Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe
For other theatres with this name, see Odeon The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe is one of France's six national theatres. It is located at 2 rue Corneille in the 6th arrondissement of Paris on the left bank of the Seine, next to the Luxembourg Garden, it was built between 1779 and 1782, in the garden of the former Hôtel de Condé, to a Neoclassical design by Charles De Wailly and Marie-Joseph Peyre. The Odéon was intended to house the Comédie Française, however, preferred to stay at the Théâtre-Français in the Palais Royal; the new theatre was inaugurated by Marie-Antoinette on April 9, 1782. It was there. An 1808 reconstruction of the theater designed by Jean Chalgrin was named the Théâtre de l'Impératrice, but everyone still called it the Odéon, it burned in 1818. The third and present structure, designed by Pierre Thomas Baraguay, was opened in September 1819. In 1990, the theater was given the sobriquet'Théâtre de l'Europe', it is a member theater of the Union of the Theatres of Europe. Notes SourcesHemmings, F. W. J..
Theatre and State in France, 1760–1905. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-03472-2. Official website
Blida is a city in Algeria. It is the capital of Blida Province, it is located about 45 km south-west of Algiers, the national capital; the name Blida, i.e. bulaydah, diminutive of the Arabic word belda, city. Blida lies surrounded with orchards and gardens, 190 metres above the sea, at the base of the Tell Atlas, on the southern edge of the fertile Mitidja Plain, the right bank of the Oued el kebir outflow from the Chiffa gorge; the abundant water of this stream provides power for large corn mills and several factories, supplies the town, with its numerous fountains and irrigated gardens. Blida is surrounded by a wall of considerable extent, pierced by six gates, is further defended by Port Mimieh, crowning a steep hill on the left bank of the river; the nearby Chiffa gorge is a habitat of the endangered Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus. In Blida, there is a Mediterranean climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Csa. The average annual temperature in Blida is 17.9 °C.
About 791 mm of precipitation falls annually. The present town, French in character, has well-built modern streets with many arcades, numbers among its buildings several mosques and churches, extensive barracks and a large military hospital; the principal square, the place d'Armes, is shaded by trees. The center of a fertile district, a post on one of the main routes in the country, Blida has a flourishing trade, chiefly in oranges and flour; the orange groves contain over 50,000 trees, in April the air for miles round is laden with the scent of the orange blossoms. In the public gardens is a group of magnificent olive trees; the products of the neighboring cork trees and cedar groves are a source of revenue to the town. Sidi-Ahmed El-Kebir, Blida’s founder, is buried in Sidi El-Kebir, he founded Blida in the 16th century. The city occupies the site of a military station in the time of the Romans, but the present town appears to date from the 16th century, in which it was founded, according to Baedeker, by Moors.
A mosque was built by order of Khair-ed-din Barbarossa, under the Turks the town was of some importance. In 1825 it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, but was speedily re-erected on a site about a mile distant from the ruins, it was intricately rebuilt of interconnecting alleyways and streets, was made accessible through the existing six major gates. The gates were as follows: Bab Er-Rahba Bab Ed-Zair Bab El-Khouikha Bab Es-Sebt Bab Ez-Zaouia Bab El-Kbour beb el-ksebToday those gates no longer exist, but their names are still in use by people in Blida as reference points to locate streets, places and businesses. In 1867, another earthquake damaged Blida. For a long time Blida Province has been home to a cluster of Berber-speaking towns including Djebailia, Beni Salah and Beni Misrah, their Amazigh dialect is related to the Tamazight of the Atlas mountains. Blida is close to the Kabyle varieties spoken east of Algiers Province and has traditionally been seen as an intermediate between Kabyle and the Chenoua language native to the north-eastern part of the country.
Alice Cherki and Nadia Benabid Frantz Fanon: A Portrait, Cornell University Press, 255 pages ISBN 0-8014-7308-X C. Michael Hogan, Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas StrombergAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Blida". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 58–59
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The Bachelor Girl
The Bachelor Girl is a novel by Victor Margueritte first published in 1922. An English translation was first published in 1923 by Alfred A. Knopf, it deals with the life of a young woman who, upon learning that her fiancé is cheating on her, decides to live life and on her own terms. Amongst other things, this included having multiple sexual partners; the title translates as The Tomboy. The title addresses the somewhat ambiguous realm between definite gender roles, e.g. where a Judeo-Christian patriarchal society might place a free-thinking, free-living woman in its social strata. Although the theme is not shocking in the present day, at the time it was considered quite scandalous, it has been adapted into a film four times, the most notably in 1936. Full text online Flapper
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Monestier is a commune in the Allier department in central France. The river Bouble forms most of the commune's southwestern border flows east through its southern part. Communes of the Allier department INSEE