BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Victor Ginzburg (director)
Victor Lvovich Ginzburg is a Russian-American director and screenwriter who has worked on films and music videos. He is best known for the film Generation P. Victor Lvovich Ginzburg was born in 1959 in a grandson of a famous pianist Grigory Ginzburg. At the age of 15, he emigrated to the United States with his mother, he went on to study literature at the New School of Social Research and filmmaking at the School of Visual Arts in New York. Ginzburg’s student film Hurricane David, a short documentary about victims of cerebral palsy expressing themselves through art therapy, won the GrandPrize at the 1983 Mason Gross Film Festival in Syracuse, New York. Ginzburg next directed Alien Probe, a short film scored to the music of New Order's "Blue Monday" that led to Ginzburg's entry into the music video industry. Ginzburg followed up with several successful music videos for various artists, including Pat Benatar, Lou Reed, Belinda Carlisle and Jody Watley, his music video for Bob Pfeiffer "Maybe It's Stupid” was nominated for Best Music Video in the 1987 New York Film and TV Festival.
Ginzburg’s first feature-length documentary The Restless Garden was filmed in Moscow in 1991 and documented the cultural and sexual revolution taking place during the fall of the Soviet Union. The film premiered at the Boston International Film Festival in 1994; the film was provocative because of its eroticism and depiction of nudity and led to Ginzburg directing. Ginzburg directed several episodes for the HBO documentary television series Real Sex. In 2006, after a ten-year period of running a successful music video and commercial creative boutique “Room” and developing screenplays, Ginzburg began pre-production on a Russian language film Generation P, based on the best-selling Russian novel of the same name by Victor Pelevin. Due to its political and irreverent content, Generation P could not secure Russian government backing and had to be financed independently; the film, which Ginzburg co-wrote and produced, took five years to complete as a result. Generation P premiered in Russia in the spring of 2011 and proved to be both a critical and box office success, generating over $4.6 million in Russian box office receipts that summer, higher than any other domestic Russian film during the spring-summer 2011.
The film won several awards at international film festivals, including the Crystal Globe Jury Prize at the Karlovy Vary IFF, Sputnik over Poland Audience Award ”, Jury “Special Mention” at the Sofia IFF and the Almaty IFF "Best Feature Film" award. It was selected to the Vanguard Program of the Toronto IFF, New Directors/New Films at MoMA and Lincoln Center. In 2011 Ginzburg acquired film rights to another Victor Pelevin book “Empire V”, the unofficial sequel to Generation P. Generation P was shown at many international film festivals and had positive reviews. "Director and co-writer Victor Ginzburg serves a vital cocktail that suggests a mix of “Brazil,” David Mamet’s media-spin satires, rabbit-hole tales and theme comedies such as “How to Succeed in Advertising,” along with a dominant Russian gene that keeps things fresh and unique." Anita Katz, The San Francisco Examiner "Director Victor Ginzburg's Generation P gives phantasmagoric treatment to an alternate history of the Putin moment." Karina Longworth, The Village Voice "Generation P has the energizing feel of a work by a filmmaker who has a lot he wants to say and is unafraid to risk clumsiness in order to express it.
Ginzburg's freewheeling visual invention reflects a society that seems to prize slick appearances over actual substance." Kenji Fujishima, Slant Magazine "Director Victor Ginzburg brings a deadpan, Strangelovian ambiance to his adaptation of Victor Pelevin’s cult novel, the result is a film that irresistibly draws you into its delirious world" Dan Persons, Cinefantastique "... One of the year's true cinematic sleepers...a cultural firebomb. Director Victor Ginzburg takes the audience on a long, strange trip through the minefield of 21st century Russia, juxtaposing elements of absurdist comedy, underground crime thriller and – in several hilariously imagined psychedelic scenes – the mysterious quests of Andrei Tarkovsky." Steve Dollar, The Wall Street Journal “For nearly two ferociously entertaining hours, Ginzburg piles on hallucinogenic tour de forces… "Generation P" is a journey to the rotten, media/ power center of a country whose struggle to define its identity is corroded into a sinister advertising campaign...”
Vadim Rizov, IndieWire “Generation P is sprawling entertainment, visually inventive and paced with diabolical assurance by director Victor Ginzburg.” Cary Casey, Movie Magazine “Expatriate director Victor Ginzburg's thrilling initial feature film has been seen by more than a million of his countrymen. He exhibits a stylistic genius equal to a Gilliam or Fincher in the process." Brad Schreiber, The Huffington Post "One of the wildest films at the festival. Ginzburg uses nifty graphic overlays and visual effects to create authentic simulations of drug trips ” Brian D. Johnson, Maclean's "The Russian-born, American-bred Ginzburg brings a unique visual palette to the story... Generation P feels revolutionary in not only its ideology but its execution” Stephen Saito, The Moveable Fest “The film’s success, in all senses, is more remarkable when one realizes that this is Ginzburg’s first full-length feature film. Generation P should vault its director Victor Ginzburg, to the top rank of filmmakers working in Russian today."
Anthony Anemone, Kinokultura "Generation P is a witty, wildly imaginative, intermittently psychedelic trip through the post-Soviet mindset, or at least the post-Soviet mindset of write
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
Viktor L. Ginzburg is a Russian-American mathematician who has worked on Hamiltonian dynamics and symplectic and Poisson geometry. Ginzburg completed his Ph. D. at the University of California, Berkeley in 1990. He is best known for his work on the Conley conjecture, which asserts the existence of infinitely many periodic points for Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms in many cases, for his counterexample to the Hamiltonian Seifert conjecture which constructs a Hamiltonian with an energy level with no periodic trajectories; some of his other more influential works concern coisotropic intersection theory, Poisson Lie groups. As of 2017, Ginzburg is Professor of Mathematics at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Viktor Ginzburg at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
The American Economic Review
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics. Twelve issues are published annually by the American Economic Association. First published in 1911, it is considered one of the most prestigious and distinguished journals in the field of economics; the current editor-in-chief is Esther Duflo. The previous editor was Pinelopi Goldberg; the journal is based in Pittsburgh. The May issue of the American Economic Review each year is known as "Papers and Proceedings". Selected papers and discussions of papers presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Economic Association are published along with reports of officers and representatives. In 2004, the American Economic Review began requiring "data and code sufficient to permit replication" of a paper's results, posted on the journal's website. Exceptions are made for proprietary data. In 2011 a "Top 20 Committee," consisting of Kenneth Arrow, Douglas Bernheim, Martin Feldstein, Daniel McFadden, James M. Poterba, Robert Solow, selected the following twenty articles to be the most important ones to appear in the journal: "A Theory of Production", by Paul Douglas and Charles Cobb.
"The Use of Knowledge in Society", by F. A. Hayek "Economic Growth and Income Inequality", by Simon Kuznets. "The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the Theory of Investment", by Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller. "A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas", by Robert Mundell. "Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care", by Kenneth Arrow. "Capital Theory and Investment Behavior", by Dale W. Jorgenson "National Debt in a Neoclassical Growth Model", by Peter A. Diamond. "The Role of Monetary Policy", by Milton Friedman. "Migration and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis", by John R. Harris and Michael Todaro. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production I: Production Efficiency" and "Optimal Taxation and Public Production II: Tax Rules", by Peter A. Diamond and James Mirrlees. "Production, Information Costs, Economic Organization", by Armen Alchian and Harold Demsetz. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs", by Robert Lucas, Jr. "The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal’s Problem", by Stephen A. Ross.
"The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society", by Anne Osborn Krueger "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity", by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz. "An Almost Ideal Demand System", by John Muellbauer. "On the Impossibility of Informationally Efficient Markets", by Sanford J. Grossman and Joseph E. Stiglitz. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, the Pattern of Trade", by Paul Krugman. "Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to Be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?", by Robert J. Shiller. Thirteen of those authors have received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences; the journal can be accessed online via JSTOR. In both 2006 and 2007, it was the most viewed journal of all the 775 journals in JSTOR. Other notable papers from the journal include: "Colonial origins of comparative development", by Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, James A. Robinson. "Growth in a Time of Debt", by Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff. "Some Unsettled Problems of Irrigation," by Katharine Coman. This was the first article that appeared in the journal, was reprinted in 2011 due to its continuing significance.
Official website 1911-1922 volumes available online at the Online Books Page
Ruanda-Urundi was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, ruled by Belgium between 1922 and 1962. Occupied by the Belgians during the East African Campaign during World War I, the territory was under Belgian military occupation from 1916 to 1922 and became a Belgian-controlled Class B Mandate under the League of Nations from 1922 to 1945. After the disestablishment of the League and World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control. In 1962, the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Burundi; the Kingdoms of Ruanda and Burundi were two independent kingdoms in the Great Lakes region before the Scramble for Africa. In 1894, they were annexed by the German Empire and became two districts of German East Africa; the two monarchies were retained as part of the German policy of indirect rule, with the Ruandan king Yuhi V Musinga using German support to consolidate his control over subordinate chiefs in exchange for labour and resources.
World War I broke out in 1914. German colonies were meant to preserve their neutrality as mandated in the Berlin Convention, but fighting soon broke out on the frontier between German East Africa and the Belgian Congo around Lakes Kivu and Tanganyika; as part of the Allied East African Campaign and Urundi were invaded by a Belgian force in 1916. The German forces in the region were hugely outnumbered. Ruanda was occupied over April–May and Urundi in June 1916. By September, a large portion of German East Africa was under Belgian occupation reaching as far south as Kigoma and Karema in modern-day Tanzania and as far eastwards as Tabora. In Ruanda and Urundi, the Belgians were welcomed by many Africans who were opposed to the autocratic behaviour of the kings; the territory captured was administered by a Belgian military occupation authority pending an ultimate decision about its political future. An administration, headed by a Royal Commissioner, was established in February 1917 at the same time as Belgian forces were ordered to withdraw from the Tabora region by the British.
The Treaty of Versailles divided the German colonial empire among the Allied nations. German East Africa was partitioned, with Tanganyika allocated to the British and a small area allocated to Portugal. Belgium was allocated Ruanda-Urundi which represented only a fraction of the territories occupied by the Belgian forces in East Africa though it had been hoped that Belgian claims in the region could be traded for Portuguese territory in Angola to expand the Congo's access to the sea; the League of Nations awarded Ruanda-Urundi to Belgium as a B-Class Mandate on 20 July 1922. The mandatory regime was controversial in Belgium and it was not approved by Belgium's parliament until 1924. Unlike colonies which belonged to its colonial power, a mandate was theoretically subject to international oversight through the League's Permanent Mandates Commission in Geneva, Switzerland. After a period of inertia, the Belgian administration became involved in Ruanda-Urundi between 1926 and 1931 under the governorship of Charles Voisin.
The reforms produced a dense road-network and improved agriculture, with the emergence of cash crop farming in cotton and coffee. However, four major famines did ravage parts of the mandate after crop failures in 1916–1918, 1924–26, 1928–30 and 1943–44; the Belgians were far more involved in the territory than the Germans in Ruanda. Despite the mandate rules that the Belgians had to develop the territories and prepare them for independence, the economic policy practised in the Belgian Congo was exported eastwards: the Belgians demanded that the territories earn profits for the motherland and that any development must come out of funds gathered in the territory; these funds came from the extensive cultivation of coffee in the region's rich volcanic soils. To implement their vision, the Belgians used the existing indigenous power structure; this consisted of a Tutsi ruling class controlling a Hutu population, through the system of chiefs and sub-chiefs under the overall rule of the two Mwami. The Belgian administrators deserved power.
While before colonization the Hutu had played some role in governance, the Belgians simplified matters by further stratifying the society on ethnic lines. Hutu anger at the Tutsi domination was focused on the Tutsi elite rather than the distant colonial power. Musinga was deposed by the administration as mwami of Ruanda in November 1931 after being accused of disloyalty, he was replaced by his son Mutara III Rudahigwa. Although promising the League it would promote education, Belgium left the task to subsidised Catholic missions and unsubsidised Protestant missions. Catholicism expanded through the African population in consequence; as late as 1961, shortly before independence arrived, fewer than 100 Africans had been educated beyond the secondary level. The policy was one of low-cost paternalism, as explained by Belgium's special representative to the Trusteeship Council: "The real work is to change the African in his essence, to transform his soul, to do that one must love him and enjoy having daily contact with him.
He must be cured of his thoughtlessness, he must accustom himself to living in society, he must overcome his inertia." The League of Nations was formally dissolved in April 1946, following its failure to prevent the Second World War. It was succeeded, by the new United Nations. In December 1946, the new body voted to end the mandate over Ruanda-Urundi and replace it with the ne