Wedding dress of Queen Victoria
The wedding dress of Queen Victoria was worn by Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, at her wedding to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 10 February 1840. She selected a white dress, considered an unusual choice at a time when colours were more usual, made from heavy silk satin; the Honiton lace used for her wedding dress proved an important boost to Devon lace-making. Queen Victoria has been credited with starting the tradition of white weddings and white bridal gowns, although she was not the first royal to be married in white; the lace was designed by William Dyce, head of the Government School of Design, mounted on a white satin dress made by Mary Bettans. The plain, cream-coloured satin gown was made from fabric woven in Spitalfields, east London, trimmed with a deep flounce and trimmings of lace hand-made in Honiton and Beer, in Devon; this demonstrated support for English industry the cottage industry for lace. The handmade lace motifs were appliquéd onto cotton machine-made net.
Orange flower blossoms, a symbol of fertility trimmed the dress and made up a wreath, which Victoria wore instead of a tiara over her veil. The veil, which matched the flounce of the dress, was four yards in length and 0.75 yards wide. Victoria's jewellery consisted of a necklace and earrings made up of diamonds presented to her by the Sultan of Turkey, a sapphire cluster brooch given to her by Albert a day earlier; the slippers she wore matched the white colour of the dress. The train of the dress, carried by her bridesmaids, measured 18 feet in length. Queen Victoria described her choice of dress in her journal thus: "I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert's beautiful sapphire brooch." While photography existed in 1840, the techniques were not yet developed. A series of photographs taken by Roger Fenton on 11 May 1854 of Victoria and Albert are described as wedding or reenactment photographs, with the dress identified as her wedding dress.
The Royal Collection has refuted these interpretations, stating that the images are the first photographs to show Victoria as a queen, rather than as a wife or mother, that she and Albert are wearing court dress. In 1847, Victoria commissioned Franz Xaver Winterhalter to paint a portrait of her wearing her wedding clothes as an anniversary present for Prince Albert; the portrait was copied as an enamel miniature by John Haslem. Victoria revisited the lace-makers to create the christening gown worn by her children, including Albert Edward, the future Edward VII; this gown was worn for the christening of all subsequent Royal babies until the baptism of James, Viscount Severn in 2008, when a replica was used for the first time. As a mark of support for the Honiton industry, in addition to wearing their lace on her and her children's clothes, Victoria insisted her daughters order Honiton lace for their wedding dresses. Victoria wore her wedding lace mounted on the dresses she wore to the christenings of her nine children.
She wore it to the weddings of two of her children, her eldest daughter, Victoria, in 1858, her youngest son, Leopold, in 1882. Her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was permitted to wear it as part of her wedding gown in 1885. Victoria wore the lace to the wedding of her grandson George to Mary of Teck in 1893, for her Diamond Jubilee official photograph in 1897; when Victoria died, she was buried with her wedding veil over her face. In 2012 it was reported that while the dress itself had been conserved and displayed at Kensington Palace that year, the lace was now too fragile to move from storage. Wearing white was adopted by wealthy, fashionable brides. Less than a decade Godey's Lady's Book would incorrectly claim that white wedding gowns were an ancient custom reflecting a bride's virginity, writing "Custom has decided, from the earliest ages, that white is the most fitting hue, whatever may be the material, it is an emblem of the purity and innocence of girlhood, the unsullied heart she now yields to the chosen one" though white had been a distinctly uncommon choice for bridal gowns before Victoria's wedding and was not chosen by a majority of brides until decades later.
Following the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, comparisons were drawn between the bride's white wedding dress and Queen Victoria's own. BBC audio slideshow featuring her wedding dress
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds, it has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles, notably in major public buildings in London such as St Paul's Cathedral and Buckingham Palace. Portland stone is exported to many countries—being used for example in the United Nations headquarters building in New York City. Portland stone formed in a marine environment, on the floor of a shallow, sub-tropical sea near land; when seawater is warmed by the sun, its capacity to hold dissolved gas is reduced dissolved carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere as a gas. Calcium and bicarbonate ions within the water are able to combine, to form calcium carbonate as a precipitate; the process of lime scale build up in a kettle in hard water areas is similar. Calcium carbonate is the principal constituent of most limestones.
Billions of minute crystals of precipitated calcium carbonate accumulated forming lime mud which covered the sea floor. Small particles of sand or organic detritus, such as shell fragments, formed a nucleus, which became coated with layers of calcite as they were rolled around in the muddy micrite. Portland stone measures 3.5 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. The calcite accumulated around the fragments of shell in concentric layers, forming small balls; this process is similar to the way in which a snowball grows in size as it is rolled around in the snow. Over time, countless billions of these balls, known as "ooids" or "ooliths", became cemented together by more calcite, to form the oolitic limestone, called Portland stone; the degree of cementation in Portland stone is such that the stone is sufficiently well cemented to allow it to resist weathering, but not so well cemented that it can't be worked by masons. This is one of the reasons why Portland stone is so favoured as a monumental and architectural stone.
Dr Geoff Townson conducted three years doctoral research on the Portlandian, being the first to describe the patch-reef facies and Dorset-wide sedimentation details. Dr Ian West of the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences at Southampton University completed a detailed geological survey of Withies Croft Quarry before the Portland Beds were quarried by Albion Stone plc. Stone has been quarried on Portland since Roman times and was being shipped to London in the 14th century. Extraction as an industry began in the early 17th century, with shipments to London for Inigo Jones' Banqueting House. Wren's choice of Portland for the new St Paul's Cathedral was a great boost for the quarries and established Portland as London's choice of building stone; the island was connected by railway to the rest of the country from 1865. Albion Stone PLC has been quarrying and mining Portland stone since 1984. Portland Stone Firms Ltd have been quarrying Portland stone since 1994. Jordans is part of the Inmosthay Quarry in the centre of the Island, which includes Fancy Beach.
The quarry has been worked since the late 19th century. Albion Stone leases the southern section from The Crown Estate and purchased the northern part of the site in 2006; the majority of the southern reserves lie under the grounds of the local cricket club. To avoid disturbing the site at surface level, the company has applied and received permission to extract the stone using mining rather than quarrying techniques; the reserves to the north will be quarried using the diamond bladed cutting machines, hydro bags and wire saws to shape the blocks. This process avoids the use of dusty and noisy blasting as the primary extraction method, thereby protecting the surrounding environment, designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Albion Stone PLC now extract all their stone through mining which reduces the impact on the environment and local residence. Jordan's Mine is the biggest mine on Portland. Bowers Quarry has been operational since the late 18th century, it has been leased from The Crown Estate since 1979, in 2002 it became the site of the first Portland stone mine by Albion Stone PLC.
Extraction from this site is now underground, with the original Bowers Mine in the extreme southern end of the quarry and the High Wall Extraction on the eastern and south east boundaries. High Wall Extraction is a series of small mines that extract otherwise wasted stone that sits between the final faces of the quarry and the actual boundary of the site. Stonehills Mine is the first new mine on Portland. Albion Stone Plc began the process to open this mine began in 2015 and reserves are estimated to last for 50 years. Coombefield Quarry, located near Southwell has been open cast quarried over the last 80 years and is one of three owned quarries by Portland Stone Firms Ltd, the largest landholder on the Island; the quarry is nearing the end of its life and will be regenerated as a holiday caravan park to boost local tourism on the Island. Perryfield Quarry is found towards the middle of the Island and being open cast quarried. There are over 20 years of reserves left, owned by Portland Stone Firms.
Open cast quarrying provides quicker extraction of raw block dimension stone whilst maintaining its integrity. The majority of buildings in London today use Portland, quarried using the same methods over the last 60 years. Broadcroft Quarry is located on th
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
1838 Coronation Honours
The 1838 Coronation Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours on the occasion of her coronation on 28 June 1838. The honours were published in The London Gazette on 20 July and 24 July 1838; the recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, arranged by honour, with classes and divisions as appropriate. Major Edward Alexander Campbell of the Bengal Cavalry Duncan MacDougall, late Lieutenant-Colonel of the 79th Regiment of Highlanders, Knight Commander of the Royal and Military Order of St. Ferdinand Major-General Jeffrey Prendergast, of the Honourable East India Company's Service Major Henry Bayly, Knight of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order Major William Lloyd, of the Honourable East India Company's Service Charles Shaw, Knight Commander of the Royal Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword, Knight Commander of the Spanish Military Order of San Fernando Charles Frederick Williams, of Lennox lodge, Hants. and Upper Bedford-place, in the county of Middlesex Edward Johnson, of Greenhill, Weymouth, in the county of Dorset, of the Royal and Distinguished Order of Charles the Third of Spain John Kirkland, of Hampton and Pall-mall, in the county of Middlesex William Newbigging of Edinburgh William Hyde Pearson of Clapham, in the county of Surrey Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith Lieutenant-General Sir John Lambert Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Robert William O'Callaghan Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson Major-General Sir Alexander Caldwell of the Bengal Army and East India Company Major-General Sir James Law Lushington of the Madras Army and East India Company Archibald, Earl of Gosford Lord George William Russell, Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to His Majesty the King of Prussia Charles Augustus Lord Howard de Walden, Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Her Most Faithful Majesty Richard Jenkins, of the East India Company's Civil Service ArmyAdmiral John Lawford Major-General Andrew Pilkington Major-General John Gardiner Major-General Sir Arthur Benjamin Clifton Major-General Lord Greenock Major-General Sir Willoughby Cotton Major-General Sir John George Woodford Major-General Sir Patrick Lindesay Major-General Charles James Napier Major-General Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor Major-General Edward Gibbs Major-General George Thomas Napier Major-General the Honourable Hercules R. Pakenham Major-General Sir John Thomas Jones Major-General Sir John Harvey Major-General Sir Leonard Greenwell Major-General Sir Robert Henry Dick Major-General Sir Neil Douglas Rear-Admiral Sir John Acworth Ommanney Major-General Alexander Cameron Major-General John Fox Burgoyne East India CompanyMajor-General John Rose of the Bengal Infantry Major-General Thomas Corsellis of the Bombay Infantry Major-General William Richards of the Bengal Infantry Major-General Thomas Whitehead of the Bengal Infantry Major-General John Doveton of the Madras Cavalry Major-General David Foulis of the Madras Cavalry Major-General Sir Thomas Anburey of the Bengal Engineers Royal NavyCaptain Sir Edward Thomas Troubridge Captain Cuthbert Featherstone Daly Captain Edward Pelham Brenton Captain Richard Arthur Captain James Andrew Worthy Captain Robert Morgan George Festing Captain Barrington Reynolds Captain Robert MaunsellArmyColonel William Wood, 41st foot Colonel William Warre.
Unattached Colonel George C. D'Aguilar, Deputy Adjutant-General in Ireland Colonel Henry Sullivan, 6th Foot Colonel Stephen A. Goodman, 48th Foot Colonel Edward Wynyard, unattached Colonel George Brown, Rifle Brigade Colonel Charles Edward Conyers, Inspecting Field Officer Colonel James Allan, 57th Foot Colonel David Forbes, 78th Foot Colonel Henry Adolphus Proctor, 6th Foot Colonel Edward Parkinson, 11th Foot Colonel Thomas Francis Wade, Unattached Colonel Richard Egerton, Unattached Colonel William Chalmers, 57th Foot Colonel Chatham Horace Churchill, 31st Foot, Quartermaster-General in India Colonel James Grant, 23d Foot Colonel Thomas William Taylor, Lieutenant-Governor, Royal Military College Colonel John Morillyon Wilson, 77th Foot Colonel Thomas Willshire, 2nd Foot Colonel Henry Oglander, 26th Foot Colonel Edward Fleming, Inspecting Field Officer Colonel Philip Bainbridge, Assistant Quartermaster-General Colonel Sempronius Stretton, 84th Foot Colonel Thomas E. Napier, Chasseurs Britanniques Colonel Nathaniel Thorn, Assistant Quartermaster-General Colonel William Henry Sewell, 31st Foot, Deputy Quartermaster-General in India Colonel Joseph Thackwell, 3rd Dragoons Colonel Alexander Macdonald, Royal Artillery Colonel Sir William L. Herries, Unattached Colonel Thomas Staunton St. Clair, Unattached Colonel George William Paty, 94th Foot Colonel Thomas James Wemyss, 99th Foot Colonel Robert Burd Gabriel, 2nd Dragoons Colonel William Rowan, Unattached Colonel James Shaw Kennedy, Unattached Colonel George Leigh Goldie, 11th Foot Colonel George Couper, Unattached Colonel Henry Rainey, Unattached Colonel the Honourable Charles Gore, Deputy Quartermaster-General in Canada Colonel Griffith George Lewis, Royal Engineers Colonel George Judd Harding, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel John Gurwood, Unattached Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Frederick O'Reilly, Royal African Corps Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Kennedy Clark, 7th Dragoon Guards Lieutenant-Colonel Edward T. Michell, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Blanchard, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Dyneley, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel William Reid, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel William Bolden Dundas, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel John Neave Wells, Royal Engineers Lieutenant-Colonel William Brereton, Royal Artillery Lieutenant-Colonel John Owen, Royal Marines Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Cornwallis Dansey, Royal
Clock Tower, Brighton
The Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower in the centre of Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. Built in 1888 in commemoration of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, the distinctive structure included innovative structural features and became a landmark in the popular and fashionable seaside resort; the city's residents "retain a nostalgic affection" for it though opinion is divided as to the tower's architectural merit. English Heritage has listed the clock tower at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance; the small fishing village of Brighthelmston was transformed into a fashionable seaside resort and thriving commercial centre after local doctor Richard Russell's treatise explaining the health-giving effects of drinking and bathing in seawater became a fad in the late 18th century. Royal patronage ensued—the Prince Regent moved into a farmhouse which became the lavish Royal Pavilion—and speculative residential and commercial development, encouraged by transport improvements, attracted large numbers of day-trippers and new residents throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.
By the 1780s, North Street had become established as an important shopping street, its status as the commercial heart of Brighton grew over the next century. It first developed as a route in the 14th century, when it formed the medieval village's northern boundary, ran from west to east from the end of the main route from London towards the Royal Pavilion and the seafront. West Street, the ancient western boundary of the settlement, ran southwards towards the beach and seafront; the western section of North Street was renamed Western Road in the 1830s to match the rest of that road, built as an access route to the high-class Brunswick Town estate but became the town's main shopping street by the 1860s. The roads were widened in the second half of the 19th century, by 1880 the junction of North Street, Western Road, West Street and Queen's Road was a major landmark with a small, old waiting shelter in the middle; the site was ideal for redevelopment, in 1881 a competition was held for a replacement building.
Architects Henry Branch and Thomas Simpson were recorded as the winners, but their plans were never executed and the site stood vacant until 1888. Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee in 1887, many towns built Jubilee clock towers to commemorate the occasion. A local advertising contractor, James Willing, decided to commission one for Brighton, he donated £2,000. The town organised an architectural competition, won by a London-based architect, John Johnson; the tower was completed at the start of 1888 and was unveiled on 20 January 1888 on Willing's 70th birthday. Local inventor Magnus Volk—responsible for Britain's oldest surviving electric railway, an eccentric sea-based railway line, a pioneering electric car and Brighton's first telephone link—designed a time ball for the clock tower soon after it opened; the hydraulically operated copper sphere moved up and down a 16-foot metal mast every hour, based on electrical signals transmitted from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The feature was disabled after a few years.
The tower was the focal point of several bursts of anti-Victorian sentiment in Brighton in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The tower is acknowledged as one of Brighton's main landmarks, it has been described as "the hub of modern Brighton"; the "nostalgic affection" felt by the city's population towards the structure, the difficulty of demolishing or removing it without great expense, have ensured its survival despite demands for its destruction. Criticism by architectural historians has sometimes been intense, although others have praised the tower. Nikolaus Pevsner and Ian Nairn dismissed it as "worthless", it has been likened to "a giant salt-cellar"; the Clock Tower was listed at Grade II by English Heritage on 26 August 1999. This status is given to "nationally important buildings of special interest"; as of February 2001, it was one of 1,124 Grade II-listed buildings and structures, 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove. The Clock Tower is a Classical-style structure with Baroque touches.
It rises to 75 feet, the mast for Volk's time ball adds a further 16 feet. The four clock faces have a diameter of 5 feet. James Willing and 1887 are inscribed on the clock faces; the square base is of pink granite. On each side, the tapering columns rise part way up the shaft and are topped by pediments with open bases, below, elaborately carved scrollwork and a protuberance designed to resemble the gunwale of a ship. Incised lettering on each ship indicates where they are pointing: clockwise from north, they show to the station, to kemp town, to the sea and to hove. Below these, each side has an arched recess containing a medallion-style mosaic portrait of a member of the Royal F