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Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861, when he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. Borrowing from the old Latin title Pater Patriae of the Roman emperors, the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland. Born in Turin as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, Maria Theresa of Austria, he fought in the First Italian War of Independence before being made King of Piedmont-Sardinia following his father's abdication, he appointed Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, as his Prime Minister, he consolidated his position by suppressing the republican left. In 1855, he sent an expeditionary corps to side with French and British forces during the Crimean War; this allowed Victor Emmanuel to ally himself with Emperor of France. France had supported Sardinia in the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in liberating Lombardy from Austrian rule.

Victor Emmanuel supported the Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. However, Victor Emmanuel halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, Modena and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont, Victor Emmanuel marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces, he subsequently met Garibaldi at Teano, receiving from him the control of southern Italy and becoming the first King of Italy on 17 March 1861. In 1866, the Third Italian War of Independence allowed Italy to annex Veneto. In 1870, Victor Emmanuel took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War to taking over the Papal States after the French withdrew, he entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871. He died in Rome in 1878, was buried in the Pantheon.

The Italian national Victor Emmanuel II monument in Rome, containing the Altare della Patria, was built in his honor. Victor Emmanuel was born as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, Maria Theresa of Austria, his father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, sports. In 1842, he married Adelaide of Austria, he was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father, King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia and Custoza, he became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne, after being defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara. Victor Emmanuel was able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander, Radetzky; the treaty, was not ratified by the Piedmontese lower parliamentary house, the Chamber of Deputies, Victor Emmanuel retaliated by firing his Prime Minister, Claudio Gabriele de Launay, replacing him with Massimo D'Azeglio.

After new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849, Victor Emmanuel fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a "vile and infected race of canailles." In 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a wise choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the "Risorgimento", the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s, he was popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms. Following Victor Emmanuel's advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more France.

After seeking British support and ingratiating himself with France and Napoleon III at the Congress of Paris in 1856 at the end of the war, Count Cavour arranged a secret meeting with the French emperor. In 1858, they met at Plombières-les-Bains, where they agreed that if the French were to help Piedmont combat Austria, which still occupied the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia in northern Italy, France would be awarded Nice and Savoy; the Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. However, sickened by the casualties of the war and worried about the mobilisation of Prussian troops, Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Franz Joseph of Austria at Villafranca whereby Piedmont would only gain Lombardy. France did not as a result receive the promised Nice and Savoy, but Austria did keep Venetia, a major setback for the Piedmontese, in no small part because the treaty had been prepared without their knowledge. After several quarrels about th

10 to Midnight

10 to Midnight is a 1983 American crime-horror-thriller film directed by J. Lee Thompson from a screenplay written by William Roberts; the film stars Charles Bronson in the lead role with a supporting cast that includes Lisa Eilbacher, Andrew Stevens, Gene Davis, Geoffrey Lewis and Wilford Brimley. 10 to Midnight was released by City Films, a subsidiary of Cannon Films, to American cinemas on March 11, 1983. Warren Stacy is a young office equipment repairman who kills women after they reject his sexual advances, his attempts at flirting are always seen as "creepy" by women. His first victim is an office worker of his acquaintance, he tracks her down to a wooded area, observes her having sex with her boyfriend. He ambushes the couple, kills the boyfriend and gives chase to the naked woman, he stabs her to death. Two Los Angeles police detectives, Leo Kessler and Paul McAnn, investigate his murders. Kessler is a seasoned veteran of the force, while McAnn is younger. Stacy avoids prosecution by constructing sound alibis and assaulting his victims while naked except for a pair of latex gloves to hide fingerprints, thus minimizing evidence.

Laurie Kessler is an acquaintance to some of the victims. A student nurse herself, she becomes a target for the killer. McAnn refuses to go along. Stacy goes on another rampage, killing three nursing students who are friends with Kessler's daughter, he is caught, stark naked in the street. Stacy boasts how he will say all the things that will "prove" that he is crazy: he hears voices ordering him to do things, etc. so that one day, he will be back on the street and Kessler, as well as the "whole fucking world," will hear from him again. Kessler replies, "No, we won't." He shoots Stacy once in the forehead, executing him and leaving all other considerations aside. Kessler stands over the body, surrounded by police. Charles Bronson as Leo Kessler, a tough LAPD detective who pursues Stacy. Lisa Eilbacher as Laurie Kessler, Leo's daughter. Andrew Stevens as Paul McAnn, Leo's partner and best friend. Gene Davis as Warren Stacy, a young psychopathic serial killer and office equipment repairman that rapes and murders young women after they reject him.

Geoffrey Lewis as Dave Dante Wilford Brimley as Capt. Malone, the police captain who commands over Kessler and McAnn. Robert F. Lyons as Nathan Zager Bert Williams as Mr. Johnston Ola Ray as Ola Kelly Preston as Doreen Cosie Costa as Dudley Jeana Tomasina as Karen June Gilbert as Betty Sam Chew Jr. as Minister Larry Caruso as Fingerprint Detective Anne Lockhart as Murder Victim The killer of the film is motivated by sexual frustration. The character is intentionally portrayed as a "creep", as called in the film; the intent was to portray the characters in a way. The type of villain an audience wants to see go down; the film features both strong violence, much "gratuitous nudity". It combines the two by having victims killed while naked or undressed. Producer Pancho Kohner had made a number of movies with J Lee Thompson, they purchased the film rights to the novel The Evil That Men Do by R. Lance Hill. Cannon Films chairman Menahem Golan wanted to market Bronson's next film project and the adaptation of the novel was going to be that project.

But Kohner estimated the rights to the novel and the cost of the screenplay to be worth $200,000 dollars. Menahem refused to pay and the deal fell through. However, Menahem still offered to market Bronson's next film project, he and Kohner had arranged a visit to the Cannes Film Festival to promote The Evil That Men Do. He asked Kohner to come up with a new project and fresh title, 10 to Midnight was the result of his brainstorm. At the Festival they promoted the project to potential buyers, as a film featuring action and revenge, but at this point, they had no script for the suggested film. Back in Los Angeles, they went in search of a story of the film. A colleague of Kohner's, Lance Hool, suggested using the screenplay Bloody Sunday by William Roberts, they attached the chosen title to that screenplay. The name of killer Warren for Warren Stacy was based on Hollywood star Warren Beatty; the music for 10 to Midnight was composed by Cannon Films mainstay Robert O. Ragland and the film was recorded by cinematographer Adam Greenberg.

The film features actor Robert F. Lyons and actress Kelly Preston in smaller roles. Heavy on violence, vulgar language and sexual situations, 10 to Midnight drew scathing reviews from film critics, including a "zero stars" rating from Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times who wrote, "I admired strong, simple talent once. What is he doing in a garbage disposal like this?" The film did receive positive feedback from others, such as Ebert's colleague Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune and was a moderate financial success. The film has maintained a sizeable cult following through home video releases and cable TV showings; the film was heavily edited for television broadcasts which displayed alternate scenes of Stacy and his victims in their underwear instead of being naked. Internet Movie Data Base Fast Rewind Knight, Ken. "10 to Midnight". The Midnight Show: Late Night Cable-TV "guy flicks" of the 80s. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1467861038. Talbot, Paul. "Death Wish 4:The Crackdown: This Time It's War!".

Bronson's Loose!: The Maki

Gwen Kelly

Gwen Kelly was an award-winning Australian novelist, short story writer and poet, whose fourth novel, Always Afternoon, was made into a television mini-series in 1988. She was considered by some to be one of the "major Australian writers", whose novels are "an intimate chronicling of women's lives and of our yesterdays", "probing stereotypical Australian attitudes and behaviour". Gwen Nita Smith was born in Thornleigh, near Sydney, New South Wales, on 28 July 1922, the fourth of five daughters to accountant George Rupert Smith and his wife, Mary Ann, who died when Gwen was just nine years old, she began writing early, during her teenage years her poetry was published in the children's pages of newspapers and magazines. She attended Fort Street Girls High, was awarded a scholarship to the University of Sydney in 1940. There she studied English and Philosophy, graduating in 1944 with first-class honours and the University Medal in English. One of her teachers was the Challis Professor of Philosophy John Anderson, a promoter of free thought in morality and politics and advocate of academic freedom.

During her time at university, she experienced a "conversion" from the Baptist faith she had been brought up in, to atheism or agnosticism. In 1945, she married Classics scholar Maurice Nugent Kelly. In the late 1940s, Gwen Kelly lectured in philosophy at the University of Sydney and the University of New England, she continued to write, using the pen name Nita Heath, with short stories published in women's magazines and read on radio. In 1954, Maurice Kelly was appointed to the University of New England, he, Gwen and their young daughters Bronwyn and Jillian moved to Armidale. In 1960 and 1961, the family lived in Quebec, while Maurice completed his PhD at Laval University. Gwen Kelly's first novel, There Is No Refuge was published by Heinemann in 1961. A UK reviewer considered her "an author with a future", but felt it necessary to mention that the outback and goannas did not feature at all in the novel. Canada provided the landscape for her second novel The Red Boat, which "explores the extent to which a breakdown in childhood filial relationships can damage emotional development and well-being into adult life".

After returning to Armidale, Gwen was appointed Lecturer in English and Philosophy at the Armidale Teachers' College in 1964, remained at the college until her retirement in the early 1980s. With a colleague, she wrote What is Right? Case Studies in the Ethics of Education, in which "rue conflicts between child and teacher are analysed by the authors..... Conflicts that question the ethics of education, she wrote two guides to the writings of Henry Lawson, continued to publish short stories in literary journals including The Literary Review, Southerly and Meanjin. In 1968 she won her first Henry Lawson Prose Award for her short story'Day at Paffts', her third novel, The Middle-Aged Maidens, published in 1976, is set in a private girls' school in a small town, is narrated by one of the schoolteachers and three successive headmistresses. It has been described as a "fierce appraisal of small-town shortcomings... acerbic depiction of a private school for girls in Armidale." Reviewers appreciated that "the headmistresses' characters are sketched with sharp and brilliant lines......

Gwen Kelly draws from us that complexity of response, normal in life, rare in literature". Delicious, Ms Kelly.... You know your Australia and you've a lovely way with words". In 1976, her short story'Country Show' was adapted for screen as a short film called Showtime, directed by Jan Chapman, produced by Sandra Levy, written by Margaret Kelly, with cinematography by Jan Kenny, starring Jude Kuring and Lorna Lesley. Director Jan Chapman remembered that Showtime, "about the school system’s reaction to an affair between two women teachers", was shown at the Sydney Filmmakers Co-op cinema as part of a program about life in school, including Jane Oehr’s Stirring.... Ken Cameron’s first film Sailing To Brooklyn". Always Afternoon is Gwen Kelly's best-known work. Set during the years 1915-18, it concerns the lives of those in the small northern NSW town of Arakoon, where German nationals and Australian-born descendants of German migrants were interned in Trial Bay Gaol as enemy aliens. In Kelly's novel, a young local woman, Freda Kennon, falls in love with Franz, one of the internees, a violinist.

While some critics described the romance as a "vapid Romeo-and-Juliet scenario", other reviewers commented that "Kelly depicts well Freda's adolescence and the conflict between her love and her puritanical upbringing. She is successful in evoking the claustrophobic atmosphere in a small country town where life is "always afternoon", "Kelly is good at creating the feeling of life within the jail walls... depicts the growing hatred in the district, growing to dangerous proportions" as local families are affected by the deaths and injuries suffered by their menfolk away fighting in the war. Always Afternoon was made into a TV mini-series in 1988 by SBS TV in cooperation with German network NDR, with actors from Australia and the UK. In a decade in which Australian male soldiers' experiences of WWI were notably explored in film and TV series, Always Afternoon pro