National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Lorado Zadok Taft was an American sculptor and educator. Taft was born in Elmwood, Illinois, in 1860 and died in his home studio in Chicago in 1936. Taft was the father of US Representative Emily Taft Douglas, father-in-law to her husband, US Senator Paul Douglas, a distant relative of US President William Howard Taft. Taft was born in Illinois, his father was a professor of geology at the Illinois Industrial University. After being homeschooled by his parents, Taft earned his bachelor's degree and master's degree at Illinois Industrial University. After his master's degree, he left for Paris to study sculpture, attending the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts from 1880 to 1883, where he studied with Augustin Dumont, Jean-Marie Bonnassieux and Jules Thomas, his record there was outstanding. Upon returning to the United States in 1886, Taft settled in Chicago, he taught at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago until 1929. In addition to work in clay and plaster, Taft taught his students marble carving, had them work on group projects.
He lectured at the University of Chicago and the University of Illinois. In 1892, while the art community of Chicago was preparing for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, chief architect Daniel Burnham expressed concern to Taft that the sculptural adornments to the buildings might not be finished on time. Taft asked if he could employ some of his female students as assistants for the Horticultural Building. Burnham responded, "Hire anyone white rabbits if they'll do the work." From that arose a group of talented women sculptors known as "the White Rabbits", which included Enid Yandell, Carol Brooks MacNeil, Bessie Potter Vonnoh, Janet Scudder, Julia Bracken, Ellen Rankin Copp. Another former student, Frances Loring, noted that Taft used his students' talents to further his own career, a not uncommon situation. In general, history has given Taft credit for helping to advance the status of women as sculptors; as Taft grew older, his eloquence and compelling writing led him, along with Frederick Ruckstull, to the forefront of sculpture's conservative ranks, where he served as a spokesperson against the modern and abstract trends that developed during his lifetime.
Taft's frequent lecture tours for the Chautauqua gave him a popular celebrity status. In some settings, Taft is better known for his writings than for his sculpture. In 1903, Taft published The History of the first survey of the subject; the revised 1925 version was to remain the standard reference on the subject until Wayne Craven published Sculpture in America in 1968. In 1921, Taft published Modern Tendencies in Sculpture, a compilation of his lectures given at the Art Institute of Chicago. At the time, it offered a distinct perspective on the development of European sculpture. In 1898, Taft was a founding member of the Eagle's Nest Art Colony in the small town of Oregon, Illinois. Taft designed the Columbus Fountain at Union Station in Washington, D. C. in collaboration with Daniel Burnham. Taft was a member of the National Academy of Design, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, he served on the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1925 to 1929, was an honorary member of the American Institute of Architects.
His papers reside in collections at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, the University of Illinois, the Art Institute of Chicago. He maintained his connections with his alma mater throughout his life. In 1929, he dedicated his sculpture Alma Mater on the University of Illinois campus. Taft envisioned his Alma Mater as a benign and magnificent woman, about 14 ft high and dressed in classical draperies, rising from a throne and advancing a step forward with outstretched arms in a gesture of generous greeting to her children. Two figures behind her on either side represent the university’s motto and Labor. Taft was active until the end of his life; the week before he died, he attended the Quincy, dedication ceremonies for his sculpture celebrating the Lincoln-Douglas debates. He received numerous awards and honorary degrees. In 1965, his Chicago workplace at 6016 Ingleside Avenue was designated a National Historic Landmark as Lorado Taft Midway Studios. Taft may be best remembered for his various fountains.
The University of Illinois Archives has a series of photographs of most of Lorado Taft's important works, including many of their construction and preliminary models. Following more than a dozen years of work, Taft's Fountain of Time was unveiled at the west end of Chicago's Midway Plaisance in 1922. Based on poet Austin Dobson's lines — "Time goes, you say? Ah no, time stays, we go." The fountain shows a cloaked figure of time observing the stream of humanity flowing past. The last major commission that Taft completed was two groups for the front entrance to the Louisiana State Capitol Building, dedicated in 1932, he left unfinished a vast work to be called the Fountain of Creation which he planned to place at the opposite end of the Chicago Midway from the "Fountain of Time." Parts of this work were donated to the Uni
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Iver Lawson (publisher)
Iver Lawson was a Norwegian-American real estate investor and newspaper publisher. Together with John Anderson and Knud Langeland, he was the founder of the Skandinaven newspaper in Chicago. Iver Lawson was born as Iver Larson Bø at Bø in Voss, Norway, he migrated to the United States in 1844 with Steffen Lawson. Two other siblings, Boarky Lawson and Knud Lawson, had migrated earlier. Iver Lawson came to prosperity buying and selling real estate in Chicago during the mid-19th century, he entered city politics in 1864. He was a member of the Chicago City Council and an Illinois senator, he was one of the organizers of the First Lutheran church of Chicago in 1848. Skandinaven was established by three Norwegian immigrants. John Anderson administered the newspaper while Knud Langeland served as the first editor of Skandinaven. Iver Lawson was an landlord who provided a location and facilities. Lawson married Melinda Nordvig, they had Victor Fremont Lawson and Iver Norman Lawson, Sr.. He died on October 5, 1871.
After his death, his son, Victor Lawson, took over the administration of his father's estate, which included his real estate holdings and interest in Skandinaven. Strand, Algot E. A History of the Norwegians of Illinois Dennis, Charles H. Victor Lawson, his time and work
Melville Elijah Stone
Melville Elijah Stone was a newspaper publisher, the founder of the Chicago Daily News, was the general manager of the reorganized Associated Press. Stone's parents were Reverend Elijah Stone, a Methodist minister, Sophia Creighton. In 1876, who started out as a reporter, founded the first Chicago penny paper, the Chicago Daily News. In 1881 he established the Chicago Morning News. Stone became general manager of the reorganized Associated Press in 1893, under his direction it became one of the great news agencies, he retired in 1921. Stone died of hardening of the arteries in 1929. Stone's son, Herbert Stone, married Mary Grigsby McCormick in 1900 and perished in the sinking of the luxury liner RMS Lusitania in 1915, his wife was daughter of William Grigsby McCormick of the McCormick family which included her uncle Robert Sanderson McCormick who married the daughter of the founder of the rival newspaper Chicago Tribune. Another son, Melville Elijah Stone, Jr. predeceased him but he was survived by his wife, the former Martha McFarland of Chicago, whom he married on November 25, 1869, his daughter Elizabeth Creighton Stone.
Stone's brother was the astronomer Ormond Stone. A Liberty ship is named in his honor. On the March 3, 2008 edition of The Rest of the Story, Paul Harvey, Jr. related the story of Stone being responsible for the common use of pennies. The Chicago Daily News was not an initial success, as pennies were not used in 1876. According to Harvey, Stone convinced local merchants that employee theft could be reduced if the price of item was sold for 99¢ instead of $1.00 etc. forcing employee to make change for sales and less to steal money since it required further calculation. Merchants began experimenting with a penny price drop in their goods, meeting with success among their patrons. An increase in pennies, thought Stone, would help the circulation of his penny paper; when merchants began running low on pennies, Stone purchased several barrels of pennies from the Mint, further increasing their use within the Chicago area. This story is related in Scot Morris' The Book of Strange Facts and Useless Information, though there is some doubt as to its veracity.
Abramoske, Donald J. "The Founding of the Chicago Daily News." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society: 341-353. In JSTOR Cole and John Maxwell Hamilton. "A Natural History of Foreign Correspondence: A Study of the Chicago Daily News, 1900-1921." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84#1 pp: 151-166. Dennis, Charles Henry. Victor Lawson: his time and his work. Story of Chicago in Connection with the Printing Business Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition Melville Stone papers at Newberry Library Melville Stone - Pantagraph
The Newberry Library is an independent research library, specializing in the humanities and located on Washington Square in Chicago, Illinois. It has been free and open to the public since 1887, its collections encompass a variety of topics related to the history and cultural production of Western Europe and the Americas over the last six centuries. The Library is named to honor the founding bequest from the estate of philanthropist Walter Loomis Newberry. Core collection strengths support research in several subject areas, including maps and exploration. Although the Newberry is a noncirculating library, it welcomes researchers into the reading rooms who are at least 14 years old or in the ninth grade, have a research topic corresponding to the nature of the collections. Additional public services are offered through exhibitions, meet-the-author lectures, adult education seminars, other programming; the Newberry was established in 1887 as the result of a bequest by Walter Loomis Newberry, an early Chicago resident and business leader involved in banking, real estate, other commercial ventures.
Newberry died at sea in 1868. He included in his will a provision of funds for the creation of a "free public library" should his daughters die without heirs, they did, so, following the death of Newberry's widow, Julia Butler Newberry, in 1885, it was up to Newberry estate trustees William H. Bradley and Eliphalet W. Blatchford to bring the library to fruition. Without much direction and without its founder's personal collection as a foundation, the first officers and staff members were instrumental in forming the character of the Newberry; the Newberry's first librarian, William Frederick Poole, was a major figure in the library world when he came to the Newberry. Poole saw the Newberry as a blank canvas on which he could project his ideas, which included and found their most impassioned articulation in the design and construction of libraries. In 1887-88 it was located at 90 La Salle Street, in 1889-90 at 338 Ontario Street, in 1890-93 at the northwest corner of State and Oak Streets; the present building, designed by Poole and architect Henry Ives Cobb, opened in 1893.
It is located at 60 West Walton Street, across from Washington Square. It is a structure in the Spanish Romanesque architectural style, built of Connecticut granite. Poole and Cobb feuded bitterly over their different visions for the library building. Poole favored a number of reading rooms with open shelving of materials that could be accessed by patrons. Poole's influence with the library's trustees coerced Cobb to temper the grand staircase he had envisioned and to accommodate open shelving. Over time, the open shelving would put too much strain on the Newberry's staff and the security of its collections, the library would convert to a centralized storage system. Poole served as Newberry librarian until his death in 1894. Under his leadership, the library built broad reference collections that would be useful to many different Chicagoans professionals and tradespeople; the Newberry's medical department, created in 1890, is an example of this emphasis. Poole steered the Newberry toward the acquisition of rare materials for use by professional scholars.
Two en bloc acquisitions made during his tenure, the private collections of Henry Probasco and Count Pio Resse, yielded notable rarities in music and early printed specimens, as well as Shakespeare folios and editions of Homer and Horace. To focus its own collecting and to avoid the duplication of resources in Chicago at large, the Newberry entered into a cooperative agreement in 1896 with the Chicago Public Library and the John Crerar Library, by which each institution would specialize in certain fields of knowledge and areas of service; as a consequence, the Newberry came to specialize in the humanities, the natural sciences became the province of the Crerar. The Newberry transferred its holdings in this area, including its copy of Audubon's Birds of America; the Newberry's medical department was transferred to the Crerar in 1906. Stanley Pargellis, the fifth Newberry librarian, emphasized not just the "passive" collection of materials but the active orchestration of programs and events to encourage scholarly inquiries into the insights those materials might contain.
Under Pargellis, a fellowship program was inaugurated and academic conferences were held at the Newberry, out of which emerged new scholarship using the library's collections. Pargellis expanded the scope of the collection. Understanding the important role corporations played in American life and believing that those corporations could only be properly assessed if their records were accessible, Pargellis started a trend across the library world with the acquisition of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company's private archives. Since this acquisition, in 1943, the Newberry would continue to add to its CB&Q archives, while collecting the records of other major corporations of the Midwest. Between 1962 and 1986, the library was expanded under the leadership of president Lawrence William "Bill" Towner. During this time, the Newberry acquired many important collections, a stacks building dedicated