New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the New Zealand Army, the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Royal New Zealand Navy. As of 2018 the Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF, Dame Patsy Reddy, Governor-General of New Zealand, exercises power on the advice of the Minister of Defence, Ron Mark, under the Defence Act 1990. A previous Chief of Defence Force, Lieutenant General Tim Keating, had served in the capacity of Vice Chief of Defence Force, was appointed to the top position on 31 January 2014. Mark was appointed Minister of Defence as a member of the Labour-NZ First government following the 2017 New Zealand general election, replacing the former Minister of Defence, Mark Mitchell. Air Marshal Kevin Short took over as Chief of Defence Force on 1 July 2018; the NZDF has announced that Air Vice-Marshal Tony Davies will serve as the next Vice Chief of Defence Force. New Zealand's armed forces have three defence-policy objectives: to defend New Zealand against low-level threats to contribute to regional security to play a part in global security effortsNew Zealand regards its own national defence needs as modest, due to its geographical isolation and benign relationships with neighbours.
As of September 2017 the NZDF had 302 personnel deployed overseas on operations and on UN missions in the South Pacific, Africa and the Middle East areas. After the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, New Zealand's security was dependent on British Imperial troops deployed from Australia and other parts of the empire. By 1841 the settlers those in the New Zealand Company settlement of Wellington, were calling for local militia to be formed. In 1843 a local militia had been formed in Wellington without official sanction; this prompted the Chief Police Magistrate Major Matthew Richmond to order its immediate disbandment. Richmond dispatched 53 soldiers from the 96th Regiment from Auckland to Wellington; these calls. The calls lead to a bill being introduced to the Legislative Assembly in 1844; those present noted their disapproval of the bill. On 22 March 1845 the Flagstaff War broke out. In 1844 a Select Committee of the House of Commons had recommended that a militia, composed of both settlers and native Maori, a permanent native force be set up.
On 25 March 1845, the Militia Ordinance was passed into law. Twenty-six officers were appointed in Auckland, thereby forming the start of New Zealand's own defence force. Major Richmond was appointed commander of the Wellington Battalion of the militia; the newspaper article of the time notes. The Nelson Battalion of Militia was formed 12 August 1845. In June 1845, 75 members of the Auckland Militia under Lieutenant Figg became the first unit to support British Imperial troops in the Flagstaff War, serving as pioneers. Seven militia were wounded in action between 30 June and 1 July 1845. One, a man named Rily died of his wounds; the Auckland Militia was disbanded in August or early September 1845 because of budgetary constraints. Disbandment of the Nelson and Wellington Militias followed much to the dismay of their supporters; those at Nelson under Captain Greenwood decided, regardless of not, to continue training. Trouble in the Hutt Valley, near Wellington, in early March 1846 prompted the new Lieutenant Governor George Grey to proclaim martial law and call out the Hutt Militia.
Following on from this the local paper noted that the No 1 Company of the Wellington Militia had been called out, while the troops stationed in the town had been in the Hutt. The paper further noted; as problems continued in the area at least 160 Militia remained. These were supplemented by volunteers, Maori warriors from the Te Aro pah. On 28 October 1846, with the passing of the Armed Constabulary Ordinance in 1846, a fresh call was made by Mr Donnelly of the Legislature to do away with the Militia because of its expense; however the cost to Britain of maintaining a military force in New Zealand was considerable, prompting a dispatch on 24 November 1846 from The Right Hon Earl Grey to advise Lieutenant Governor George Grey that... the formation of a well-organised Militia and of a force of Natives in the service of Her Majesty, would appear to be the measures most to be adopted. Further pressure in the early 1850s from Britain for removing their forces prompted pleas for them to remain as the Militia were deemed insufficient for the purpose.1854 brought a new threat to the attention of the colony, because up to that time the military focus had been upon internal conflicts between settlers and the native population.
War had broken out between Turkey. This war began to involve the major European powers and exposed New Zealand and Australia to a possible external threat from Russian naval forces. Parliament discussed providing guns at ports around the country for use in the event of a war with a foreign power. By 1858 attention had swung back to local issues with a land dispute in New Plymouth prompting Governor Thomas Gore Brown to call out its militia under Captain Charles Brown. A prelude to what was to become the First Taranaki War and a period of conflict in the North Island until 1872. Parliament revised and expanded the Militia Ordinance, replacing it with the Militia Act 1858; some of the main changes were clauses enabling volunteers to be included under such terms and conditions as the Governor may specify. The act outlined the purposes under which Mi
Dickebusch New Military Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery and Extension
Dickebusch New Military Cemetery and Extension are Commonwealth War Graves Commission burial grounds for the dead of the First World War located in the Ypres Salient on the Western Front in Belgium. The cemetery grounds were assigned to the United Kingdom in perpetuity by King Albert I of Belgium in recognition of the sacrifices made by the British Empire in the defence and liberation of Belgium during the war; the main cemetery was founded in February 1915 by field ambulances and troops in the area after the closure of the Dickebusch Old Military Cemetery a short distance away. The Extension – across the road from the cemetery – was established in May 1917, again for use by ambulance units and troops; the cemetery was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Cemetery details. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Dickebusch New Military Cemetery at Find a Grave Dickebusch New Military Cemetery Extension at Find a Grave
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Victor Spencer, 1st Viscount Churchill
Major Victor Albert Francis Charles Spencer, 1st Viscount Churchill, known as the Hon. Victor Albert Spencer until 1886 and as The Lord Churchill between 1886 and 1902, was a British peer and courtier. Spencer was born at 32, Albemarle Street, the son of Francis Spencer, 2nd Baron Churchill, his wife Jane, he was a Page of Honour to Queen Victoria from 1876 to 1881, in 1886 he succeeded to his father's title of Baron Churchill. Educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he was commissioned into the Coldstream Guards in 1884 as a lieutenant, staying in the Guards until 1889, he was a colonel in the Home Defense from 1915 to 1918. For Edward VII's coronation he served as Lord Chamberlain, at the coronation of Edward's successor, George V, he was Master of the Robes, he was acting Master of the Buckhounds between 1900 and 1901 during the tenure of Charles Cavendish, the office holder, while Cavendish was in South Africa. Spencer was a Lord in Waiting from 1889 to 1892 and 1895 to 1905 in both of Salisbury's governments and was created Viscount Churchill, of Rolleston, in the County of Leicester, on 15 July 1902.
He was chairman and director of several transport companies, including the Great Western Railway 1908-34 and was the longest serving chairman of the company. He was a director of the British India Steamship Company, P&O and the Grand Union Canal. British honoursGCVO: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian OrderForeign honours Kingdom of Prussia: Knight 1st class of the Order of the Crown - 1899 - in connection with the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II to the United Kingdom; the Red Eagle of the Kingdom of Prussia The Order of the Crown of Italy The Order of the Redeemer of Greece The Order of Jesus Christ of Portugal Lord Churchill married Lady Verena Maud Lowther, daughter of Henry Lowther, 3rd Earl of Lonsdale, at Cottesmore, Rutland, on 1 January 1887. They had four children; when she wished to divorce Lord Churchill, King Edward forbade it, to avoid a scandal among his social circle. Instead she disappeared in 1909 taking their son, aged 19, two daughters, aged 13 and 8, with her. Lord Churchill placed an anonymous advertisement seeking information about his family's whereabouts, but the scandal soon became public.
In 1927 he obtained a divorce on the grounds of desertion. Churchill married as his second wife Christine McRae Sinclair, they had two children. He died of pneumonia on 3 January 1934. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Churchill
Otago Infantry Regiment (NZEF)
The Otago Infantry Regiment was a military unit that served within the New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War I during the Gallipoli Campaign and on the Western Front. This Regiment and the Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment were composed of men from the modern regions of Otago and Southland; the Otago Infantry Regiment represented the continuation of the Dunedin and Invercargill Militia Battalions formed in 1860. The Regiment was formed on 7 August 1914 with seven officers and up to 70 men starting their training at Dunedin's Tahuna Park; this number was to grow and 34 officers and 1,076 men landed in Egypt on 1 December that same year. Some soldiers were never to see foreign deployment, instead being sent to the military hospital on Quarantine Island in Otago Habour which dealt with cases of sexually transmitted disease; these diseases were to be a continuing problem in France. The safe sex advice from people like volunteer nurse and New Zealander Ettie Rout, was discouraged by the authorities until late in the war.
After two months in Egypt on 26 January 1915 the Regiment was ordered north to Kubri, to help form a defensive line against an expect Ottoman Empire attack on the Suez Canal. The line was on the eastern side of the canal and extended between the Little Bitter Lake in the North and Suez in the South. Here they combined with the stationed Indian troops; the attack came on 3 February and was repulsed, the Otago Infantry Regiment was kept in reserve. The Regiment began preparing for the invasion of Gallipoli in early April 2015, their training was focused on strength for the steep terrain they would encounter. At this point the Regiment had four companies, 8th, 10th and 14th. On 10 April they departed Alexandria on the Annaberg, a captured enemy ship that was'filthy beyond description, abominably louse-ridden'. Three days they arrived at Mudros in the Greek Islands, the staging area of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. On 25 April between 2:30 and 4 p.m. the Otago Battalion troops disembarked from their boats at Gallipoli.
This was after a significant gap in the landings from the rest of the invasion which had occurred before 10 a.m. that morning. The Battalion was ordered first to cover the left flank and to Plugge's Plateau where initial progress from the morning's landings had become bogged down; the Battalion was not incorporated into the broken front line as a single unit. Heavy fighting occurred until early the next morning. During this time several Ottoman counter attacks occurred but the Regiment held its ground, despite being without effective artillery support; the next morning brought a considerable Ottoman artillery barrage, which could now be returned by two New Zealand guns and supporting navel vessels. The 10th Company of the Battalion was sent to Steel's Post for two days of heavy fighting to aid the Australians there; the evening of the second day was quiet along the rest of the Otago Battalion line. The invasion force had a secure beachhead, but had failed to reach their planned targets or capture the heights around the landing site.
A limited offensive was instigated on 2 May to capture a ridge between Pope's Hill. It involved Australian troops, with the British in reserve; the Otago Battalion was to advance about 400 m along the ridge near Knoll 700, flanked by the Canterbury Battalion. The Otago Battalion was to lose about half its men as dead and wounded in the attack. On 26 October the 2nd Maori Contingent arrived at Suez from New Zealand adding 300 men to the Otago Infantry Regiment; the Otago Infantry Regiment was involved in fighting on the Western Front from 1916–1918. Before moving to France the Regiment was reorganized and now comprised the 1st and 2nd battalions as part of the newly formed New Zealand Division; the 1st Battalion was part of the Division's 1st Infantry Brigade and the 2nd Battalion was part of the 2nd Infantry Brigade spiting the Otago Infantry Regiment in two. Lieut.-Colonel A. Moore who had senior commands, of and within, the Regiment since Egypt in 1914 was reassigned on 25 August 1916, he was killed in action.
Two soldiers from the Otago Regiment were executed: Jack Braithwaite in 1916 and Victor Spencer in 1917, charged with mutiny and desertion respectively. They were pardoned 93 years later. During early 1918 the 3rd Battalion from Otago supplied reinforcements to the two active Otago Battalions on the front. Archibald Baxter an Otago conscientious objector was assigned to the 3rd Otago Battalion during early 1918; the Regiment last saw action on 5 November 1918. The armistice was meet with apathy by most of the men of the Regiment; some in the Regiment expressed a wish to return to New Zealand. On 28 November the Regiment advanced through Belgium towards Germany, on foot due to the damaged rail network. On 1 December, in Bavais, George V and Edward VIII attended a Church Service with members of the Regiment, they continued their journey and reached the German border on 20 December 1918. Their final deployment was in Mulheim which they reached on foot; the attitude of the liberated French and Belgian populous was one of unmitigated enthusiasm, while the Germans were reserved afraid, but not hostile.
The Regiment's main duties during the occupation of Germany were guarding war supplies and clearing mines. On 4 February 1919 due to thinning ranks as men were sent home, the Regiment was consolidated into a single Otago Battalion; the Otago Battalion wa
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region; the city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains on the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland, bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region. Many streets in the city in the centre and main shopping district, are named after rivers in Great Britain Scotland; these include the main streets Dee and Tay, as well as those named after the Tweed, Tyne, Don, Yarrow and Eye rivers. The 2013 census showed. Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Māori, notably whalers and missionaries – Wohlers at Ruapuke. In 1853, Walter Mantell purchased Murihiku from local Māori iwi, claiming the land for European settlement.
Otago, of which Southland was itself part, was the subject of planned settlement by the Free Church, an offshoot of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Settlement broadened with the discovery of gold in Central Otago in the 1860s. Today, traces of Scottish speech persist in Southland voices, with R pronounced with a rolling burr; this is more noticeable among country people. In 1856, a petition was put forward to Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Due to the Otago gold rush, the region's population grew during the 1860s with the settlement of Bluff. Browne gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port. Inver comes from the Scottish Gaelic word inbhir meaning a river's mouth and Cargill is in honour of Captain William Cargill, at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was a part; the settlement's chief surveyor was a British civil engineer. Under the influence of James Menzies, Southland Province seceded from Otago in 1861 following the escalation of political tensions.
However, rising debt forced Southland to rejoin Otago in 1870 and the provincial system, with it the province of Otago, was abolished in 1876. This debt was caused by a population decline stemming from poor returns from pastoral farming. In 1874, Invercargill's population was less than 2,500 which reflected the drift north to large centres. In the 1880s, the development of an export industry based on butter and cheese encouraged the growth of dairy farming in Southland. In December 1905, Invercargill voted in local prohibition of alcohol sales; this lasted for 40 years. Drinking continued meanwhile, thanks to hotels and liquor merchants in outlying districts, huge volumes of beer in kegs, brought to private homes, or sold by the glass by keggers at hiding spots round the City; when prohibition ended, a committee of citizens persuaded the Government to give the monopoly on liquor sales in Invercargill to the specially formed Invercargill Licensing Trust. Based on a scheme in Carlisle, England, it returns profits to city amenities.
Today, alcohol is not sold in supermarkets. In recent years, publicity has been brought to the southern city by the election of Tim Shadbolt, a colourful and outspoken former student activist and former mayor of Waitemata City, as mayor, he once appeared on a cheese advertisement stating "I don't mind where, as long as I'm Mayor". His supporters like the colour, his opponents refer to his controversial mayoral career in the Auckland suburbs and to his attitude to veterans during his opposition to the Vietnam War. Publicity and students have come to the city by the Southern Institute of Technology's "Zero Fees" scheme, which allows New Zealand citizens and permanent residents to study while only paying for material costs of their study, not tuition fees. Invercargill is the southernmost city in the Commonwealth of Nations. Invercargill is situated on the fertile and alluvial Southland Plains, amongst some of New Zealand's most fertile farmland. Southern Invercargill lies on the shore of the New River Estuary, while the northern parts lie on the banks of the Waihopai River.
10 kilometres west of the city centre lies Oreti Beach, a long expanse of sand stretching from the Sandy Point area to nearby Riverton. Invercargill has a temperate oceanic climate; the mean daily temperature ranges from 5.2 °C in July to 14 °C in January. The yearly mean temperature is 9.8 °C. Rainfall averages 1,112 millimetres annually, measurable snowfall is seen during the winter months of June to September, it is the cloudiest city in New Zealand with only 1,680 hours of sunshine per annum. Despite its cloudiness, a high frequency of rainy days, Invercargill receives less rain than either Auckland or Wellington. Invercargill is New Zealand's second windiest city, after Wellington; the average temperature high ranges from 18.7 °C in January to 9.5 °C in July, but temperatures do exceed 25 °C in summer. Invercargill's hottest temperature on record was 33.8 °C, recorded on 2 January 1948. Extended periods of heat are rare, however January 2018 was notable for the city recording three consecutive days above 30 for the first time in its recorded history, peaking with the city's second highest temperature on record of 32.3 °C on 14 January 2018.
Owing to its high latitude, the city enjo