Baffin Island, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Its area is 507,451 km2 and its population is about 11,000, it is located in the region of 70° N and 75° W. It was named by English colonists after English explorer William Baffin. Historians believe it is that Pre-Columbian Norse explorers from Greenland and Iceland knew of the island, they believe it is the site of Helluland, referred to in the Icelandic sagas (Grœnlendinga saga and the Saga of Erik the Red. Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, is located on the southeastern coast; until 1987, the town was called Frobisher Bay, after the English name for the bay on which it is located. That year the indigenous people voted to take their own nameTo the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula on the mainland. To the east are Davis Strait and Baffin Bay, with Greenland beyond.
The Foxe Basin, the Gulf of Boothia and Lancaster Sound separate Baffin Island from the rest of the archipelago to the west and north. The Baffin Mountains run along the northeastern coast of the island and are a part of the Arctic Cordillera. Mount Odin is the highest peak, with an elevation of at least 2,143 m, although some sources say 2,147 m. Another peak of note is Mount Asgard, located in Auyuittuq National Park, with an elevation of 2,011 m. Mount Thor, with an elevation of 1,675 m, is said to have the greatest purely vertical drop of any mountain on Earth, at 1,250 m; the two largest lakes on the island lie in the south-central part of the island: Nettilling Lake and Amadjuak Lake further south. The Barnes Ice Cap, in the middle of the island, has been retreating since at least the early 1960s, when the Geographical Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys sent a three-man survey team to the area to measure isostatic rebound and cross-valley features of the Isortoq River.
Conversely, in the 1970s parts of Baffin Island failed to have the usual ice-free period in the summer. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, the Thule, ancestors of the Inuit who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red, formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. In late 985 or 986, Bjarni Herjolfsson, sailing from Iceland to Greenland, was blown off course and sighted land southwest of Greenland. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Island, the first European to see America beyond Greenland, it was about 15 years that the Norse Greenlanders, led by Leif Erikson, a son of Erik the Red, started exploring new areas around the year 1000. Baffin Island is thought to be Helluland, the archaeological site at Tanfield Valley is thought to have been a trading post; the Saga of Erik the Red, 1880 translation into English by J. Sephton from the original Icelandic'Eiríks saga rauða': "They sailed away from land.
Thence they sailed away from Bjarneyjar with northerly winds. They were out at sea two half-days, they came to land, rowed along it in boats, explored it, found there flat stones, many and so great that two men might well lie on them stretched on their backs with heel to heel. Polar-foxes were there in abundance; this land they gave name to, called it Helluland." In September 2008, the Nunatsiaq News, a weekly newspaper, reported that Patricia Sutherland, who worked at the Canadian Museum of Civilization had archaeological remains of yarn and cordage, rat droppings, tally sticks, a carved wooden Dorset culture face mask depicting Caucasian features, possible architectural remains, which indicated that European traders and settlers had been on Baffin Island not than 1000 CE. What the source of this Old World contact may have been is unclear and controversial. So, as Sutherland said, if you believe that spinning was not an indigenous technique, used in Arctic North America you have to consider the possibility that as "remote as it may seem," these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
Sutherland's research led to a 2012 announcement that whetstones had been found with remnants of alloys indicative of Viking presence. In 2018, Michele Hayeur Smith of Brown University, who specializes in the study of ancient textiles, wrote that she does not think the ancient Arctic people, the Dorset and Thule, needed to be taught how to spin yarn "It's a pretty intuitive thing to do." Journal of Archaeological Science, August 2018:"... the date received on Sample 4440b from Nanook indicates that sinew was being spun and plied at least as early, if not earlier, than yarn at this site. We feel that the most parsimonious explanation of this data is that the practice of spinning hair and wool into plied yarn most developed within this context of complex, Arctic ﬁber technologies, not through contact with European textile producers. Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and from the sinews
The Northwest Passage is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The eastern route along the Arctic coasts of Norway and Siberia is accordingly called the Northeast Passage; the various islands of the archipelago are separated from one another and from the Canadian mainland by a series of Arctic waterways collectively known as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages. For centuries, European explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible trade route to Asia. An ice-bound northern route was discovered in 1850 by the Irish explorer Robert McClure; until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year. Arctic sea ice decline has rendered the waterways more navigable for ice navigation; the contested sovereignty claims over the waters may complicate future shipping through the region: the Canadian government maintains that the Northwestern Passages are part of Canadian Internal Waters, but the United States and various European countries claim that they are an international strait and transit passage, allowing free and unencumbered passage.
If, as has been claimed, parts of the eastern end of the Passage are 15 metres deep, the route's viability as a Euro-Asian shipping route is reduced. A Chinese shipping line is planning regular voyages of cargo ships using the passage to the eastern United States and Europe, after a successful passage by Nordic Orion of 73,500 tonnes deadweight tonnage in September 2013. Loaded, Nordic Orion sat too deep in the water to sail through the Panama Canal. Before the Little Ice Age, Norwegian Vikings sailed as far north and west as Ellesmere Island, Skraeling Island and Ruin Island for hunting expeditions and trading with the Inuit and people of the Dorset culture who inhabited the region. Between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Europe dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America; the Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. England called the hypothetical northern route the "Northwest Passage".
The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. There was a lack of scientific knowledge about conditions. Explorers thought; the belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries and led to numerous expeditions into the Arctic. Many ended in disaster, including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850. In 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first completed a passage from Greenland to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, several fortified ships have made the journey. From east to west, the direction of most early exploration attempts, expeditions entered the passage from the Atlantic Ocean via the Davis Strait and through Baffin Bay. Five to seven routes have been taken through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, via the McClure Strait, Dease Strait, the Prince of Wales Strait, but not all of them are suitable for larger ships.
From there ships passed through waterways through the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait, into the Pacific Ocean. In the 21st century, major changes to the ice pack due to climate change have stirred speculation that the passage may become clear enough of ice to permit safe commercial shipping for at least part of the year. On August 21, 2007, the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute, this was the first time the Passage has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972; the Northwest Passage opened again on August 25, 2008. It is reported in mainstream medias that ocean thawing will open up the Northwest Passage for various kind of ships, making it possible to sail around the Arctic ice cap. and cutting thousands of miles off shipping routes. Warning that the NASA satellite images indicated the Arctic may have entered a "death spiral" caused by climate change, Professor Mark Serreze, a sea ice specialist at the U.
S. National Snow and Ice Data Center said: "The passages are open. It's a historic event. We are going to see this more and more as the years go by."On the other hand, some thick sections of ice will remain hard to melt in the shorter term. Such drifting and large chunks of ice in springtime, can be problematic as they can clog entire straits or damage a ship's hull. Cargo routes may therefore be slower and uncertain, depending on prevailing conditions and the ability to predict them; because a plurality of containerized traffic operates in a just-in-time mode and the relative isolation of the passage, the Northwest
The maple leaf is the characteristic leaf of the maple tree, is the most recognized national symbol of Canada. By the early 1700s, the maple leaf had been adopted as an emblem by the French Canadians along the Saint Lawrence River, its popularity with French Canadians continued and was reinforced when, at the inaugural meeting of the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste in 1834, the maple leaf was one of numerous emblems proposed to represent the society. Speaking in its favour, Jacques Viger, the first mayor of Montreal, described the maple as "the king of our forest; the maple leaf caught on as a national symbol: in 1868, it was included in the coat of arms of Ontario and the coat of arms of Quebec, was added to the Canadian coat of arms in 1921. The golden maple leaf had represented Ontario, while the green maple leaf had represented Quebec. In 1867, Alexander Muir composed the patriotic "The Maple Leaf Forever", which became an unofficial anthem in English-speaking Canada. From 1876 until 1901, the leaf appeared on all Canadian coins, remained on the penny after 1901.
During the First World War, badges of the Canadian Expeditionary Force were based on a maple leaf design. The use of the maple leaf as a regimental symbol extended back to the 1800s, Canadian soldiers in the Second Boer War were distinguished by a maple leaf on their sun helmets. In 1957 the maple leaf colour on the Canadian arms was changed from green to red - some maple leaves are red in spring as they bud & no seasonal colouring has been assigned heraldically; the maple leaf became the central national symbol with the introduction of the Canadian flag in 1965, which uses a stylized eleven-pointed maple leaf, referring to no specific species of maple. Earlier official uses of a maple leaf design used more than 30 points and a short stem; the one chosen is a generic maple leaf representing the ten species of maple tree native to Canada—at least one of these species grows natively in every province. The maple leaf is used on the Canadian flag, logos of various Canadian-based companies and the logos of Canadian sports teams.
Examples include Air Canada, McDonald's Canada, General Motors Canada, the Toronto Maple Leafs and Winnipeg Jets NHL franchises, the Toronto FC soccer club, Wendy's Canada. It is used by the Federal Government as a personification and identifier on its websites, as part of the government's wordmark. Since 1979, the Royal Canadian Mint has produced gold, silver and palladium bullion coins, which are known as Maple Leafs, as geometric maple leaves are stamped on them; the Trans Canada Highway uses a green maple leaf. The Italian city of Campobasso was known as "Canada City" or in a minor way "Maple Leaf City", since during the Second World War, Canadian troops invaded the city and freed it from the Germans. Moreover, the city has a huge variety of maples which can be found in the streets; the U. S. city of Carthage, Missouri is nicknamed "America's Maple Leaf City."It is one of the featured symbols on the emblem of the Pakistani province of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, along with several other regional institutions due to the tree's prevalence in the area.
The city of Chehalis, Washington was known as "The Maple-Leaf City". The city of Hornell, New York is known as "The Maple City"; the mascot of Goshen College in Goshen, Indiana, is the Maple Leaf and the nickname for Goshen College sports teams is the Maple Leafs. In Estonia and Lithuania, inexperienced drivers are obliged to have a green maple leaf sign visible on the vehicle, serving a similar function that a P-plate does in some other countries; the maple leaf was featured on the coat of arms of Sammatti, Finland
John Rae (explorer)
John Rae was a Scottish surgeon who explored parts of northern Canada, found the final portion of the Northwest Passage and reported the fate of Sir John Franklin's lost expedition. In 1846–47 he explored the Gulf of Boothia northwest of Hudson Bay. In 1848–51 he explored the Arctic coast near Victoria Island. In 1854 he learned the fate of Franklin, he was noted for physical stamina, skill at hunting and boat handling, use of native methods and the ability to travel long distances with little equipment while living off the land. Rae was born at the Hall of Clestrain on Orkney with family ties to Clan MacRae. After studying medicine in Edinburgh, he graduated with a degree from the University of Edinburgh and was licensed by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, he went to work for the Hudson's Bay Company as a surgeon, accepting a post at Moose Factory, where he remained for ten years. Whilst working for the company, treating both European and Indigenous employees of the company, Rae became known for his prodigious stamina and skilled use of snowshoes.
He learned to live off the land like a native and working with the local craftsmen, designed his own snowshoes. This knowledge allowed him to travel great distances with little equipment and few followers, unlike many other explorers of the Victorian era. From 1836 to 1839, Thomas Simpson sailed along much of the north coast of Canada. Sir George Simpson proposed to link Thomas Simpson's furthest east by sending an overland expedition from Hudson Bay. Rae was chosen because of his well-known skill in overland travel. Rae first had to travel to the Red River Colony to learn the art of surveying. On 20 August 1844, Rae left Moose Factory, went up the Missinaibi River and took the usual voyageur route west; when he reached the Red River Colony on 9 October, he found his instructor ill. After the man died he headed for Sault Ste. Marie to find another instructor; the two-month, 1,200 miles winter journey was by dog sled along the north shore of Lake Superior. From there, Sir George told him to go to Toronto to study under John Henry Lefroy at the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory.
Returning from Toronto, he received final instructions at Sault Ste. Marie, he left on 5 August 1845, took the usual voyageur route via Lake Winnipeg and reached York Factory on 8 October, where he wintered. On 12 June 1846, he headed north in two 22 feet boats and reached Repulse Bay in July; the local Inuit told him that there was salt water to the northwest, so he chose this as his base. On his first journey, which began on 26 July, he dragged one of his boats 40 miles northwest to the Committee Bay of the Gulf of Boothia. Here he learned from the Inuit that the Gulf of Boothia was a bay and that he would have to cross land to reach Simpson's furthest east. In 1830, John Ross had been told that Boothia was a bay, he sailed part way up the east coast of the Bay, but soon turned back because he needed to make preparations for winter. That winter he became one of the first Europeans to winter in the high Arctic without the aid of a depot ship. By December he had learned how to build igloos which he found warmer than European tents.
His second journey began on 5 April 1847. He crossed to Committee Bay, went up its west coast for four days and headed west across the base of the Simpson Peninsula to Pelly Bay, he went north and from a hill thought he could see Lord Mayor Bay where John Ross had been frozen in from 1829 to 1833. He returned to Repulse Bay, his third journey began on 13 May 1847. He crossed from Repulse Bay to Committee Bay and went up the east coast hoping to reach Fury and Hecla Strait which William Edward Parry's men had seen in 1822; the weather was bad and they began to run short of food. On 28 May he turned back at a place he called Cape Crozier which he thought was about 25 miles south of the strait, he left Repulse Bay on 12 August, when the ice broke up and reached York Factory on 6 September 1847, soon left for England and Scotland. Although he had not reached Simpson's furthest east he had reduced the gap to less than 100 miles. From 1848 to 1851, Rae made three journeys along the Arctic coast; the first took him from the Mackenzie River to the Coppermine River, done before.
On the second he was blocked by ice. On the third he explored the whole south coast of Victoria Island. By 1848, it was clear. Three expeditions were sent to find him, one from the east, one through Bering Strait and the Richardson expedition overland to the Arctic coast. Most of the Arctic coast had been traced by Thomas Simpson. North of the coast were two coastlines called Victoria Land. Franklin was thought to be somewhere in the unknown area north of that; the 61-year-old Richardson chose Rae as his second in command. The Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition left Liverpool in March, reached New York and took the usual voyageur route and on 15 July 1848, reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake. John Bell was sent downriver to establish winter quarters at Fort Confidence on the east arm of Great Bear Lake. Richardson and Rae turned east along the coast, they hoped to cross north to Wollaston Land, as southern Victoria Island was known, but ice conditions made this impossible. Through worsening ice, they rounded Cape Krusenstern at the west end of Coronation Gulf and turned south.
By the first of September it was clear that they had run out of time, so they abandoned their boats and headed overland. They crossed the Rae River
The Inuvik Region or Beaufort Delta Region is one of five administrative regions in the Northwest Territories of Canada. According to Municipal and Community Affairs the region consists of eight communities with the regional office situated in Inuvik. Most of the communities are a mixture of Inuit and First Nations. There was a Statistics Canada designated census division named Inuvik Region, Northwest Territories, abolished in the 2011 Canadian Census; the territorial extent of this census division was somewhat larger than the administrative region of the same name. The Inuvik Region administrative entity includes the following communities: Inuvik Region at Municipal and Community Affairs
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married Queen Victoria, he felt constrained by his role of prince consort, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery worldwide, was entrusted with running the Queen's household and estates, he was involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more on his support and guidance, he aided the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to be less partisan in her dealings with Parliament—although he disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary. Albert died at the young age of 42. Victoria was so devastated at the loss of her husband that she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life.
On her death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the ducal house to which Albert belonged. Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's future wife, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife, Charlotte von Siebold. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the Itz, his godparents were the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1825, Albert's great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died, his death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Albert and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce.
After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and Beiersdorf. She never saw her children again, died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831; the following year, their father married his sons' cousin Princess Marie of Württemberg. The brothers were educated at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, where Adolphe Quetelet was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economy and the history of art, he played music and excelled at sport fencing and riding. His tutors at Bonn included the poet Schlegel; the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, was first documented in an 1821 letter from his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who said that he was "the pendant to the pretty cousin". By 1836, this idea had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, King of the Belgians since 1831. At this time, Victoria was the heir presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III, had died when she was a baby, her elderly uncle, King William IV, had no legitimate children. Her mother, the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes, she wrote, " is handsome. Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me happy."
Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers assumed that the match would take place. Victoria came to the throne aged eighteen on 20 June 1837, her letters of the time show interest in Albert's education for the role he would have to play, although she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. In the winter of 1838–39, the prince visited Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser, Baron Stockmar. Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the objective of settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November, the couple married on
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet, FRS, FRGS was an English statesman and writer. Barrow was born the only child of Roger Barrow, a tanner in the village of Dragley Beck, in the parish of Ulverston, Lancashire, he was schooled at Town Bank grammar school, but left at age 13 to found a Sunday school for the poor. Barrow was employed as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at Liverpool. At only 16, he went on a whaling expedition to Greenland. By his twenties, he was teaching mathematics, in which he had always excelled, at a private school in Greenwich. Barrow taught mathematics to the son of Sir George Leonard Staunton, he soon acquired a good knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed articles to the Quarterly Review. Barrow ceased to be connected with Chinese affairs after the return of the embassy in 1794, but he always took much interest in them, on critical occasions was consulted by the British government. In 1797, Barrow accompanied Lord Macartney as private secretary in his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope.
Barrow was entrusted with the task of reconciling the Boer settlers and the native Black population and of reporting on the country in the interior. In the course of the trip, he visited all parts of the colony, he decided to settle in South Africa and bought a house in 1800 in Cape Town. However, the surrender of the colony at the peace of Amiens upset this plan. During his travels through South Africa, Barrow compiled copious notes and sketches of the countryside that he was traversing; the outcome of his journeys was a map which, despite its numerous errors, was the first published modern map of the southern parts of the Cape Colony. William John Burchell was scathing: "As to the miserable thing called a map, prefixed to Mr. Barrow’s quarto, I agree with Professor Lichtenstein, that it is so defective that it can be found of any use." Barrow returned to Britain in 1804 and was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years. Lord Grey took office as Prime Minister in 1830, Barrow was requested to remain in his post, starting the principle that senior civil servants stay in office on change of government and serve in a non-partisan manner.
Indeed, it was during his occupancy of the post. Barrow enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively presided at the Admiralty board during that period, more of King William IV while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of his personal regard. In his position at the Admiralty, Barrow was a great promoter of Arctic voyages of discovery, including those of John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross and John Franklin; the Barrow Strait in the Canadian Arctic as well as Point Barrow and the city of Barrow in Alaska are named after him. He is reputed to have been the initial proposer of St Helena as the new place of exile for Napoleon Bonaparte following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society and received the degree of LL. D from the University of Edinburgh in 1821. A baronetcy was conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 1835, he was a member of the Raleigh Club, a forerunner of the Royal Geographical Society. Barrow retired from public life in 1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modern Arctic voyages of discovery, as well as his autobiography, published in 1847.
He died on 23 November 1848. The Sir John Barrow monument was built in his honour on Hoad Hill overlooking his home town of Ulverston, though locally it is more called Hoad Monument. Mount Barrow and Barrow Island in Australia are believed to have been named for him. Barrow married Anna Maria Truter in South Africa on 26 August 1799. A botanical artist from the Cape, she bore him four sons and two daughters, one of whom, married the artist Robert Batty, his son George succeeded him. Besides 95 articles in the Quarterly Review, Barrow published among other works: John. A Description of Pocket and Magazine Cases of Mathematical Drawing Instruments, in, explained the Use of each Instrument, of the Sector and plain Scale, in the Solutions of a variety of Problems. London: J & W Watkins. —. Travels in China, Containing Descriptions, And Comparison, Made And Collected in the Course of a Short Residence at the Imperial Palace of Yuen-Min-Yuen. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. A Voyage to Cochinchina in the Years 1792 and 1793.
London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 18 November 2016. —. Travels into The Interior of Southern Africa. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. Some Account of the Public Life, And A Selection From The Unpublished Writings, of The Earl of McCartney. London: T. Cadell And W. Davies. Retrieved 15 August 2009. —. A Chronological History of Voyages into The Arctic Regions. London: John Murray. Retrieved 15 August 2009; the Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of H. M. S. Bounty