Cagliari is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an autonomous region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu means castle, it has about 155,000 inhabitants. According to Eurostat, the population of the Functional urban area, the commuting zone of Cagliari, rises to 476,974. Cagliari is the largest city on the island of Sardinia. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilisations. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification attesting to human settlement over the course of some five thousand years, from the Neolithic to today. Historical sites include the prehistoric Domus de Janas damaged by cave activity, a large Carthaginian era necropolis, a Roman era amphitheatre, a Byzantine basilica, three Pisan-era towers and a strong system of fortification that made the town the core of Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean Sea, its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbour, the powerfully fortified hill of Castel di Castro, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, from the hinterland, wheat from the Campidano plain and silver and other ores from the Iglesiente mines.
Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom. Today the city is a regional cultural, educational and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments, it is Sardinia's economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the Mediterranean Sea, an international airport, the 106th highest income level in Italy, comparable to that of several northern Italian cities. It is the seat of the University of Cagliari, founded in 1607, of the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia, since the 5th century AD; the Cagliari area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. It occupies a favourable position between the sea and a fertile plain and is surrounded by two marshes. There are high mountains nearby, to which people could evacuate if the settlement had to be given up. Relics of prehistoric inhabitants were found in Cape Sant ` Elia. Karaly was established around the 8th/7th century BC as one of a string of Phoenician colonies in Sardinia, including Tharros.
Its founding is linked to its position along communication routes with Africa as well as to its excellent port. The Phoenician settlement was located in the Stagno di Santa Gilla, west of the present centre of Cagliari; this was the site of the Roman Portus Scipio, when Arab pirates raided the area in the 8th century it became the refuge for people fleeing from the city. Other Phoenician settlements have been found at Cape Sant'Elia. In the late 6th century BC Carthage took control of part of Sardinia, Cagliari grew under their domination, as testified by the large Tuvixeddu necropolis and other remains. Cagliari was a fortified settlement in what is now the modern Marina quarter, with an annexed holy area in the modern Stampace. Sardinia and Cagliari came under Roman rule in 238 BC, shortly after the First Punic War, when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians. No mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the island but, during the Second Punic War, Caralis was the headquarters of the praetor, Titus Manlius Torquatus, from whence he conducted his operations against Hampsicora and the Carthaginians.
At other times it was the Romans' chief naval station on the island and the residence of its praetor. The Romans built a new settlement east of the old Punic city, the vicus munitus Caralis mentioned by Varro Atacinus; the two urban agglomerations merged during the second century BC. Florus calls it the urbs capital of Sardinia, he represents it as taken and punished by Gracchus, but this statement is wholly at variance with Livy's account of the wars of Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to Rome, the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes. In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the first to declare in favor of the former, an example soon followed by the other cities of Sardinia. A few years when Sardinia fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sextus Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but was taken after a short siege. Cagliari continued to be regarded as the capital of the island under the Roman Empire, though it did not become a colony, obtained the status of Municipium.
Remains of Roman public buildings were found to the west of Marina in Piazza del Carmine. There was an area of ordinary housing near the modern Via Roma, richer houses on the slopes of the Marina distinct; the amphitheatre is located to the west of the Castello. A Christian community is attested in Cagliari at least as early as the 3rd century, by the end of that century the city had a Christian bishop. In the middle decades of the 4th century bishop Lucifer of Cagliari was exiled because of his opposition to the sentence against Athanasius of Alexandria at the Synod of Milan, he was banished to the desert of Thebais by the emperor Constantius II. Claudi
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Counts and dukes of Savoy
The following is a list of rulers of Savoy. House of Savoy List of consorts of Savoy County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Kingdom of Sardinia List of monarchs of Sardinia List of Sardinian consorts Kingdom of Italy King of Italy List of Italian queens Savoy Genealogy
Maria Anna of Savoy
Maria Anna of Savoy was Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary ) by marriage to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Maria Anna was born in Palazzo Colonna in Rome, the daughter of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and of his wife, Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria-Este, she had a twin sister Maria Teresa. The two princesses were baptised by Pope Pius VII, their godparents were their maternal grandparents, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este. In the Museo di Roma can be seen a painting of the baptism. On 12 February 1831 Maria Anna was married by procuration in Turin to King Ferdinand V of Hungary. On 27 February the couple were married in person in Vienna in the Hofburg chapel by the Cardinal Archbishop of Olmütz. Maria Anna and Ferdinand had no children. Ferdinand succeeded as Emperor of Austria on 2 March 1835. On 12 September 1836 she was crowned as Queen of Bohemia at Prague. On 2 December 1848 Ferdinand abdicated as Emperor of Austria, they lived in retirement together, spending the winters at Prague Castle and the summers at Reichstadt or at Ploschkowitz.
Maria Anna died in Prague. She is buried next to her husband in tomb number 63 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. 19 September 1803 – 12 February 1831 Her Royal Highness Princess Maria Anna of Savoy 12 February 1831 – 2 December 1848 Her Majesty The Queen of Hungary 2 March 1835 – 2 December 1848 Her Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty The Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Queen of Lombardy-Venetia 2 December 1848 – 4 May 1884 Her Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Empress-Queen Maria Anna Austria-Hungary: Dame of the Order of the Starry Cross. Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa. Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich Media related to Maria Anna of Sardinia at Wikimedia Commons
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Sardinia
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este was born an Archduchess of Austria and a Princess of Modena. She was Queen of Sardinia as consort of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, she was born at the Royal Palace of Milan, a daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, governor of Milan and son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria after whom she was named. Her mother was Maria Beatrice heiress to the Duchy of Modena. Maria Theresa married on 25 April 1789 at the age of 15 with the 29-year-old Victor Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta future King Victor Emmanuel I, their relationship was a happy one. She was a good friend of Marie Clotilde of France, the childless consort of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont, she was close to the Duchess of Chablais. At the time of her marriage, her spouse was the Duke of Aosta as such she was styled as Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Aosta till she became Queen; the couple had one son, who died young. Upon the invasion of Savoy by Napoleon in 1798, she left with her family first to Tuscany and to Sardinia.
After the abdication of Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia in 1802, Maria Theresa became queen consort, but she had to wait on the island of Sardinia for the end of the war in 1814 to return to the capital Turin. Maria Theresa was enthusiastically welcomed in Turin, but she soon aroused great discontent among the public, she was accused of wishing to undermine and abolish so much as possible of the reforms initiated during the French occupation, was additionally said to treat all whom cooperated with the French with contempt. Her conduct has been suggested as one of the reasons behind the discontent which led to the rebellions of 1821 which led to her consort's abdication. After the outbreak of a liberal revolution in 1821, her husband Victor Emmanuel abdicated in favor of his brother, Charles Felix. During the riots, she declared herself willing to assume regency. Instead, she followed her abdicated spouse to Nice. Maria Theresa survived Victor Emmanuel by eight years, she was accused of having tried to convince her childless brother-in-law Charles Felix to assign Francis IV, duke of Modena, as heir to the throne.
Due to the hostility directed toward her, she was not allowed to return to Turin until 1831. She was buried in the Basilica of Superga. Princess Maria Beatrice Victoria Josepha of Savoy, married Francis IV, Duke of Modena, had issue. Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy died in childhood. Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy died of smallpox. A daughter died in infancy. Maria Teresa of Savoy married Duke of Parma, had issue. Princess Maria Anna of Savoy married Ferdinand I of no issue. Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy married. 1 November 1773 – 25 April 1789 - Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este 25 April 1789 – 4 June 1802 - Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Aosta 4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821 - Her Majesty The Queen of Sardinia 12 March 1821 – 29 March 1832 - Her Majesty Queen Maria Theresa of Sardinia Jacobite: 6 October 1819 – 10 January 1824 - Her Majesty The Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland Jacobite: 10 January 1824 – 29 January 1824 - Her Majesty Queen Maria Theresa of England and Ireland Jacobite: 29 January 1824 – March 1832 - Her Majesty The Queen Dowager of England and IrelandSince the Empire of Austria was established in 1804, many years after Maria Theresa's marriage, she was never styled as an "Imperial and Royal Highness".
Prior to 1804, members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine were only entitled to "Royal Highness" as Archdukes or Archduchesses of Austria. Festorazzi, Roberto. La regina infelice: Lettere d'amore segrete di Maria Teresa di Savoia. Milano: Mursia, 2002. ISBN 88-425-3060-3. Brigitte Hamann: Die Habsburger. Ein biographisches Lexikon. Verlag Carl Ueberreuter, Wien 1988, S. 345f. Media related to Maria Theresa of Austria-Este at Wikimedia Commons
Jacobitism was the name of the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England and Ireland. The movement was named after the Latin form of James. After James II and VII went into exile after the 1688 Glorious Revolution, the English Parliament argued he had'abandoned' the throne of England and offered it to his Protestant daughter Mary II and son-in-law and nephew William III as joint monarchs. In Scotland, the Convention did the same but claimed he had'forfeited' the throne of Scotland by his actions, listed in the Articles of Grievances; this was a fundamental change capturing a key ideological difference between Jacobites and their opponents. However, Jacobitism was a complex mix of ideas. After 1707, many Scottish Jacobites wanted to undo the Acts of Union that created Great Britain but opposed the idea of divine right. Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the Scottish Highlands and Aberdeenshire, traditional Catholic areas in Northern England Northumberland, County Durham and Lancashire), plus parts of Wales and South-West England.
The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. In addition to the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland, there were a number of Jacobite revolts in Scotland and England between 1689 and 1746, plus many unsuccessful plots; the collapse of the 1745 Rising ended Jacobitism as a serious political movement. The first Stuart to be monarch of both Scotland and England was James VI and I, who claimed his authority was divinely inspired, a concept known as divine right, he considered his decisions were not subject to'interference' by either Parliament or the Church, a political view that would remain remarkably consistent among his Stuart successors. When James became King of England in 1603, a unified Church of Scotland and England governed by bishops was the first step in his vision of a centralised, Unionist state. While both churches were nominally Episcopalian, in reality they were different in governance and doctrine.
Attempts by James's son Charles I to impose common practices led to the 1639-1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the execution of Charles in 1649 and the incorporation of Scotland into the English Commonwealth. After the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, political and religious conflict continued. In Ireland, the key issues were land rights and tolerance for the Catholic majority. Retrieving these was a primary aim of the 1641 Irish Rebellion but after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, land held by Irish Catholics had fallen from 60% in 1641 to 9%. Only a small minority of large Catholic landowners benefitted from the 1662 Act of Settlement passed after the Restoration. In addition to struggles over religion, the Stuarts resisted the growing strength of Parliament. Louis XIV of France was the greatest exponent of Royal Absolutism in contemporary Europe, which meant many associated political absolutism with Catholicism. Charles II refused to call an English Parliament between 1681–1685, while in Ireland, only one session of Parliament was held between 1660 and 1689.
In 1685, Charles' Catholic brother became James II and VII, with considerable support in all three kingdoms. James' attempts to extend these measures to other Dissenters and his use of the Royal Prerogative to do so evoked memories of the religious and political divisions that led to the Civil Wars and were resisted by the Presbyterian Scots and his English Tory Anglican supporters. However, his Catholic viceroy in Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, began replacing Protestant office holders with Catholics, while purging them from an expanded Royal Irish Army. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis. Prosecuting the Seven Bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and into an assault on the Episcopalian establishment. In 1685, many feared civil war. Representatives from across the political class invited William to assume the English throne and he landed in Brixham on 5 November. Parliament offered the English throne to William and Mary in February 1689. A Scottish Convention was elected in March 1689 to agree a Settlement, with only a tiny minority of the 125 delegates loyal to James.
On 12 March, James began the War in Ire
Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent. Elisabeth was born at the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, daughter of Odoardo Farnese and Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg, her mother married her uncle Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth was raised in seclusion in an apartment in the Palace in Parma, she had a difficult relationship with her mother, but was deeply devoted to her uncle-stepfather. She could speak and write Latin and German and was schooled in rhetoric, philosophy and history, but she found no interest in her studies and lacked intellectual interests, she was a better student within dance, studied painting under Pierantonio Avanzini and enjoyed music and embroidery. She survived a virulent attack of smallpox shortly after the War of the Spanish Succession; because of the lack of male heirs of her father, her uncle-stepfather, her youngest uncle, who all succeeded one another, preparations were done for succession of the Duchy of Parma in the female line through her.
She was therefore made many marriage proposals. Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont and Francesco d'Este, Hereditary Prince of Modena both asked for her hand but negotiations failed, as well as Prince Pio della Mirandola; the Duchy of Parma would be inherited by her first son, Infante Carlos. After his accession to the Spanish throne, the title passed on to Infante Felipe, it was he. On 16 September 1714 she was married by proxy at Parma to Philip V of Spain; the marriage was arranged by the ambassador of Parma, Cardinal Alberoni, with the concurrence of the Princesse des Ursins, the Camarera mayor de Palacio of the King of Spain. The marriage was arranged much because of the sexual need of Philip V, as his religious scruples prevented him from having a sexual life outside of marriage and he had insisted upon his conjugal rights until the last days of his previous consort's life. Elisabeth was a natural choice for Philip V because of the traditional Spanish interests in Italian provinces, as she was the heir of the Parmesan throne.
The Parmese ambassador convinced the all-powerful Princess des Ursins to give her crucial consent to the marriage by convincing her that Elisabeth was a simple minded person, accustomed to nothing but needlework and embroidery and easy to control and dominate as a replacement for the previous, cooperative queen consort. In parallel, Alberoni informed Elisabeth that the king "wishes to be governed" by others and that she would be an unhappy queen unless she swiftly took control, that she would be liked by the Spaniards if she removed the influence of the French party headed by the princess des Ursins. Elisabeth left Parma in September and traveled to Spain by land in a retinue led by Marquis Schotta and Ippolita Ludovisi, Princess de Piombino. Intended to travel by sea, she became ill in Genova, the plans were therefore altered. On her way to Spain, she met the Prince of Monaco and the French ambassador, who forwarded her gifts from the King of France. Elisabeth spent several days in Bayonne in November as guest of her maternal aunt, the Queen Dowager Maria Anna of Spain.
At the Franco-Spanish border, she was met by Alberoni, who spent several days warning her against des Ursins. Upon entrance to Spain, she refused to part with her Italian retinue in exchange with a Spanish one, as had been planned. On 23 December at Jadraque, Elisabeth met the Princesse des Ursins, who as her newly appointed Mistress of the Robes wished to present herself before Elisabeth met Philip V at Guadalajara; the princess had sent out spies who reported that Elisabeth was in fact not at all a timid person who would be easy to control. Elisabeth asked to speak with her privately. Shortly after, the party could hear the sounds of a violent argument, after which des Ursins was arrested and escorted over the border to France. There have been many different versions of this incident, different suggestions as to how it occurred. Alberoni informed the king that Elisabeth had acted with his best interests at hand, when Philip met Elisabeth at Guadalajara 24 December, he fell in love with her at first sight, just as he had with his former spouse.
Elisabeth wore male riding attire while doing so. She was described as an excellent shot and rider, hunted with the king. Early on, she became overweight because of her great appetite, she spent extravagantly, on both her confidants. Her circle of confidants consisted, except her nurse Laura Pescatori, of her Italian doctor Cervi and Marquis Scotti, who were a part of her Italian retinue, her favorites among her ladies-in-waiting was first her Flemish attendant La Pellegrina, who acted as the go-between for her and minister Patino, the Duchess of Saint-Pierre. She respected her chief lady-in-waiting, Countess de Altamira, who managed her ladies-in-waiting strictly. Queen Elisabeth was popular because her dismissal of des Ursins made her seem as the savior of Spain from French dominance, but her complete dominance of the monarch soon made her as unpopular as des Ursins. Elisabeth was unpopular among the Spanish nobility for the decline of formal Spanish etiquett