode was aired on 9 December 1960 at 7 pm, was not a critical success. Granada Television had commissioned only 13 episodes, some inside the company doubted the show would last beyond its planned production run. Despite the criticism, viewers were drawn into the serial, won over by Coronation Street's ordinary characters; the programme made use of Northern English language and dialect. Early episodes told the story of student Kenneth Barlow, who had won a place at university, thus found his working-class background—as well as his parents and Ida —something of an embarrassment.
The character was one of the few to have experienced life outside of Coronation Street. In some ways this predicts the growth of globalisation, the decline of similar communities. In an episode from 1961, Barlow declares: "You can't go on just thinking about your own street these days. We're living with people on the other side of the world. There's more to worry about than Elsie Tanner and her boyfriends." Roache is the only remaining member of the original cast, which makes him the longest-serving actor in Coronation Street, in British and global soap history. At the centre of many early stories, there was Ena Sharples, caretaker of the Glad Tidings Mission Hall, her friends: timid Minnie Caldwell, bespectacled Martha Longhurst; the trio were likened to the Greek chorus, the three witches in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, as they would sit in the snug bar of the Rovers Return, passing judgement over family and each other. Headstrong Ena clashed with Elsie Tanner, whom she believed espoused a dauntlessly loose set of morals.
Elsie resented Ena's gossip, which most of the time had little basis in reality. In April 1961, Jed Stone made his first appearance and returned the following year in 1962, he left in 1963, but returned three years in 1966. He left again and returned 42 years in 2008. In March 1961, Coronation Street reached No. 1 in the television ratings and remained there for the rest of the year. Earlier in 1961, a Television Audience Measurement showed that 75% of available viewers tuned into Corrie, by 1964 the programme had over 20 million regular viewers, with ratings peaking on 2 December 1964, at 21.36 million viewers. Storylines throughout the decade included a mystery poison-pen letter received by Elsie Tanner, the 1962 marriage of Ken Barlow and Valerie Tatlock, the death of Martha Longhurst in 1964, the birth of the Barlow twins in 1965, Elsie Tanner's wedding to Steve Tanner and a train crashing from the viaduct, Steve Tanner's murder in 1968, a coach crash in 1969. In spite of rising popularity with viewers, Coronation Street was criticised by some for its outdated portrayal of the urban working class, its representation of a community, a nostalgic fantasy.
After the first episode in 1960, the Daily Mirror printed: "The programme is doomed from the outset... For there is little reality in this new serial, which we have to suffer twice a week." By 1967, critics were suggesting that the programme no longer reflected life in 1960s Britain, but reflected how life was in the 1950s. Granada hurried to update the programme, with the hope of introducing more issue-driven stories, including Lucille Hewitt becoming addicted to drugs, Jerry Booth being in a storyline about homosexuality, Emily Nugent having an out-of-wedlock child, introducing a black family, but all of these ideas were dropped for fear of upsetting viewers; the show's production team was tested when many core cast members left the programm
Clitheroe is a town and civil parish in the Borough of Ribble Valley in Lancashire, England 34 miles northwest of Manchester. It is near the Forest of Bowland, is used as a base for tourists visiting the area. In 2016, Clitheroe Built-up Area had an estimated population of 15,517; the town's most notable building is Clitheroe Castle, said to be one of the smallest Norman keeps in Britain. Several manufacturing companies have sites here, including Dugdale Nutrition, Hanson Cement, Johnson Matthey and Tarmac; the name Clitheroe is thought to come from the Anglo-Saxon for "Rocky Hill", was spelled Clyderhow and Cletherwoode. The town was the administrative centre for the lands of the Honour of Clitheroe; these lands were held by Roger de Poitou, who passed them to the De Lacy family, from whom they passed in 1311 to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster and subsequently, to the Duchy of Lancaster. At one point, the town of Clitheroe was given to Richard, 1st Duke of Gloucester. Up until 1835, the Lord of the Honor was by right Lord of Bowland, the so-called Lord of the Fells.
The town's earliest existing charter is from 1283, granted by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, confirming rights granted by one of his forebears between 1147 and 1177. According to local legend, stepping stones across the River Ribble near the town are the abode of an evil spirit, who drowns one traveller every seven years. During World War II, the jet engine was developed by the Rover Company. Rover and Rolls-Royce met engineers from the different companies at Clitheroe's Royal Hotel; the residential area'Whittle Close' in the town is named after Frank Whittle, being built over the site of the former jet engine test beds. The town elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons; the Great Reform Act reduced this to one. The parliamentary borough was abolished under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, it was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, remained a municipal borough until the Local Government Act 1972 came into force in 1974 when it became a successor parish within the Ribble Valley district.
Since 1991 the town of Clitheroe has elected at least 8 out of the 10 Liberal Democrat borough councillors on Ribble Valley Borough Council, while Clitheroe Town Council has been Liberal Democrat controlled for that period too. Since 1993 the town has elected a Liberal Democrat County Councillor to Lancashire County Council. Clitheroe returned one of the first six Socialist MPs at the 1906 General Election, due to the large number of mill workers living locally at that time. Clitheroe has been represented by a Conservative Member of Parliament for many years, with the exception of Michael Carr, elected in a by-election in 1991 for the Liberal Democrats; the current MP is Nigel Evans, first elected in 1992. Prior to both men, was the high-profile David Waddington. ICI founded a chemical plant in 1941, sold for a reported £260 million in September 2002, to Johnson Matthey. Conservatory manufacturer Ultraframe was started in Clitheroe, by John Lancaster in 1983. In March 1997, it floated on the stock exchange, being valued at £345 million in 2003.
In June 2006, however, a downturn led to a takeover by Brian Kennedy's Latium Holdings. Another local firm, the family owned animal feed producer Dugdale Nutrition can trace its history to John Dugdale, trading at Waddington Post Office in 1850. Hanson Cement has been criticised for using industrial waste in its kilns, which some local inhabitants claim produces poisonous dioxins. Hanson Cement claims that its filters remove these and that government inspectors have approved the plant. However, locals continue to campaign for the use of industrial waste as fuel to cease. There are a number of industrial sites in and around Clitheroe, the most notable of, the expanded Link 59 Business Park to the north of the town. Clitheroe boasts a number of locally-owned, independent shops and businesses including the Coffee Exchange, Cowman's Famous Sausage Shop, The Platform Art Gallery, Holme's Mill, Worthington Brougham Furniture and Mondo Gifts. Since 2014 the town centre has undergone some regeneration and expansion with the addition of a number of larger popular chain stores including Timpsons, Boots, Pets at Home, WHSmith, Costa Coffee, Caffe Nero, Fat Face and M&Co..
There are numerous banks and building societies, including Lloyds Bank, Barclays, HSBC, NatWest. Clitheroe has three jewellers, with Nettletons Jewellers being on the high street. In November 2000, Peugeot opened a dealership in the town. Majestic Wine now occupies the site. In May 2007 planning permission was granted for a Homebase, although the store didn't open until April 2009. In April 2015, work started on a new development, consisting of Aldi and Pets at Home. In October 2015, Aldi opened, with Pets at Home and Vets4pets following shortly afterwards. Clitheroe has five supermarkets: Booths, Sainsbury's, Aldi. There is a shopping arcade known as the Swan Courtyard, two petrol stations, run by BP and Texaco. In May 2007, when Kwik Save entered administration, its store on Station Road closed. In September 2008, Booths bought the site, expanded their store, where it houses charity shop YMCA. There are three Anglican churches: the Parish Church of St Mary Magdalene; the Roman Catholic church of St Michael and St John Church is at Lowergate and St Augustine's High School in Billington is the local Roman Catholic secondary school.
Trinity Methodist Church is on the edge of Castle Park in Clitheroe. There is a United Reformed Church in town.
BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution, it was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997. The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising, it is the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen as an Acting Controller from May 2013; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
The BBC Television Service began regular broadcasts on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of the Alexandra Palace in London. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning, with one of the last programmes to be shown before the suspension of the service being a Mickey Mouse cartoon. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, "Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?". The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later; the BBC held a statutory monopoly on television broadcasting in the United Kingdom until the first Independent Television station began to broadcast on 22 September 1955, when ITV started broadcasting. The competition forced the channel to change its identity and priorities following a large reduction in its audience; the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. The station, renamed BBC TV in 1960, became BBC1 when BBC2 was launched on 20 April 1964 transmitting an incompatible 625-line image on UHF; the only way to receive all channels was to use a complex "dual-standard" 405- and 625-line, VHF and UHF, with both a VHF and a UHF aerial. Old 405-line-only sets became obsolete in 1985, when transmission in the standard ended, although standards converters have become available for enthusiasts who collect and restore such TVs. BBC1 was based at the purpose-built BBC Television Centre at White City, London between 1960 and 2013. Television News continued to use Alexandra Palace as its base—by early 1968 it had converted one of its studios to colour—before moving to new purpose-built facilities at Television Centre on 20 September 1969. In the weeks leading up to 15 November 1969, BBC1 unofficially transmitted the occasional programme in its new colour system, to test it.
At midnight on 15 November with ITV and two years after BBC2, BBC1 began 625-line PAL colour programming on UHF with a broadcast of a concert by Petula Clark. Colour transmissions could be received on monochrome 625-line sets until the end of analogue broadcasting. In terms of audience share, the most successful period for BBC1 was under Bryan Cowgill between 1973 and 1977, when the channel achieved an average audience share of 45%; this period is still regarded by many as a golden age of the BBC's output, with the BBC achieving a high standard across its entire range of series, plays, light entertainment and documentaries. On 30 December 1980, the BBC announced their intention to introduce a new breakfast television service to compete with TV-am; the BBC stated it would start broadcasting before TV-am, but made clear their hands were tied until November 1981 when the new licence fee income became available, to help finance extending broadcast hours, with the hope of starting in 1982. On 17 January 1983, the first edition of Breakfast Time was shown on BBC1, becoming the first UK wide breakfast television service and continued to lead in the ratings until 1984.
In 1984, Bill Cotton become managing director of Television at the BBC, set about overhauling BBC1, slated for poor home grown shows, its heavy reliance on US imports, with Dallas and The Thorn Birds being BBC1's highest rated programmes and ratings being over 20% behind ITV. Cotton recruited Michael Grade to become Controller of BBC1, the first time the Corporation had recruited someone outside of the BBC, replacing Alan Hart, criticised for his lack of knowledge in general entertainment, as he was head of BBC Sport prior to 1981; the first major overhaul was to axe the unpopular Sixty Minutes current affairs programme: this was a replacement for the news and magazine show Nationwide. Its replacement was the BBC Six O'Clock News, a straight new programme in a bid to shore up its failing early evening slot, it was believed the BBC were planning to cut short the evening news and move more light entertainment programming in from the 18:20 slot, but this was dismissed. The Miss Great Britain contest was dropped, being described as verging on the too offensive after the January 1985 contest, with Worlds Strongest Man and International Superstar being axed.
BBC1 was relaunched on 18 February 1985 with a new look, new programming including Wogan, EastEnders and a revised schedule to help streamline and maintain viewers thr
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Oswaldtwistle is a small town within the Hyndburn borough of Lancashire, lying 3 miles east southeast of Blackburn. Oswaldtwistle is contiguous with Church; the Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes through the town. The 2001 census recorded a population of 12,530, by 2011 this had decreased to 11,803; the name is derived from "Oswald" and "Twistle". The word "twistle" is an old English word meaning "brooks meet". Legend has it that Saint Oswald, King of Northumbria passed through, giving the area its full title of Oswald's Twistle, which in time came to be Oswaldtwistle. However, it is more derived from the name of the Anglo-Saxon who farmed the land. Robert Peel was born at Peelfold in 1723, laid the family fortunes by innovations in calico printing. A successful pattern featured a sprig of parsley and Robert became known as "Parsley Peel"; the soubriquet helps distinguish him from his son Robert Peel, born at Peelfold in 1750 and went on to become a successful cotton mill owner, a rich man, an MP and a Baronet.
Sir Robert's son, born at Bury was yet another Robert Peel and in due course Sir Robert Peel. Another historical figure associated with the textile industry was James Hargreaves, inventor of the Spinning Jenny; the people of Oswaldtwistle were involved in the power loom riots of 1826. The mechanisation of the textile industry resulted in redundancies, low wages, starvation. On 26 April, a large number of cotton workers attacked the factory in White Ash in Oswaldtwistle, about a mile from Hargreaves' workshop, destroying looms and other equipment; the riots went on for three days. It is important to note the contribution of Alfred N. Waterhouse in Oswaldtwistle. In the 1940s, he created what became Shopfitters Lancashire Ltd and in the 1950s, the firm moved from Accrington to Rhyddings Mill, Oswaldtwistle, he was a successful entrepreneur who manufactured the shopfittings. At its peak in the 1960s, Shopfitters Ltd employed over 80 salesmen nationally, had an annual turnover measured in millions, in an age when a new house cost about £3,000.
The firm closed in the 1980s. The town centre is home to a number of high street multiples, including: Bargain Booze, Betfred, Cohens Chemist, Travis Perkins, as well as McColls, which opened in 1980. There is a Tesco Express, which opened in 2009, built on the site of the former retained fire station, which closed in 2003. A Spar is in the town, which opened in 1991. Other stores include an appliance repairs/sales, numerous takeaways, numerous barbers, estate agents, off licences, butchers, funeral directors and many more shops. There are groups of Boy's Brigade/Girl's Brigade in the town, along with groups for Scouts and Cubs. Additionally, Hyndburn Comets, a group of majorettes, exists in the town. During World War II, a number of PoWs were interned in camps near Oswaldtwistle. Oswaldtwistle was once a township in the ancient parish of Whalley, covering Oswaldtwistle Moor in the south and with Knuzden Brook forming the boundary with Blackburn, as far as the villages of Belthorn and Pickup Bank.
This became a civil parish in 1866. Between 1894 and 1974, the area was administered by an urban district, it has since become an unparished part of the borough of Hyndburn. Oswaldtwistle is home to Rhyddings Business and Enterprise School, Hippings Methodist Primary School, St. Mary's RC Primary School, St. Paul's CE Primary School, Moor End Primary School, St. Andrew's CE Primary School, West End Primary School, Oswaldtwistle School, Broadfield Specialist School and White Ash Specialist School. Oswaldtwistle Rovers F. C. were a football team in the late 19th century. Oswaldtwistle is the home of Oswaldtwistle Juniors FC, a local junior football club that plays in the ADJFL and ELFA, they play their home matches on Saint Mary's RC Primary School field. Oswaldtwistle Moor is an extensive area of moorland to the south of Oswaldtwistle, with Haslingden Grane bordering the moor's southern edges, Belthorn to the west and Haslingden to the east; the area forms part of the West Pennine Moors. In May 2007, plans were made to build a wind farm consisting of twelve wind turbines on the moors.
This attracted both support and opposition, but the plan was approved by councillors in March 2010. In October 2012, the project was completed, was called the Hyndburn Wind Farm. Oswaldtwistle Mills is a notable attraction, it is home of the world's largest pear drop, made by Stockley's Sweets. Of note is the 457 capacity refurbished, Civic Theatre, known as the "Friendly Theatre" and the brand new Civic Arts Centre.. The ground floor was refurbished, in August 2010, it opened as the Civic Arts Centre; the first production performed at the Arts Centre was Romeo and Juliet, directed by young producer, Joanne Haworth. Since there have been many productions, with something different happening every week. There are workshops, drama sessions most evenings, plus projects and new plays, being written, performed, with at least four plays in production, at any one time; the Centre is now home to a number of theatre groups, including ReAct Academy, Dramatic Annie, Oswaldtwistle Players and St Mary's Panto amongs
Father Brown (2013 TV series)
Father Brown is a British television Detective period drama which began airing on BBC One on 14 January 2013. It features Mark Williams as the eponymous crime-solving Roman Catholic priest; the series is loosely based on short stories by G. K. Chesterton; the series is set during the early 1950s, in the fictional Cotswold village of Kembleford, where Father Brown, priest at St Mary's Catholic Church, solves murder cases. A bumbling police inspector, who arrests the wrong suspect, gets annoyed by Father Brown's success. Father Brown uses the distinctive skills of his close friends as well as his own wits to solve cases to the neglect of his more mundane parish duties, his vocation as a priest gives him an insight to the truth, so that justice may be served. His commitment to obeying the Seal of the Confessional presents unique circumstances; the time period is when Britain was still struggling with deprivation and shortages in the aftermath of the hardships of the Second World War. At that time the country still applied the death penalty as a sentence for capital crimes such as murder.
Father Brown opposes capital punishment. Father Brown – Mark Williams: a crumpled and mild-mannered Roman Catholic priest who, by appearance, is forgotten, his apparent innocence belies a razor-sharp intellect. His greatest strength, both as a priest and as a detective of crime, is his love and understanding of other people. He's not there to save souls, he is a World War I veteran who served in the Gloucestershire Regiment. Mrs Bridgette McCarthy née Maguire – Sorcha Cusack: the Irish parish secretary at St Mary’s, she checks the facts for Father Brown, acts as his confidante on official Church business and everything else, defends him from the ire of the congregation, makes sure he eats. She has a tendency to brag about her award-winning strawberry scones. Mrs McCarthy is a frequent gossip – though claims she is not – and at odds with Lady Felicia, although she and Lady Felicia admit to being close friends, she is married, but leaves her husband after he returns from having lived with another woman following the war.
Felicia, Lady Montague née Windermere – Nancy Carroll: a bored socialite and Countess from an old recusant family, with a roving eye when her husband, Monty, is away. She is a staunch supporter of Father Brown and frequent nemesis of Mrs McCarthy, despite a grudging respect between the women, she left at the start of Series 5 when her husband is appointed Governor of Northern Rhodesia, but made a guest appearance in Series 6, The Face of the Enemy, in Series 7 in two episodes. Sidney "Sid" Carter – Alex Price: An artful dodger, Sid is an occasional black marketeer, part-time crook and informant who becomes Lady Felicia's chauffeur, whom Father Brown makes the church's handyman while trying to keep on the straight and narrow. However, his skills and links to the criminal underworld of Kembleford are needed to solve a case, he made a guest appearance in Series 6 in the episode "The Face of the Enemy". Zuzanna "Susie" Jasinski – Kasia Koleczek: Father Brown's part-time housekeeper, who lives in a nearby post-war Polish resettlement camp.
Her true first name was revealed in the episode The Eye of Apollo. Lady Penelope "Bunty" Windermere – Emer Kenny: the wayward niece of Lady Felicia seeking refuge after being photographed leaving a sleazy nightclub with a married man and cited in divorce proceedings. Inspector Valentine – Hugo Speer: head of the local police force, finds himself torn between secret admiration for Father Brown and deep frustration with him, he would like to collaborate, but has been burnt once too by Brown’s unorthodox moral code. He comes to respect his methods and admits, upon his departure, that he might miss Father Brown. Inspector Sullivan – Tom Chambers: replaced Inspector Valentine, promoted to Detective Chief Inspector and went to London at the start of the second series. A somewhat arrogant man, Sullivan is more exasperated by Father Brown's meddling and contradicting his findings, but is won over, it is not known. However he made a guest appearance as a Special Branch officer in Series 7, The Sacrifice of Tantalus under the alias of Inspector Truman.
Inspector Gerry Mallory – Jack Deam: the replacement for Inspector Sullivan. Like his predecessors, he is exasperated by Father Brown, whom he sarcastically refers to as "Padre." However, he is a far more zealous detective, chases after leads with great enthusiasm when they lead him to the wrong conclusion. Sergeant Albright -- Keith Osborn: played dogsbody to Inspectors Sullivan. Sergeant Daniel Goodfellow – John Burton: continued playing the dogsbody for the Inspector with increasing involvement. Credited in the opening beginning in series 5. M. Hercule Flambeau – John Light: nemesis of Father Brown, he and Father Brown have encountered each other at least once in every series. Bishop Talbot – Malcolm Storry: he appeared in three episodes. Talbot is Father Brown's superior and doesn't like his sleuthing, but respects him for solving the mysteries. In The Daughter of Autolycus, his death was mentioned, he is succeeded by Bishop Reynard. Harold "Blind'Arry" Slow – Alan Williams: he appeared in four episodes.'Arr
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th