Texas's 27th congressional district
Texas District 27 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the coastal bend of Texas' Gulf Coast consisting of Corpus Christi and Victoria up to Bastrop County near Austin and Wharton County near Houston. Its current Representative is Republican Michael Cloud. Cloud was elected to the district in a special election on June 30, 2018, to replace former Republican Representative Blake Farenthold, who had resigned on April 6; the district is less than 50% Hispanic, down from the 70% Hispanic population in the 2002-2010 cycles when the District reached from Corpus Christi to Brownsville. In August 2017, a panel of federal judges ruled that the 27th district is unconstitutional, arguing that it displaces a Hispanic-opportunity district; the United States Supreme Court reversed the ruling though, pronouncing the district constitutional in Abbott v. Perez. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 27th Congressional District of Texas Texas District 27 Information site
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Texas in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington; some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers and horses for Confederate forces. Texas' supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible; some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston and other ports. In the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession; the convention adopted an "Ordinance of Secession" by a vote of 166 to 8, ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, considered a legal document, Texas issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its "sister slave-holding States," the U. S. government's inability to prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing raids, other border-crossing acts of banditry. It accuses northern abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans; the bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two. The declaration includes this extract praising slavery, in which the Union itself is referred to as the "confederacy": We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, of the confederacy itself, were established by the white race, for themselves and their posterity. At this time, African Americans comprised around 30 percent of the state's population, they were overwhelmingly enslaved.
According to one Texan, keeping them enslaved was the primary goal of the state in joining the Confederacy: Independence without slavery, would be valueless... The South without slavery would not be worth a mess of pottage. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, public opinion in the cotton states of the Lower South swung in favor of secession. By February 1861, the other six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, Sam Houston. Unlike the other "cotton states"' chief executives, who took the initiative in secessionist efforts, Houston refused to call the Texas Legislature into special session to consider the question, relenting only when it became apparent citizens were prepared to act without him. In early December 1860, before South Carolina seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8, 1861.
This election was irregular for the standards of the day. It relied on voice vote at public meetings, although "viva voce" voting for popular elections had been used since at least March 1846, less than three months after statehood. Unionists were discouraged from attending or chose not to participate; this resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. The election call had stipulated for the delegates to assemble in convention on January 28. Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. Though he expressed reservations about the election of Abraham Lincoln, he urged the State of Texas to reject secession, citing the horrors of war and a probable defeat of the South; the convention removed Houston from the governorship promoted the Lieutenant Governor, Edward Clark. However, the Texas Legislature voted the delegates' expense money and supplies and—over Houston's veto—made a pledge to uphold the legality of the Convention's actions.
The only stipulation was. With gubernatorial forces routed, the Secession Convention convened on January 28 and, in the first order of business, voted to back the legislature 140–28 in that an ordinance of secession, if adopted, be submitted for statewide consideration; the following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. The ordinance was read on the floor the next day, citing the failures of the federal government to protect the lives and property of Texas citizens and accusing the Northern states of using the same as a weapon to "strike down the interests and prosperity" of the Southern people. After the grievances were listed, the ordinance repealed the one of July 4, 1845, in which Texas approved annexation by the United States and the Constitution of the United States, revoked all powers of, obligations to, allegiance to, the U. S. federal government and the U. S. Constitution. In the interests of historical significance and posterity, the ordinance was written to take effect on March 2, the date of Texas Declaration of Independence.
On February 1, members of the Legislature, a huge crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries and balcony to watch the final vote on the question of secession. Seventy
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and for Mexican independence. He influenced early Mexican politics and government, was an adept soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny", who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest. Conservative historian and politician Lucas Alamán wrote that "The history of Mexico since 1822 might be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions.... His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."An enigmatic and controversial figure, Santa Anna had great power in Mexico.
In the periods of time when he was not serving as president, he continued to pursue his military career. A wealthy landowner, he built a firm political base in the major port city of Veracruz, he was perceived as a hero by his troops. He rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Historians and many Mexicans rank him as the principal inhabitant today of Mexico's pantheon of "those who failed the nation." His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing just over half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836, culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its defeat by the United States in the Mexican–American War. His political positions changed in his lifetime, he was overthrown for the final time by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in 1854 and lived most of his years in exile. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón was born in Xalapa, Nueva España, on 21 February 1794, he was from a respected Spanish colonial family.
His father was a royal army officer perpetually in debt, served for a time as a sub-delegate for the Gulf Coast Spanish province of Veracruz. However, his parents were wealthy enough to send him to school. In June 1810, the 16-year-old Santa Anna joined the Fijo de Veracruz infantry regiment as a cadet against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in commerce. In September 1810, secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rebelled against Spanish rule, sparking a spontaneous mass movement in Mexico's rich agricultural area, the Bajío; the Mexican War of Independence was to last until 1821, Santa Anna, like most creole military men, fought for the crown against the mixed-raced insurgents for independence. Santa Anna's commanding officer was José Joaquín de Arredondo, who taught him much about dealing with Mexican rebels. In 1811, Santa Anna was wounded in the left hand by an arrow during the campaign under Col. Arredondo in the town of Amoladeras, in the state of San Luis Potosí.
In 1813, Santa Anna served in Texas against the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, at the Battle of Medina, in which he was cited for bravery. He was promoted quickly. In the aftermath of the rebellion, the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions. During the next few years, in which the war for independence reached a stalemate, Santa Anna erected villages for displaced citizens near the city of Veracruz, he pursued gambling, a habit that would follow him all through his life. In 1816, Santa Anna was promoted to captain, he conducted occasional campaigns to suppress Native Americans or to restore order after a tumult had begun. When royalist officer Agustín de Iturbide changed sides in 1821 and allied with insurgent Vicente Guerrero, fighting for independence under the Plan of Iguala, Santa Anna joined the fight for independence; the changed circumstances in Spain, where liberals had ousted Ferdinand VII and began implementing the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, made many elites in Mexico reconsider their options.
The clergy in New Spain would have lost power under the Spanish liberal regime and new Mexican clerics saw independence as a way to maintain their position in an autonomous Mexico. Santa Anna rose to prominence fighting for independence by driving Spanish forces out of the vital port city of Veracruz and Iturbide rewarded him with the rank of general. Iturbide rewarded Santa Anna with command of the vital port of Veracruz, the gateway from the Gulf of Mexico to the rest of the nation and site of the customs house. However, Iturbide subsequently removed Santa Anna from the post, prompting Santa Anna to rise in rebellion in December 1822 against Iturbide. Santa Anna had significant power in his home region of Veracruz, "he was well along the path to becoming the regional caudillo." Santa Anna claimed in his Plan of Veracruz that he rebelled because Iturbide had diss
Cuero is a city in DeWitt County, United States. The population was 6,841 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of DeWitt County. It is unofficially known as the "turkey capital of the world". In 2010, Cuero was named one of the "Coolest Small Towns in America" by Budget Travel magazine; the city of Cuero had its start in the mid-19th century as a stopping point on the Chisholm Trail cattle route to Kansas. However, it was not recognized as a town until 1873, when it was founded; the city was named for the Spanish word meaning "hide", referring to the leather made from animal hides. The industry was short-lived and gave way to various forms of ranching; the city had several Old West gunfights related to clan feuding following the Civil War. Cuero's population grew in the 1870s and 1880s, as residents from the coastal town of Indianola, settled here after major hurricanes in this period destroyed sizeable portions of that city. Cuero thrived through much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries by the introduction and practice of turkey ranching in the area.
Today, agriculture is still the primary industry in the region. Cuero is considered to be shippers in Texas. Cuero is located east of the center of DeWitt County near the mouth of Sandies Creek, where it empties into the Guadalupe River. U. S. Routes 87, 77 Alternate, 183 pass through the city. All three highways follow South Esplanade Street into the center of town. US 87 leads west 87 miles to San Antonio. US 77 Alternate leads northeast 16 miles to Yoakum, US 183 leads north 32 miles to Gonzales. 77 Alternate and 183 together lead south 31 miles to Goliad. According to the United States Census Bureau, Cuero has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.36%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cuero has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Cuero has an annual average precipitation of 38.0 inches, all rain, as snow is negligible in the area.
As of the census of 2000, 6,571 people, 2,500 households, 1,695 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,331.1 people per square mile. There were 2,867 housing units at an average density of 580.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.25% White, 16.71% African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 12.84% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 34.73% of the population. Of the 2,500 households, 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were not families. About 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was distributed as 27.1% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,931, for a family was $29,500. Males had a median income of $26,154 versus $16,551 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,286. About 21.5% of families and 26.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.6% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over. Turkey Fest is a local festival during which the townsfolk compete with people at various turkey-centric events; the competitions revolve around the turkeys in which each takes immense pride. The events are the prettiest turkey contest, turkey toss, turkey trot, turkey race. Unlike most turkey trots, where humans do the racing, in Cuero, the "turkey trot" involves racing actual turkeys. In 1972, Charles Kuralt did an "On the Road" Report for CBS News from Cuero, where he did his own turkey call. "Christmas in Cuero" began in 2000 with the lighting of the gazebo in Cuero Municipal Park.
It has grown to over 100 displays of Victorian and Western scenes, 12-car trains, gingerbread houses, other scenes. A live nativity scene is sponsored by a church in Cuero. Two of the scenes were vandalized by two teens in November 2009; the park was still open to the public excluding the two damaged scenes. The teens arrested for the crime had their bonds set at $150,000, in part because of the effect the crime had on the community. Cuero has many places for recreation, including a baseball complex, a golf course, volleyball courts, tennis courts, a basketball pavilion, a park area with access to public swimming pool; the City of Cuero is served by the Cuero Independent School District. John C. French serves PK-K grades, Hunt Elementary serves grades 1–3, Cuero Intermediate School serves grades 4–6, Cuero Junior High serves grades 7–8, Cuero High School serves grades 9–12. In addition, the City of Cuero is served by St. Michael's Catholic School. Providing education for the children of DeWitt County for over 130 years, the school has a accredited early childhood program and offers education for grades K-6.
Barr McClellan, author, entrepreneur Frank Bass, professor a
Guadalupe River (Texas)
The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular destination for rafting, fly fishing, canoeing. Larger cities along it include Kerrville, New Braunfels, Gonzales and Victoria, it has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam, forms Canyon Lake northwest of New Braunfels. The upper part, in the Texas Hill Country, is a smaller, faster stream with limestone banks and shaded by pecan and bald cypress trees, it is formed by the North Fork and South Fork Guadalupe Rivers. It is popular as a tubing destination where recreational users float down it on inflated tire inner tubes during the spring and summer months. East of Boerne, on the border of Kendall County and Comal County, it flows through Guadalupe River State Park, one of the more popular tubing areas along it; the lower part begins near New Braunfels. The section between Canyon Dam and New Braunfels is the most used in terms of recreation, it is a popular destination for whitewater rafters, canoeists and tubing.
When the water is flowing at less than 1,000 cu ft/s there could be hundreds if not thousands of tubes on this stretch of it. At flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s, there should be few tubes on the water. Flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s and less than 2,500 cu ft/s are ideal for paddling; the flow is controlled by Canyon Dam, by the amount of rainfall the area has received. It is joined by the Comal River in New Braunfels and the San Marcos River about two miles west of Gonzales; the part below the San Marcos River, as well as the latter, is part of the course for the Texas Water Safari. The San Antonio River flows into it just north of Tivoli. Ahead of the entry into the San Antonio Bay estuary, it forms a delta and splits into two distributaries referred as the North and South parts; each distributary flows into the San Antonio Bay estuary at Guadalupe Bay. The river was first called after Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe by Alonso de León in 1689, it was renamed the San Augustin by Domingo Terán de los Ríos who maintained a colony on it, but the name Guadalupe persisted.
Many explorers referred to the current Guadalupe as the San Ybón above its confluence with the Comal, instead the Comal was called the Guadalupe. Evidence indicates that it has been home to humans for several thousand years, including the Karankawa and Huaco Indians. Being led by Prince Solms, 228 pioneer immigrants from Germany traveled overland from Indianola to the site chosen to be the first German settlement in Texas, New Braunfels. Upon reaching the river, the pioneers found it too high to cross due to the winter rains. Prince Solms wishing to impress the others with his bravado, plunged into the raging waters and crossed the swollen river on horseback. Not to be outdone by anyone, Betty Holekamp followed and crossed the river, thus Betty Holekamp is known as the first white woman to cross the Guadalupe on horseback. The river gained national attention on July 17, 1987, when a sudden flash flood swept a bus full of children away at a low water crossing; the tragedy occurred near the town of Comfort, which lies about 50 miles northwest of San Antonio.
At the time, the Pot O' Gold Ranch, situated on the south side of the river about two miles southwest of Comfort, was hosting a church camp which over 300 children from various churches were attending. On the night of July 16 and into the morning of the 17th 12 inches of rain had fallen across the Texas Hill country to the north, triggering immense flash flooding on the Guadalupe River; the camp was scheduled to end on the 17th and the children were to be headed home that day, but the camp supervisors at the ranch decided to evacuate the children early that morning before it rose too high. At around 9 AM that morning, the children were loaded into their respective buses and the buses were directed to a low water crossing. While most of the buses managed to make it across, one bus from the Seagoville Road Baptist Church/Balch Springs Christian Academy in the Dallas suburb of Balch Springs was swept away, along with Pastor Richard Koons, his wife, chaperons Allen and Deborah Coalson, 39 children, ranging in age from 8 to 17.
The vehicle had been among the last to leave the camp and proceed alongside the flooded crossing, but when the bus stalled due to rising waters and Coalson attempted to get the children to safety by instructing the children to form a human chain by which the could reach shore hand in hand. However, as this was being carried out, a sudden rush of water broke the chain and swept everybody away. Rescuers from the Texas Department of Public Safety and the US Army's 507th Medical Division managed to save all four adults and 29 of the children via helicopters; the last survivor was rescued from the river around 11:30 AM, by that afternoon two campers had been confirmed dead, eight were missing. The first confirmed fatality was 14-year-old Melanie Finley, who after being lifted from the river by helicopter lost her grip on the rope and fell to her death; the second fatality was thirteen-year-old Tonya Smith, found entangled in barbed wire two miles downstream from where the bus was washed away. Several parents of children both rescued and missing descended on Comfort, most staying at a makeshift shelter set up by town residents and the American Red Cross at the Comfort Elementary School, awaiting news on the missing children.
Six more bodies were recovered from the river on July 18, identified as Lagenia Keenum, 15.
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may